russia through the hidden eye 3

Lalas

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National Research Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (UNN)
UNN Scientists Have Created a Mathematical Model to Combat New Pandemics


05.04.2024

The model describes the behavior of people in different countries during the first 300 days of the COVID-19 epidemic
The mathematical model of scientists from the Department of Neurotechnologies of the Institute of Biology and Biomedicine of Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod will make it possible to determine the strategy for combating new pandemics, taking into account the socio-cultural characteristics of the population of specific countries.

Nizhny Novgorod experts studied the dynamics of the incidence of COVID-19 in the first 300 days of the pandemic around the world and found mathematical patterns in the behavior of people living in different territories: the dynamics of the epidemic changed depending on the reaction of society to the risk of the disease and restrictive measures to combat the coronavirus.

"Using the COVID-19 pandemic as an example, we described the reaction of people from 169 countries of the world and showed its dependence on socio-cultural traditions. For each country, mobilization and exhaustion coefficients are calculated, reflecting the population's acceptance of specific rules of behaviour and loss of interest in them. In the future, this will make it possible to build national strategies to combat the pandemic," said Innokenty Kastalsky, the author of the study, Associate Professor of the Department of Neurotechnologies at the Institute of Neurosciences of UNN.

The study is based on the theory of general adaptation syndrome, according to which the response to a stressor does not depend on its nature. In response to external information, a person first "turns on" the anxiety mode, then mobilizes, and then becomes exhausted and stops fighting the circumstances.

The model of UNN scientists makes it possible to mathematically predict the speed of the epidemic, the duration of the plateau between the first and second waves, the number of people who will go to the doctor and agree to hospitalization, the effectiveness of anti-COVID measures, and more.

According to the developers, Russians reacted poorly to new information and external influence, slowly changing their behavior patterns. At the same time, residents of Russia maintained a special mode of life during the pandemic for longer.

"As our research shows, we can ignore danger messages for a long time, but then stick to strict rules even longer than necessary. In general, this is typical for countries with a large territory," said Innokenty Kastalsky.

Nizhny Novgorod experts studied the dynamics of the incidence of COVID-19 in the first 300 days of the pandemic around the world and found mathematical patterns in the behavior of people living in different territories: the dynamics of the epidemic changed depending on the reaction of society to the risk of the disease and restrictive measures to combat the coronavirus.

"Using the COVID-19 pandemic as an example, we described the reaction of people from 169 countries of the world and showed its dependence on socio-cultural traditions. For each country, mobilization and exhaustion coefficients are calculated, reflecting the population's acceptance of specific rules of behaviour and loss of interest in them. In the future, this will make it possible to build national strategies to combat the pandemic," said Innokenty Kastalsky, the author of the study, Associate Professor of the Department of Neurotechnologies at the Institute of Neurosciences of UNN.

The United States, Colombia and Iran showed the highest exhaustion rates, so the first wave of the epidemic quickly escalated into the second, aggravating the epidemiological situation. The Spaniards and the French turned out to be the most conscious in terms of social reactions – the population of these countries is rapidly mobilizing and the incidence is reaching a long plateau.


In the future, the scientists plan to create a system of mathematical models to develop effective strategies for combating epidemics and modes of public behavior in stressful situations by region of the world or individual countries.

The study was carried out within the framework of the federal program of strategic academic leadership "Priority 2030". The results are published in the international journal Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation:


" Exploring the impact of social stress on the adaptive dynamics of COVID-19:
Typing the behavior of naïve populations faced with epidemics"



*~*~*

 
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Lalas

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"Such systems can be used in the interests of high-tech IT enterprises and the medical sector for processing medical data, classifying information and building virtual models of the nervous system. The use of such platforms is in demand, in particular, in the development of hybrid neuro-interface (neuromorphic) systems, where an important role is played by the use of biologically plausible cell models capable of mimicking the signals of living biological neurons," Professor Gordleeva noted.
..
In 2022, she defended her doctoral (Doctor of Sciences) thesis in Biophysics on "Biophysical models of interaction between neuronal and astrocytic networks". From 2022 to the present day Susanna Gordleeva has been working as Professor at the UNN Neurotechnologies Department and Head of the Laboratory for Neurodynamics and Cognitive Technologies at the UNN Neurosciences Research Institute.


..
— In what areas can such a neural network be used?

Susanna Gordleeva: In fact, in any place where information processing is needed. But one of the promising tasks, perhaps, is the creation of neural implants or neural interfaces. Such systems record brain activity. Therefore, it is necessary that information processing should be carried out with the help of
systems adapted to biological mechanisms.

 

Lalas

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National Research Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (UNN)

About the Institute
The Institute of Biology and Biomedicine is a unique high-quality education, which has managed to combine modern trends in biological science and traditional fundamental knowledge about wildlife. Practice-oriented education in modern scientific laboratories allows you to obtain all the necessary skills for future professional activities, and fundamental disciplines will ensure a thoughtful approach and competitiveness in the labor market.

Our graduates work in major companies both in Russia and abroad. Graduates also hold leadership positions.

The Institute of Biology and Biomedicine (IBBM) was established in December 2014 by merging into a single structure

– Faculty of Biology of UNN,

– Research Institute of Living Systems,

– Research Institute "Botanical Garden",

– Research Institute of Molecular Biology and Regional Ecology.

IBBM is actively introducing modern teaching methods (among other things, through the creation of block lecture courses by teachers from the world's leading universities).

For the development of research activities at IBBM, leading scientists and specialists from all over the world are actively involved in cooperation.

The intensive development of biomedical research at UNN has led to a significant increase in the level of scientific research and publication activity in the world's leading journals.


Department of Molecular Biology and Immunology

Successful and competitive development of Russia in the modern rapidly changing world within the framework of the new technological order (the so-called 6th technological revolution), the rapid onset of which is predicted in the very near future, is impossible without improving the quality of life of Russians and significantly increasing its duration. Bringing the quality of life and life expectancy to a radically new level largely depends on advances in the field of biomedicine and life sciences. The achievement of significant success in these natural science areas is ensured by state-of-the-art immuno-biotechnological, molecular-genetic, genetic engineering, microbiological, virological research and development.

Advanced scientific research in these areas is dynamically developed by employees, graduate students and students of the Department of Molecular Biology and Immunology of the Institute of Biology and Biomedicine of Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod. In addition to active research activities, the teaching staff of our department also conducts intensive scientific and educational work. The very subject of the MBI department, the essence of research work and the content of educational disciplines conducted at it reflect the relevance of molecular-biological, immunological, microbiological, virological, biotechnological research and, in general, are designed to increase the authority of the scientist and the prestige of the researcher.




Graduates of the department work in leading research institutes in Russia and the world, at large biotechnological enterprises and in medical institutions.

Center for Collective Use of "Molecular Biology and Neurophysiology"

The Center for Molecular Biology and Neurophysiology is designed to conduct molecular biological research in the field of molecular genetics, molecular neurobiology, genetic engineering, nanobiotechnology and to obtain new knowledge in various areas of molecular biology and neurophysiology.

Areas of scientific research carried out at the Center:

  • molecular genetics;
  • molecular neurobiology;
  • genetic engineering;
  • nanobiotechnology.

Priority areas (Decree of the President of the Russian Federation No. 899):
Life Sciences

Priority areas of the R&D Strategy (p. 20):
Personalized Medicine, High-Tech Healthcare and Health Saving Technologies




Department of Experimental and Nuclear Medicine

The creation of the Department of Experimental and Nuclear Medicine was the first step in the formation of a new direction of the UNN IBBM, namely the implementation of training programs for highly qualified personnel in the specialties of fundamental medicine ("Medical Biophysics", "Medical Biochemistry", "Medical Cybernetics").
..
In connection with the emergence of biomedical education, a unique laboratory base has been created, leading Russian and world experts in the field of biomedicine are involved in the work at UNN.


Department of Neurotechnologies

COURSES TAUGHT

Bachelor:

  • Fundamentals of Dynamical Systems in Biology
  • Fundamentals of Biophysics and Physiology of Excitable Systems
  • Features of the molecular structure of the cells of the nervous system
  • Particular Physiology of the Central Nervous System
  • Analysis of experimental data
  • Mathematical Modeling of Neural Networks of the Brain
  • Experiment technique
  • Fundamentals of Applied Neuroscience
  • Fundamentals of Molecular Neurobiology
  • Fundamentals of Phylogeny of the Nervous System
  • Fundamentals of Cellular Neurobiology


Master:
  • Architecture of sensory processing pathways in the brain
  • Molecular Neurobiology
  • Biochemistry of the central nervous system
  • Functional Analysis in Biological Systems
  • Mathematical Models of Neural Networks of the Brain
  • Fundamentals of Modeling Spike Neural Networks
  • Cellular Neurophysiology
  • Modulation of synaptic transmission
  • Modeling the Basic Cognitive Functions of the Brain


Postgraduate study:
  • Trends in the development of modern biology
  • Modeling Plasticity and Learning in Neural Networks of the Brain
  • Nervous Regulation of the Visual System of the Brain
  • Modern Concepts of Molecular Neurobiology
  • Biophysics and Physiology of Excitable Membranes
  • Phylogeny of the nervous system
  • Neurochemistry
  • Brain Regulatory Factor Systems
  • Mathematical Modeling of Neuronal-Glial Systems


AREAS OF RESEARCH

The areas of work of the department include a wide range of fundamental problems of modern neuroscience, including the following list of studies:
  • Application of experimental methods of electrophysiological registration and fluorescence imaging of brain cell activity to obtain fundamental knowledge about the principles and mechanisms of functioning of brain neural networks;
  • Study of the mechanisms of synaptic and extrasynaptic signaling and synaptic plasticity in neural systems of the brain;
  • Study of the role of cellular mechanisms in the formation of higher mental functions: learning, memory, emotions, etc.;
  • Development and creation of neuroimitating information systems – neuroanimates;
  • Development and research of models of cellular activity, networks and functional systems of the brain;
  • Development of applied technologies for medical diagnostics and treatment of brain diseases;
  • Development of neural network technologies. Development of a myointerface that converts small efforts of certain muscle groups into commands executed by a motorized device;
  • Development of a neural interface using signals taken from the operator's head by electroencephalography for control.


PAGES OF HISTORY

In 2005, a new department appeared at the Faculty of Biology of Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod – the Department of Neurodynamics and Neurobiology (full name: Interfaculty Joint Department of Neurodynamics and Neurobiology of UNN at IAP RAS). The head of the department was a young doctor of physical and mathematical sciences Kazantsev Viktor Borisovich. Despite the fact that the department formally belonged to the Faculty of Biology, the range of interdisciplinary scientific tasks facing it required active cooperation with specialists from other faculties and institutes.

The department brought together students, postgraduates and specialists of the Faculty of Biology and Radiophysics, the Higher School of General and Applied Physics of UNN, as well as the Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The activity of the department was focused on the fundamental problems of modern brain science related to the application of modern experimental methods of electrophysiological registration and fluorescence imaging, the development and study of models of cellular activity, networks and functional systems of the brain; development of applied technologies for medical diagnostics and treatment of brain diseases; the creation of a new class of information systems that use the principles of the brain.

In 2006, on the initiative of Alexei Vasilyevich Semyanov, a Russian scientist successfully working abroad, the so-called "mirror laboratory" was opened at UNN, built on a complementary principle to the Laboratory of Extrasynaptic Neurotransmission of the RIKEN Brain Institute (Japan), which at that time was headed by Alexei Vasilyevich. This allowed Nizhny Novgorod scientists to reach a new level of research in the field of cellular neurobiology and successfully interact with foreign colleagues. Subsequently, the laboratory became part of the laboratories of the Nizhny Novgorod Neuroscience Center.

At the same time, the cooperation of the department with the Laboratory of Cell Technologies and the Central Research Laboratory at the Nizhny Novgorod State Medical Academy (Nizhny Novgorod State Medical Academy) under the leadership of Professor, Doctor of Biological Sciences Irina Vasilievna Mukhina was strengthened. In the course of this interaction, several scientific projects were successfully carried out aimed at developing methods for recording, analyzing, and pairing the activity of neuronal brain cultures with multielectrode matrices to create physiological microsensory systems. Cooperation of the department with the laboratories of Nizhny State Medical Academy is still a fruitful basis for solving a wide range of applied problems of modern neuroscience. The scientific results of the developing department soon became noticeable both on the Russian and international scientific scenes. The department systematically expanded the range of tasks and areas of research.

In close connection with scientific research, the department has successfully trained highly qualified specialists in the field of neurobiology and neurotechnology. In 2010, the university, represented by the Department, became one of the centers of the National Network of Postgraduate Studies in Biotechnology in Neurosciences (BioN), organized with the financial support of a grant from the Tempus IV program. Within the framework of the BioN program, a scientific and educational consortium was formed, consisting of universities and research institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences. One of the results of the project in 2011 was the school for young scientists "On the Way to Neuromorphic Intelligence", organized by the Department of Neurodynamics and Neurobiology of Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod. The school was devoted to one of the most striking areas in neuroscience: the development of models, methods and technologies of neuromorphic systems that mimic the morphology and functional activity of brain networks from the level of molecular and cellular signaling to the formation of higher cognitive functions – memory, consciousness, intelligence. The aim of the school was to provide postgraduates, undergraduate students and young staff interested in neuroscience with an overview of key trends and problems in this field, different approaches and levels of understanding of existing problems. The lecturers of the school were the world's leading scientists in the field of neuroscience.

In 2010, the staff of the department joined a unique scientific project on the study of the extracellular matrix of the brain, which received funding from a grant from the Government of the Russian Federation for state support of scientific research conducted under the guidance of leading scientists in Russian educational institutions of higher professional education (the so-called "megagrant"). The project was headed by the outstanding Russian scientist Alexander Eduardovich Dityatev, who at that time worked at the Italian Institute of Technology (Genoa, Italy). The results obtained during the project laid the foundation for modern neuroscientific research in Nizhny Novgorod. In particular, at the end of 2012, the Nizhny Novgorod Neuroscience Center (NSRC) was established. The center conducts a wide range of research in the field of neuroscience, from molecular cellular neurobiology to research on cognitive functions and robotics. The NSC laboratories have advanced research equipment at their disposal, as well as an immunodeficiency animal vivarium (SPF), which is necessary for world-class research in the field of neuroscience.

In continuation of its scientific and educational activity, in the spring of 2012 the department opened a research school "Neurobiotechnology". The main purpose of the school was to prepare postgraduate and undergraduate students for professional activities in the field of fundamental and applied scientific research and in high-tech sectors of the economy at the level of modern international standards. The research school ensured the development and implementation of structured training programs for PhD and Master's students, taking into account the specifics corresponding to the scientific direction of "Living Systems".

Since 2013, the department has been actively developing applied research related to the development of neuro-integrated robotic systems, exoskeletons and neurocontrol systems. These studies received serious financial support, first from the RFBR Foundation, and then from the Ministry of Education and Science within the framework of the Federal Target Program "Research and Development". The expansion of the range of scientific tasks facing the department required new specialized laboratories, one of which, the laboratory for the development of intelligent biomechatronic technologies, was headed by a young scientist Vasily Ivanovich Mironov. The second laboratory, the Laboratory of Neuroengineering Technologies (headed by Alexei S. Pimashkin, Ph.D.), was engaged in the development of cellular neural interfaces and microfluidic devices.

Several scientific and technical projects were localized in the laboratories. One of them is aimed at developing a robotic complex for the rehabilitation of patients with lower limb dysfunction due to injuries and diseases of the brain and spinal cord. Among the main tasks of the project are the modeling of the biomechanics of human gait, the development of mechanical components of the complex and the requirements for them, the calculation of the force-moment effect in the joints of the device, the development of a unique control system for the complex as a whole. Another project is devoted to the development of a system for recording and decoding human brain and muscle signals (SRD-1). The hardware and software complex integrates information from sensors and processes it according to a given rule, thereby realizing the function of a universal signal interpreter. The presence of feedback allows you to effectively solve two tasks at once: to compensate for the missing computational resources due to the brain's ability to implement complex coordination of movements and adaptation, as well as to involve the user in the control process with a significant reduction in training time.

In 2015, under the guidance of Professor of Moscow State University, Doctor of Biological Sciences Alexander Yakovlevich Kaplan, a leading Russian scientist in the field of brain-machine interfaces, a new branch of scientific research appeared at the department aimed at the development of brain-machine interface technologies of a new generation, namely, a non-invasive brain-computer interface (BCI) technology suitable for humans based on the registration and isolation of EEG command patterns with a feedback loop. It is assumed that this new technology will overcome the limitations of existing BCIs in terms of speed and accuracy, but most importantly, it will make it possible to develop and automate new skills in post-stroke patients. The research was supported by the Russian Science Foundation and is currently in its active phase.

A group of researchers of the department under the leadership of S.A. Lobov is engaged in the development of neural network technologies. Biologically relevant modeling allows you to replicate neuronal and network synchronization, unconditional and associative learning. These effects are demonstrated using the neuroanimatic approach, in which a robot controlled by a virtual neural network changes its "behavior" after a period of "life" in a real environment [Lobov, S. et al//Latent Factors Limiting the Performance of sEMG-Interfaces. Sensors 2018].

The adaptive properties of virtual neural networks are also used in human-machine interfaces. A myointerface has been developed that converts small efforts of certain muscle groups into commands executed by a motorized device. This type of control is in high demand when using prostheses and exoskeletons.

In the same 2015, the Department of Neurodynamics and Neurobiology was renamed into the Department of Neurotechnology due to the reorganization of the Faculty of Biology. Currently, the Department of Neurotechnologies is a subdivision of the Institute of Biology and Biomedicine of Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod.

One of the directions of the department is devoted to the study of the fundamental mechanisms of brain functioning, as well as the development of new approaches to increasing the adaptive capabilities of nervous system cells to the impact of stress factors.

It has been shown that neural networks in primary cultures of hippocampal cells are an adequate biological model for studying local network activity of the brain in vitro. At the morphological and functional levels, the main stages of the development of neuronal-glial networks in vitro have been investigated, and the general patterns of their development have been established. On the basis of the experimental data obtained, a mathematical model describing the influence of extracellular signaling factors on the growth of nerve cell processes has been developed, as well as a computer program for studying the dynamics of signaling processes in the neural networks of the brain, including the processes occurring during the formation of memory traces [certificate of state registration of the computer program No. 2017611909].

Using the electrophysiological method of studying the activity of neural networks using multielectrode arrays, the features of the functional bioelectrical activity of neural networks both in normal conditions and under the influence of stress factors, including the enzymatic destruction of the components of the microenvironment of neural networks - the extracellular matrix of the brain - were studied. Using multielectrode systems, the features of the formation of neural networks obtained from the culture of induced pluripotent cells differentiated by the dopaminergic pathway were studied, and the spontaneous bioelectrical activity of neuronal cultures obtained from fibroblasts of healthy donors and patients with genetically determined forms of Parkinson's disease was compared [Patent for invention No. 2501853].

Studies are underway to study the role of some regulatory molecules (BDNF, GDNF, N-arachidonoyl dopamine (N-ADA)) as potential correctors of the functional activity of neural networks under the influence of ischemic factors. At the neural network level, the presence of not only neuroprotective and antihypoxic properties of these biologically active molecules has been shown [M.V. Vedunova et al. // Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2015; Mitroshina E.V. et al. // Modern Technologies in Medicine. 2017, Shishkina et al. // Brain research. 2018], but also the possibility of their use as diagnostic and prognostic criteria for assessing the degree of damage to the central nervous system in various pathologies [Vedunova M.V. With co-authors. Modern technologies in medicine. 2015; patent for invention 2568602]. For the neurotrophic factor BDNF, it has been established that it is possible to increase the adaptive capabilities of nerve cells and restore the functional activity of neural networks after their significant damage [patent for invention No. 2594065].

For the first time in Russia, the technique of intravital detection of mRNA using golden RNA probes was applied and a protocol for the use of this technique for primary neuronal cultures was developed [Mishchenko et al. // Biological membranes. 2018].

In the field of neuroimaging, a number of computer programs have been developed to analyze patterns of metabolic activity of nerve cells, as well as to detect the morphological structure and automatic analysis of the genomic response data of the neuronal-glial network [certificate of state registration of computer program No. 2014662670].

Biocompatible three-dimensional constructs (scaffolds) of a given architectonics have been developed, and the features of growth and formation of neural networks on the obtained constructs have been studied. The possibility of including biologically active substances in the construct material without losing their properties is shown. Implantation of scaffolds in the area of injury leads to a decrease in the severity of neurological deficits and the preservation of long-term memory [patent for invention No. 2521194].

Work is underway to develop non-toxic nanoparticles for neurotheranostics [M.V. Vedunova et al. // RSC Adv. 2016, Mitroshina E.V. et al. // STM. 2016].

In 2017, the implementation of the Neuromobile project began, for which a state grant in the amount of 250 million rubles was allocated as part of the competition of the federal target program "Research and Development in Priority Areas of the Development of the Scientific and Technological Complex of Russia for 2014-2020". In the course of the project, it is planned to develop and then enter serial production of a neuromanned electric drive vehicle - the Neuromobile. The vehicle under development will have unique scientific and technical solutions that ensure its competitiveness. The basis of the propulsion system will be a technical solution using a free platform with integrated asynchronous hub motors. In addition, innovative changes will take place in terms of management. In particular, it is planned to develop an unparalleled system of active assistance and neurocontrol, which will ensure the registration of multimodal signals of the human brain and the formation of control commands by the executive mechanism of a specialized vehicle.

Over the past 5 years, the staff of the department has published more than 100 publications, indexed in international databases Web of Science, Scopus and others. The staff of the department gives about 30 courses of lectures for bachelor's, master's and postgraduate students. Currently, the department implements a bachelor's degree program in neurobiology, biomedicine, as well as a master's program in neurobiology. The PhD program implemented by the department is part of the Biophysics profile. 13 graduate students and 60 students are studying at the department (as of the 2017/2018 academic year). During the existence of the department, 6 people received the degree of Candidate of Sciences and 1 person received the degree of Doctor of Science. Graduates of the department are prepared for activities in the field of molecular cellular neurobiology, electrophysiology, biophysics, mathematical statistics, computer modeling. They have theoretical knowledge of the mechanisms of functioning of cells and cellular networks of the brain, the basics of experimental techniques, including electrophysiological methods of registration using patch-clamp and multi-electrode systems, fluorescence optical imaging, basic statistical methods of data processing, the basics of computer modeling of neural systems.



NEWS OF THE DEPARTMENT

03.12.2019.

Susanna Gordleeva presented the Department of Neurotechnologies of the IBBM at the Russian Digital Week in Poland

Susanna Gordleeva, Head of the TTC Laboratory, presented Lobachevsky University at the Russian Digital Week in Poland, which was held from 18 to 20 November 2019 as the central event of the Scientific and Educational Exhibition "Achievements and Breakthrough Technologies of Russian Companies in the Field of DIGITAL" (October-November 2019) by Rossotrudnichestvo together with the operator Inconsult K LLC on the basis of the Russian Center for Science and Culture in Warsaw.

The exhibition introduced European visitors to the latest developments and achievements of the Russian digital industry in the areas of breakthrough information and communication technologies, big data, software development and robotics, as well as new educational technologies based on them.

In the business part of the exhibition, reports were made by leading experts, representatives of universities, Russian and joint Russian-Italian companies on existing and promising areas for the development of digital technologies.

At the stand of Lobachevsky University, Susanna Gordleeva presented exhibits and video materials on the results of the development of neural interface technologies within the framework of such end-to-end technologies such as "Neurotechnologies and Artificial Intelligence", "Components of Robotics and Sensorics" and "Big Data".

In her report on the first day of the business program, Susanna Gordleeva presented to the participants of the exhibition the development of Cyber Trainer - a system of "smart" clothing with integrated sensors for monitoring electromyographic signals (EMG) and for training movements using tactile feedback (supervisor Ph.D. Pimashkin A.A.).




22.10.2019.

Open Innovations 2019

From October 21 to October 23, 2019, the VIII Moscow International Forum "Open Innovations" is being held at the site of the Skolkovo Technopark. Our university is represented by a delegation from the Department of Neurotechnologies of the IBBM consisting of the leadership - Kazantsev V.B., Li A.N., heads of laboratories - Gordleeva S.Y., Pimashkin A.S., researchers - Zharinova A.I., and Li S.A.

During the conference, a meeting was held with the Minister of Education, at which developments in the field of artificial intelligence were demonstrated: learning spike neural networks; Cyber Coach smart clothing project: a system that allows you to monitor and optimize the work of individual muscles using sensors on clothing to develop human physical abilities.

We hope that the next days of the conference will be no less fruitful and will allow our delegation to establish not only friendly, but also mutually beneficial relations with possible scientific and technical partners.





Institute of Biology and Biomedicine / News
IBBM Professor Received the Prize of the President of the Russian Federation

February 08, 2024




Congratulations to Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences Susanna Gordeeva, Professor of the Department of Neurotechnologies of the IBBM on the award of the Prize of the President of the Russian Federation in the field of science and innovation for young scientists!

A series of scientific studies aimed at the development of neuromorphic artificial intelligence technologies based on biophysical neuron-astrocyte network models for memristive electronics was awarded a high state award. As a result, a fundamentally new model of neuromorphic artificial intelligence was created with a performance that surpasses its global counterparts. A team of scientists from Nizhny Novgorod managed to prove that astrocytes allow you to effectively control the dynamics of neurons and, probably, are the very missing link in solving the problem of training spike neural networks in the design of neural processors.



..
— In what areas can such a neural network be used?

Susanna Gordleeva: In fact, in any place where information processing is needed. But one of the promising tasks, perhaps, is the creation of neural implants or neural interfaces. Such systems record brain activity. Therefore, it is necessary that information processing should be carried out with the help of
systems adapted to biological mechanisms."
 
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Lalas

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National Research Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (UNN)

Research Institute of Neurosciences

The Research Institute of Neurosciences is a young team, experience of world science and new ideas!

Laboratories studying promising areas of neuroscience
On the basis of the institute there are 7 laboratories that conduct research on eukaryotic cell cultures, on model animals and in the field of mathematical modeling of neural networks.

Experience of world-renowned scientists
The Research Institute of Neurosciences appeared on the basis of the Nizhny Novgorod Neuroscientific Center, organized under the leadership of Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences Viktor Borisovich Kazantsev. An important role in the creation of the Research Institute of Neurosciences was played by the outstanding Russian scientist Alexander Eduardovich Dityatev, who at that time worked at the Italian Institute of Technology (Genoa, Italy); Russian scientist, UNN graduate, successfully working abroad, Doctor of Sciences Alexei Vasilyevich Semyanov; Professor of PIMU, Doctor of Biological Sciences Irina Vasilievna Mukhina.

Young team
The Research Institute of Neurosciences is a place of growth and development. This is the junction of fundamental science and the solution of applied research problems. These are international research teams and a team to reach new heights!

THE RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF NEUROSCIENCES IMPLEMENTS CURRENT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
The range of tasks of the Research Institute of Neurosciences includes research in the field of studying the structures and functions of the brain, the molecular genetic basis of neuronal development, as well as the creation of artificial intelligence and the development of human-computer neural interfaces

The Research Institute of Neurosciences is a rapidly developing structure of Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod. The main value of the Research Institute of Neurosciences is the great scientific groundwork of the team of neurobiologists of Nizhny Novgorod and their colleagues, which is recognized by the world scientific community.

The Research Institute of Neurosciences was opened in January 2016 with the aim of supporting neuroscientific research and creating a common material and technical base to expand the capabilities of scientists in the implementation of ideas and tasks. The Research Institute of Neurosciences conducts a wide range of research in the field of neurosciences, from molecular cellular neurobiology to cognitive studies and neuroelectronics.

The Research Institute of Neurosciences appeared on the basis of the Nizhny Novgorod Neuroscientific Center, organized under the leadership of Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences Viktor Borisovich Kazantsev. Another important structure that took part in the formation of the research institute was the Department of Neurotechnologies of the IBBM, which is still closely intertwined with the Institute of Neurosciences. The Research Institute of Neurosciences also includes the SPF Vivarium Genetic Collections Center.


Completed projects

Development of multiscale network mathematical models for the development of coronavirus epidemics, taking into account the features of modern communication infrastructure

Purpose of the work
development of a set of synthetic mathematical models of the spread of infection aimed at describing and predicting the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus on a scale from local society to countries and continents

Project Description
The SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus has significant features that will have an impact on the dynamics of models.
.. We propose to move away from building a single unique model that takes into account all factors and develop a set of model solutions at various spatial scales (city, region, country, continent), customizable taking into account the individual characteristics of territories with different levels of detail. As mathematical solutions, we will start from both classical population models (such as SIR) and build multi-agent systems, in particular, for local populations (districts, cities).


Project Coordinator
Doctor of Physics and Mathematics Kazantsev Viktor Borisovich

Nonlinear Dynamics of Network Neural Systems: Fundamental Aspects and Applications, Grant of the President of the Russian Federation for Leading Scientific Schools 2020-2021

Purpose of the work:
development of multicomponent nonlinear networks capable of forming activity structures and determining the performance of certain functions, including:
– information conversion (encoding and decoding);
– generation of robust stable spatio-temporal structures;
– generation of network multidimensional signals in an adaptive interface with robotic devices that monitor and control such devices.

Project description:
In the context of this study, we are talking about networks of interacting pulsed (spike) neural generators (SNN). Such networks, in fact, are biologically relevant models of neurons with their own non-trivial dynamics. From the point of view of nonlinear physics, such systems are complex multidimensional dynamical systems, the behavior of which is determined by the spatial architecture of the corresponding network, the characteristics of nonlinearity, and the characteristic time scales of processes. The growing interest of researchers and large industrial corporations in SNN in recent years is determined by two main points. First, such networks are the closest models to the brain when building artificial intelligence systems. Secondly, the presence of its own time dynamics (in contrast to traditional perceptronic types) makes it possible to design technical applications that use dynamic effects of synchronization, frequency and phase selectivity in the construction of automatic control systems and neuro-assistive technologies working directly with analog signals.

Academic Supervisor
Doctor of Physics and Mathematics Kazantsev Viktor Borisovich


Topological Computations in Pulsed Neural Networks

Purpose of the work
To develop pulsed neural networks that allow the implementation of wave interactions of neural activity and to propose ways to train such networks in order to implement topological calculations.

Project Description
Neural networks grown in vitro simulate structures that are close to real-world brain regions and thus have great potential for practical applications. In particular, as a "computer in vitro". Despite great efforts, experimental research has not yet been able to realize the computational capabilities of such systems. The main problem is related to the development of learning "algorithms" aimed at creating a "living computer" similar to artificial neural networks.


Technologies for piloting neuro-controlled robotic systems

Purpose of the work:
Creation of a new technology for remote control of robotic devices using human bioinformatics signals. Such control will provide interpretation of signals of various modalities (EEG, EMG, kinematics of movements, etc.) into signals of actuators – anthropomorphic and non-anthropomorphic robotic systems.

Project description:
The key feature of the project is the development of a universal user-programmable interpreter designed to integrate human bioinformatics signals of various modalities, their transformation, as well as supervisory control of the actuator according to a standardized protocol. Control also presupposes the presence of a biological feedback channel through various sensory inputs and a technical channel, which together provide a corrective effect and the achievement of an adaptive result. Feedback in such devices will make it possible to achieve the effect of "feeling" an external device by the operator, which is fundamentally important in the development of intelligent exoprostheses and remotely controlled devices.

Academic Supervisor
State assignment 2017-2019, No. 8.2487.2017/PCh.



NEWS
UNN Scientists Combine Artificial and Living Neurons

October 12, 2023

Science/Research Grants




Researchers at the Research Institute of Neurosciences were among the first in the world to determine the parameters at which a live neural network and a source of neuron-like signals work as a single whole, with brain cells controlling the activity of an artificial neuron.

For more information, please visit the University's website:

UNN Scientists Combine Artificial and Living Neurons

12.10.2023

The technology will help create neuroprostheses to replace damaged areas of the brain

Scientists from the Department of Neurotechnology of the Institute of Biology and Biomedicine of Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod were among the first in the world to determine the parameters at which a living neural network and a source of neuron-like signals work as a single whole, with brain cells controlling the activity of an artificial neuron.

A fragment of the mouse's hippocampus, a brain structure responsible for learning, spatial orientation and memory, was connected to a generator of artificial nerve impulses. The circuit played signals that mimicked brain activity. They stimulated living neurons, and they sent a response signal. The generator went from excitable to oscillatory mode, starting to work as an extension of the hippocampus.

"The technology will help create neuroprostheses to replace damaged areas of the brain, which is an important step towards neurohybrid technologies. Replacing the damaged area of the hippocampus with electronic neurons can not only restore brain activity during injuries, but also improve memory and stimulate the ability to learn," said Albina Lebedeva, project leader, Associate Professor of the Department of Neurotechnologies at Lobachevsky University.

The scientific consultant of the project was Professor of the Polytechnic University of Madrid Alexander Pisarchik.

"Scientists from Lobachevsky University, in cooperation with the Polytechnic University of Madrid, have managed to achieve a real scientific breakthrough. The new technology opens up wide opportunities in the field of neuromorphic applications: from the development of "smart" and adaptive robots to the creation of revolutionary medical devices for the treatment of neurological diseases," commented Alexander Pisarchik.

According to scientists, in the future, the development can be used to normalize the functioning of the brain with epilepsy.

"If the experiment manages to suppress abnormal bursts of activity of hippocampal neurons with the help of pulse generators, this will pave the way for the creation of neuroprostheses for the treatment of patients with epilepsy," said Albina Lebedeva.

Today, scientists at UNN are simultaneously developing several types of neuromorphic devices to replace damaged areas of the brain. One of the promising areas is neuroprostheses based on memristors, special microelectronic elements, which today are called "artificial synapses". With their help, it is possible to mimic the synaptic plasticity of the human brain in a neuromorphic device, making the neuroprosthesis adaptive and retrainable.

The research is carried out within the framework of the federal program "Priority 2030", as well as with grant support from the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation.

The results are published in the journal Sensors in 2023.


Russian Scientists Have Found a Way to Speed Up Human Reaction

November 22, 2023

Science/Research Grants/Mass Media about UNN


The Laboratory of Neurodynamics and Cognitive Technologies presented a unique development: a method of brain stimulation that activates motor functions and allows you to develop and accelerate a person's reaction.

Scientists have shown that magnetic stimulation of some areas of the human brain with the help of an alternating magnetic field contributes to a significant increase in the speed of its reaction, which triggers more active motor functions of the body. According to the head of the laboratory, Susanna Gordleeva, this development will help the elderly in normalizing the work of the musculoskeletal system and rehabilitation in various diseases of the spine and muscles. In addition, the method will help create new approaches to training in sports, and will also be applied in the treatment of depressive disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and epilepsy

RIA Novosti:
https://ria.ru/20231113/nauka-1908666671.html



Susanna Gordleeva became the Laureate of the Prize of the President of the Russian Federation in the field of science and innovation

February 08, 2024


Susanna Gordleeva, a scientist at the Research Institute of Neurosciences and the Department of Neurotechnology of the IBBM, became the Laureate of the Presidential Prize in the field of science and innovation for young scientists for 2023:

She was awarded this high award for the development of neuromorphic artificial intelligence models and technologies based on biophysical neuron-astrocyte network models for memristive electronics.


We are infinitely happy for Susanna Yurievna, we are very proud, congratulate her on her victory and wish her further success in her work!

 
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Lalas

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April 2, 2024

Interior Minister Vladimir Kolokoltsev delivered the main report.

The agenda included priority objectives in various spheres of operational activities, including ensuring public order, countering extremism, preventing illegal migration, the performance of district police offices, as well as the Ministry’s efforts to combat organised crime.


* * *

President of Russia Vladimir Putin: Mr Kolokoltsev, comrades,
..

I would like to add that we are comprehensively assessing the activities of all our law enforcement and oversight services, as well as commercial organisations that were responsible for the large facility where the terrorist attack was carried out.

We have paid an extremely high price. And we must analyse the situation with utmost objectivity and professionalism. This is important, first and utmost, for taking our efforts to ensure public order and security in crowded places, sports facilities, transport, shopping and entertainment centres, schools, hospitals, universities, theatres, and so on, to the next level. All these facilities must be closely monitored, and Interior Ministry bodies have the main role to play in this effort.
..
At the recent meetings of the Federal Security Service (FSB) and Prosecutor General’s Office boards, I placed special emphasis on the need to effectively counter any extremist manifestations.

As you know, in many cases, illegal migration and ideological indoctrination by all sorts of false preachers and websites provide fertile ground for such extremist activities and outright crime.
..

But when you look into a particular case, a specific crime, it turns out that people enter Russia relatively easily: they go through all the formalities and get a work patent even though they have a long record of offences, sometimes persistent ones. Then they apply for citizenship without speaking even basic Russian. This issue requires modern digital, electronic biometric databases. Apparently, the current ones are insufficient. They are not enough to fully mitigate the risks and relapses of illegal migration.


***
"...
On October 16, 2014 at the office of the Russian Venture Company (RVC), an expert seminar “The Neuronet Roadmap” was held with the participation of Stephen Dunn, director of Starlab Neuroscience Research; Karen Casey, creator of the Global Mind Project; Randal A. Kuhne [Koene], CEO of the Science Foundation Carboncopies.org and the founder of NeuraLink Co.; Mikhail Lebedev, Senior Researcher An employee at the Neuroengineering Center of the Department of Neurobiology at Duke University Medical Center (M. Nicolelis Laboratory); Evgeny Kuznetsov, Deputy General Director of RVC. The seminar was conducted by the co-founders of the Russian Neuronet Group Pavel Luksha and Timur Shchukin, as well as the head of the RVC Innovation Ecosystem Development Service Georgy Gogolev.

In the RVC office hosted an expert seminar “Neuronet Roadmap”, at which the world’s leading experts in the field of neuroscience and members of the Russian Neuronet group discussed neuroscience and neurotechnology – one of the most relevant areas of research.
...
The seminar participants said that applied solutions in this area are developing at an accelerated pace. With the help of implanted electrodes, the monkey can already control two independent moving targets. New neural interfaces are just around the corner: scientists turn neurons on and off using light signals and can read information from them and transmit signals to them, introducing neural dust into the brain – the smallest crystals, no larger than 5 microns. All these achievements promise breakthroughs in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, in the development of auditory and visual prostheses.

Neurotechnologies affect the sphere of entertainment, the education system, approaches to the management of industry and trade. But the most important result of a scientific and technological breakthrough in the field of neuroscience is the achievement of a new quality in communications. The modern Internet transmits information and even semantics, but is powerless in transmitting emotions and the unconscious. The Neuronet is the next generation of the Internet, which will use neural interfaces to create new types of communication between people and machines. By linking hundreds or, in the future, even billions of intelligences into a neurocomputer network, it will be possible to achieve a synergistic effect in their joint work, since the brain has the property of plasticity. Perhaps, in the era of the Neuronet, people will finally agree on solving the world’s problems, because an environment will appear that will help overcome the usual human distortions of thinking and perception. New opportunities will open up in teamwork and improving the effectiveness of educational programs.

The roadmap for the development of the Neuronet for the period from 2014 to 2040 is shown



The main stages of the development of the Neuronet, Source: Pavel Luksha. Presentation “Roadmap for the development of the Neuronet”, 2014;


The main stages of Biometrinet development, Source: Pavel Luksha. Presentation “Roadmap for the development of the Neuronet”, 2014

BiometriNet (pre-Neuronet) (2014-2024),
The onset of the Neuronet (2025-2035),
Full-Fledged Neuronet (2035+)

...
When Biometrinet becomes commonplace, the “Neuronet Offensive” will begin (2025-2035), during which communication protocols based on digital models of mental processes will be developed and approaches to organizing a “collective consciousness” capable of “brainstorming” and solving tasks that require the concerted efforts of many people will be found.
…..
The Neuronet Roadmap was approved by Protocol No. 1 of 02/28/2022 by absentee voting of the members of the Presidium of the Government Commission for Economic Modernization and Innovative Development of Russia.
..



 
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Lalas

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The All-Russian (until 1992 - All-Union) Center for the Study of Public Opinion (WTsIOM) is the oldest and most famous Russian company conducting public opinion polls.

WTsIOM was founded in December 1987 under the Ministry of Labor of the USSR and the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions. In 1998, the Center was re-registered as a state unitary enterprise, and in 1999 the Center was granted the status of a scientific institution. In 2003, WTsIOM was transformed into an open joint-stock company with 100% state capital.

In 2017, the Russian Public Opinion Research Center (WTsIOM) celebrates its 30th anniversary.

Today, WTsIOM is the leading Russian research organization in the field of public opinion.






Technologies of the Future and the Future of Technology

Nine out of ten Russians have a positive attitude towards the technologies of the future, and every fourth already considers our country to be one of the developed countries in this area.

April 16, 2024


BRIEFLY ABOUT THE MAIN
The top 3 associations of Russians with the technologies of the future are: artificial intelligence — 24%, robot — 19%, bioengineering and space exploration — 16% each.

The vast majority (90%) have a positive attitude towards the technologies of the future.

About a quarter (23%) consider Russia to be one of the most developed countries in the field of future technologies. A third (32%) noted that Russia will become such in 5-10 years; 26% in 20-30 years.


MOSCOW, April 16, 2024 – The Russian Public Opinion Research Center (WTsIOM) presents the results of a survey of Russians on future technologies.

AI, Robots, and Medicine

Future technologies are actively penetrating all spheres of society: from smart devices and voice assistants to virtual reality and brain implants. They accelerate our communication, increase opportunities, improve health, and expand the boundaries of understanding art, science, and culture. The associative range of Russians with the technologies of the future is quite diverse, there are no variants indicating anxiety or fears, which indicates a wide range of interests and positive expectations of our citizens from the prospects for the development of science and technology..."


***
Or, in other words: "we asked 10,000 Russians and adjusted the results to make it seem that almost all over 140 million Russians agree with the path of biodigital convergence that all Russian responsible actors (state and business, that are not separate) desire and impose."
***



June 16, 2023

Technologies of the future

Russia remains a country of techno-optimists who trust the technologies of the future

 
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Lalas

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April 9, 2024

Unique Gold Nanoparticles for Biomedicine


Scientists from the Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences have theoretically predicted and synthesized pairs of bonded gold nanoparticles connected to each other by conductive molecules. They have a unique spectral property — absorption in the infrared region, thanks to which the new material may be of interest for biomedical applications, for example, in cancer therapy. The infrared range of radiation is less absorbed by the blood, so it passes deeper into the tissues, reaches malignant cells and affects them.

The developed particles consist of two gold nanoparticles connected to each other by special molecules-bridges. Unlike many other materials, gold nanoparticles are biocompatible: they are not rejected by the body and do not have negative effects on it. The particle size is only 22 nanometers. The presence of a conductive material between the two nanoparticles causes them to absorb light intensely in the near-infrared region.

The results of the study are published in The Journal of Chemical Physics.


The study was supported by the Russian Science Foundation.
..
Annotation
Surface plasmons (TPs), i.e. oscillations of free electrons near a conducting surface, are now widely used in applications such as photovoltaic cells, plasmon lasers, biomedical and telecommunications applications, etc. The use of PP in biosensors is especially important, which is due to the high sensitivity of the plasmon frequency to the dielectric constant of the chemical environment surrounding the nanostructure. Most of the biosensors for the presence of various protein and other molecules are now built on the basis of PP plasmons.

The presence of a conduction channel between conductive nanoparticles leads to the formation of charge-transfer plasmons (LPPs), in which charges periodically move between nanoparticles along a conductive channel. Due to the distance between the nanoparticles and the movement of the carriers between them in a narrow channel, the frequency of the LPZ of plasmons usually lies in the IR or terahertz region.

Applications of LPZ in IR biosensors should be promising, since such radiation, unlike the visible range, can penetrate deep into biological tissues. In addition, photodamage to cells and tissues in the IR (or terahertz range) is incomparably less compared to the visible range.

In recent years, studies of plasmonic effects on graphene have begun to appear. Graphene has unique properties in this area. The mobility in graphene is 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than the mobility of carriers in copper. At the same time, the optical conductivity of graphene can be easily influenced by shifting the Fermi level using an electric bias. At the same time, due to the planar nature of graphene, plasmons are experimentally observed in it not only in the IR, but also in the terahertz range with a small wave vector of plasmons.

Sensors of the terahertz range are now beginning to be intensively used in various fields: detection of objects through opaque obstacles, use in trade (radio tags), agriculture (diagnostics of seed quality), medicine (diagnostics of tumors), etc.

When placing individual metal nanoparticles or their complexes on graphene, LPZ plasmons with frequencies in the IR or terahertz range have already been detected. The first potential of such systems as photodetectors or as high-modulation optoelectronic nanomodulators has already been demonstrated. At the same time, the properties of similar complexes of metal nanoparticles (Au, Ag) grown on the surface of the same metal have not yet been practically studied.

Due to the relevance of the development of such systems, the project will study LPP in systems consisting of periodic or non-periodic complexes of metal nanoparticles (gold, silver) lying on a conductive substrate (graphene or metal surface).
..
Expected Results

In the course of the project, several tasks will be solved.

1) Theoretically, an original method for calculating plasmons with charge transfer will be developed for systems consisting of periodic or non-periodic complexes of nanoparticles (nadodiscs, nanowhiskers) made of precious metals (gold, silver) lying on a conductive substrate (graphene or the surface of the same metals). This method will be based on the development of the original hybrid quantum-classical model, taking into account the possible periodicity of the systems under study.
..
When the expected characteristics of systems with such plasmons are realized, they can be used to build various advanced sensors, primarily sensors in the terahertz range, as well as biosensors operating in the IR range. Terahertz sensors are now beginning to be intensively used in various fields, ranging from security systems based on detecting objects through opaque barriers to their use in trade (radio tags), agriculture (diagnostics of seed quality) and medicine (diagnostics of tumors, etc.). Biosensors operating in the IR range should be very promising for the study of biological tissues, since radiation in the near-infrared range, in contrast to the visible range, can penetrate deep into biological tissues (up to 10 mm, depending on the wavelength of IR radiation).
..
As a result of the project, thanks to the study of new objects (plasmons with charge transfer) and the combination of practical and theoretical research, new results corresponding to the world level will be obtained, which will be in demand in various practical applications, primarily in the creation of various sensors of a new generation."





April 16, 2024

Healthy Mitochondria Helped Slow the Development of Hereditary Muscular Dystrophy in Mice


Scientists have found that the introduction of "healthy" mitochondria into skeletal muscle mitigates the manifestations of Duchenne dystrophy. Intramuscular administration of mitochondria of healthy rodents to model mice with hereditary deficiency of the protein dystrophin led to an increase in muscle strength and activity of sick mice to the level of healthy animals. In the future, the obtained results may help in the development of approaches for adjunctive therapy of patients with Duchenne dystrophy.
..
The only way to treat Duchenne dystrophy is genetic therapy, which aims to restore the levels of the dystrophin protein in the muscles.
..
"Mitochondria-targeted therapies, including mitochondrial replacement, could potentially be used to treat Duchenne dystrophy in humans. However, there are now many questions, including ethical ones, about the practical implementation of such an approach. In addition, more severe manifestations of the disease are observed in humans compared to fairly mild symptoms in mice, so the effectiveness of the approach requires additional careful evaluation. Another important issue concerns the route of administration and origin of donor mitochondria," says Mikhail Dubinin, associate professor of the Department of Biochemistry, Cell Biology and Microbiology of MarSU, a participant in the project supported by a grant from the Russian Science Foundation.
..
The results of the study, supported by a grant from the Presidential Program of the Russian Science Foundation (RSF), were published in the journal Biomolecules.




Lomonosov Moscow State University


11.04.2024

Moscow State University Creates Long-Lived Cell Culture for Regenerative Medicine

..
MSU researchers increased the lifespan of stem cell cultures by 2-3 times by artificially lengthening their telomeres – the end sections of chromosomes that are lost during division. The obtained cells will simplify the study of the molecular mechanisms of renewal and repair of damaged tissues, which in the future will help develop approaches to the treatment of metabolic syndrome, pulmonary fibrosis and a number of other currently incurable diseases.
..
The authors used mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from human tissues and deposited in the biobank of the Institute of Regenerative Medicine of the ISEC MSU as progenitor cells. Initially, these cells could survive 8-10 reseeding.


"National Depository Bank of Live Systems
The project of the Moscow State University "Noah's Ark"


To increase the lifespan of the culture, scientists artificially lengthened the cells' telomeres – the end sections of chromosomes that shorten as the cell divides and ages. To do this, the researchers delivered a gene to the cells that stimulates telomere lengthening. This was done with the help of modified virus particles devoid of the ability to reproduce. In this work, they performed an exclusively transport function, allowing the desired gene to be delivered to the cell.
..
The results of the study, supported by a grant from the Presidential Program of the Russian Science Foundation, were published in the International Journal of Molecular Sciences.

..
In this study, we created immortalized MSC cultures (iMSCs) via forced telomerase reverse transcriptase overexpression after lentiviral transduction. Telomerase overexpression allows us to increase telomere length and prolong cell culture proliferation. At the same time, according to the literature data, telomerase expression does not affect the properties of primary cell cultures and has the least effect on genome stability compared to other immortalization approaches, involving the suppression of p16 or p53
..

Funding
The study was funded by the Russian Science Foundation No. 19-75-30007, https://rscf.ru/project/19-75-30007/, accessed on 13 November 2023.

Institutional Review Board Statement
All procedures performed with tissue samples from patients were in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and approved by local ethical committee of the Medical Research and Education Center of Lomonosov Moscow State University (IRB00010587), protocol #4 (4 June 2018)."



 
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Lalas

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The Agency for Social Information is a leading expert organization of the Russian non-profit sector and a professional media outlet, a news agency specializing in covering civic initiatives.
..
The mission of ASI is to contribute to the sustainable development of society, the harmonization of public relations, contributing to the growth of trust between different sectors, organizations and people.




A neural implant has been created in Russia that will help the blind see

Now the technology is being tested on rodents, then it will be the turn of monkeys.

14.07.2021


For the first time, scientists have installed a Russian visual neural implant in a monkey

The ELVIS brain implant will restore sight to blind and deaf-blind people.

25.01.2022


ELVIS allows you to "connect" cameras to the brain and transmit images to it directly, without the help of eyes. "It won't be the usual color volumetric vision with a billion minute details for sighted people. But these are the first steps to bring a totally blind person back from complete darkness," says Tatyana Konstantinova, founder of the Animal Welfare Association, member of the board of the All Together Association.

The Deaf-Blind Support Foundation "So-edinenie" and the non-profit laboratory "Sensor-tech" are working together on the neural implant system.

The first operation to install a Russian neural implant on a monkey took place at the Research Institute of Medical Primatology in Sochi. A matrix with electrodes was installed in the animal's brain. The main task is to prepare several dozen monkeys for such operations in order to assess how well the animals can see with the help of electronic vision.

"With the support of the So-edinenie Foundation, tests of the technology began in 2020. The first stage was tests on rodents, the scientists assessed the reaction of their brains to the impact of the electrodes. This stage has been successfully passed, now the neural implant will be tested on species closer to humans - monkeys. In 2024, we expect to move to the installation of ELVIS for the first blind volunteers. We are already receiving a lot of applications for participation, and in two years we will start selecting candidates," says Natalia Sokolova, Executive Director of the So-edinenie Foundation.

According to Tatyana Konstantinova, neural implants are the future. All the world's teams that are working on technologies to return sight to blind people are moving away from retinal implants, which are placed directly in the eye and have many strict entry conditions that are not suitable for all people, and are moving to technologies using neural implants, as they are more promising.

According to the project team's forecasts, surgery to install a neural implant for humans will become widely available in Russia in 2027.




Russian Scientists Create Implants for Brain Stimulation

Neural implants will make it possible to restore sight to blind people, hearing to deaf people, and correct brain diseases and neurological disorders. The creation of three neural implants will be publicly announced for the first time on June 17 at SPIEF 2022.

17.06.2022
..
"The vision implant is already undergoing the final stage of animal trials, in January of this year we installed ELVIS V in a monkey, the tests were successful. In 2024, the first blind volunteers will receive electronic vision. We expect that the ELVIS V installation operation will become widely available in Russia in 2027."


 

Lalas

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April 11, 2024

The era of smartphones is coming to an end, and the "Internet of Bodies" is ahead!
What is it and how does it work?


At the end of 2023, scientists at Purdue University in the United States predicted the end of the smartphone era. According to them, there will come a time when people will not need external devices to access the network, and information can be transmitted simply through a handshake. This will be possible thanks to the development of such a phenomenon as the "Internet of bodies". What's it? How does it work? And what are the risks? Let's figure it out together with the head of the group of neurocognitive interfaces, leading researcher at the MEG Center of the Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, author of the Neural Interfaces telegram channel Sergey Shishkin.



What is "Internet of Bodies"?

The phrase "internet of bodies" (IoB) appeared in 2016. A year before that, the first Apple Watch appeared on the market, the release of which gave a great impetus to the then not so large market for "smart" watches and fitness bracelets. In a matter of months, millions of people around the world have acquired wearable devices that can track heart rate and physical activity, as well as process this data and transfer it to other devices.

"The concept of the 'Internet of Bodies' appeared by analogy with the 'Internet of Things' and became its continuation," recalls Sergey Shishkin, a leading researcher at the MEG Center of the Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, in an interview with Sobaka.ru. "At that time, people began to use more and more gadgets and medical devices that could transmit data over the network. Strictly speaking, they could be referred to as the Internet of Things, but since it was about wearable devices and the collection of data about the human condition, this new name arose."

Since the history of the IoB is only a few years old, even experts have not yet decided what exactly should be considered the Internet of Bodies. The World Economic Forum, in its 2020 report, referred to the Internet of Things as "medical devices, a variety of lifestyle and fitness devices, as well as other 'smart' consumer devices that are in close proximity to the human body, as well as an expanding range of body-attached or implantable devices."

To put it simply, in the broad sense of the word, the Internet of Bodies can include any device with access to the network that a person carries with him at all times: from a remotely adjusted pacemaker or brain chip to a smartphone and a fitness bracelet.




Why do we need all this?

Almost every presentation of Apple, Samsung, and other high-tech companies is about taking care of your health. Smartphones and smartwatches offer users optimal training regimens, promise to help normalize sleep patterns, and offer basic health diagnostics. But that's just the tip of the iceberg.

Thanks to the technologies of the Internet of bodies, doctors can receive a large amount of information regarding the main vital signs of patients, monitor how they follow their recommendations. What's more, IoB devices generate a huge amount of data that scientists need. According to the World Economic Forum, from 2012 to 2017 (that is, mostly before the explosive growth of the smartwatch market), researchers wrote more than 500 scientific papers based on information obtained from fitness devices.

Shaping the Future of the Internet of Bodies: New challenges of technology governance
BRIEFING PAPER, JULY 2020


"Even geolocation data from ordinary smartphones can provide important information about what is happening to people," explains Sergey Shishkin. "For example, at the beginning of the Covid epidemic, two American companies collected anonymized data on how large groups of people move. It turned out that the mass departure of violators of social distancing orders in early spring to resorts in Florida and back was very clearly correlated with the spread of infection. The publication of maps of the movement of potential spreaders of the coronavirus then helped to promote social distancing measures."

But healthcare and medical research aren't everything. Fitness bands and specialized devices can also be used to improve safety. They can be used to track the movements of workers in mines and quarries, monitor the level of fatigue and the speed of reaction of drivers and pilots.




What does "a world without smartphones" have to do with it?

However, according to the researchers, the promise of the Internet of Bodies is not limited to collecting big data on people's health and monitoring their condition in the workplace. At the very end of 2023, researchers at Purdue University announced the advent of the post-smartphone era in human history.
~~

This chip, an invention called Wi-R, allows the human body to become an internet connection for other devices in direct or close contact with the person’s skin. (Purdue University image/Greta Bell)



On the tip of this finger is the first brain implant concept shown to enable communication in the brain using electro-quasistatic signals. (Purdue University image/Kelsey Lefever)

~~
It will be characterized by the fact that to transfer information and control individual devices, a person will not need a gadget with a screen that needs to be carried in a pocket at all.

This will be possible thanks to a special technology that is being developed at Purdue - Wi-R. "It is possible to select electromagnetic frequencies that allow us to transmit information directly through the tissues of the human body," explains Sergey Shishkin, explaining the principle of operation of this technology. "And it's not just useful for the idea of a world without smartphones. This increases privacy when, say, a pacemaker or insulin pump is controlled wirelessly by a processor that is more conveniently positioned in another part of the body, but without Bluetooth or a Wi-Fi network where that information could potentially be intercepted. However, it seems that this is not really an Internet phone anymore, we can rather talk about itranet."

However, researchers at an American university promise to go further. According to them, in the coming decades, there will come a time when the user will not need to use a separate device to send a photo, it will be enough to touch the photo with your hand, and it will be possible to transfer data packets simply by shaking hands. Purdue is also developing technologies for controlling individual devices using the power of thought thanks to special brain chips, somewhat reminiscent of the developments of Elon Musk's company Neurolink.

In general, there is a lot of hope associated with brain chips (or brain-computer interfaces in scientific terms) regarding the future of the IoB. "For example, there is a Russian technology called Neurochat," says Sergey Shishkin, "about five years ago, there was an experiment when patients from Russia and the United States with severe speech disorders actually communicated through the exchange of thoughts."

~~

Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation
The world's first transcontinental communication session between patients with severe speech and movement disorders from Russia and the United States took place using the Russian development "Neurochat"

Published on 02 March 2018 at 20:25.
Updated on March 13, 2018 at 09:55.


With the help of a brain-computer interface, patients from the Overcoming Rehabilitation Center (Moscow, Russia) and the Center for Applied Rehabilitation Technology (CART) Rancho Los Amigos National Rehabilitation Center (California, USA) went to the Internet and communicated with each other. A Russian patient who suffered a severe craniocerebral injury in 2005 and, as a result, post-traumatic encephalopathy, diffuse axonal injury, right-sided hemiparesis and dysarthria, talked to an American patient diagnosed with cerebral palsy. Each of the patients spoke in their native language, and the system instantly translated messages into the language of the interlocutor.

This became possible thanks to a domestic development – the brain-computer interface, which, based on the registration of bioelectrical activity of the brain (EEG), translates the mental choice of a particular symbol into a real set of signs on the screen. In this way, a patient who is unable to communicate with his or her hands can type a text with the power of mental intent. It should be noted that this technology is based on the fundamental achievements of Russian scientists of the Laboratory of Neurophysiology and Neurointerfaces of the Faculty of Biology of Lomonosov Moscow State University in the field of neurophysiology and neuroinformatics.

The hardware and software complex includes a neuroheadset and a special interface implemented on the user's computer. The headset records the patient's neurophysiological parameters and converts his mental efforts into specific commands for the computer keyboard or other executive devices.

Neurochat is one of the first projects of the National Technology Initiative. A whole world of diverse communication opens up to the patient, he gets the opportunity not only to have an interesting time and get a response to his requests, but also a chance to get involved in feasible socially useful activities.

For the first time, "Neurochat" was demonstrated to the general public at the exhibition "Russia Looking to the Future" (Moscow, November, 2017), where visitors could send an SMS message with the power of mental intention.

~~

Is it really safe?

Security is one of the main issues in the development of IoB. In 2020, the World Economic Forum devoted almost half of its report to the risks of the development of the Internet and the necessary legislative regulation of it.

"In fact, the Internet of Bodies is most talked about in the context of security," Sergey Shishkin clarifies, "because even if we do not create some new technologies specifically for it, a lot of very personal information is already transmitted by phones, fitness bracelets, and other devices. Potentially, if hackers break into the data transmission channel, this can be quite sensitive. Back in 2013, when we were reviewing new brain-computer gaming technologies, we had to warn readers: A year earlier, researchers from Oxford and the University of California, Berkeley, had shown in a beautiful demonstration that hacking such an interface could even steal credit card data.

But data theft isn't all about it – if attackers gain access to medical devices, the harm could be even greater. "If we are talking about pumps for administering drugs or pacemakers, then if the control system is hacked, a person can, let's say, feel very bad," explains Sergey Shishkin.

That is why the World Economic Forum calls for investing in the security of such data, developing Internet security technologies and seriously working out information protection policies."
 
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Dear friends, very soon: May 14-16, 2024
School of Brain-Computer Interfaces at the HSE Centre for Bioelectrical Interfaces

We invite you to immerse yourself in the world of neural interfaces with the best experts in this field!

The lecture program includes lectures by leading Russian and world neuroscientists

As part of the school, you will:

✅ Try your hand at EEG and MEG data analysis
✅ Explore world-class laboratories and unique scientific equipment
✅ Experience neurostimulation techniques for yourself
✅ Explore Myographic Interfaces
✅ Learn about the use of brain-computer interfaces in neurosurgery and neurorehabilitation
You will also have a good time in a community of like-minded people and experts in the field of neural interfaces.

To enroll in the school, fill out a questionnaire and write a short motivation letter in a free form. All instructions and details are available on the link:


Spring School

Next-Generation Neural Interfaces: Methods of Bidirectional Interaction with Nervous Tissue in Real Time

About the school
The Spring International School "New Generation Neural Interfaces: Methods of Bidirectional Interaction with Nervous Tissue in Real Time" is a unique opportunity to immerse yourself in the world of advanced technologies in the field of neural interfaces. The latest techniques not only provide an opportunity for research, but also allow for active interaction with nervous tissue, opening up unique prospects in the field of medical diagnostics, therapy, neurorehabilitation, information technology, and psychology.

Our lecturers – world-class scientists, representatives of commercial companies, practicing doctors from Russia and the world – will talk about the latest scientific developments.

As part of the school, participants will have the opportunity to get acquainted with the laboratory equipment of the Center for Bioelectric Interfaces and the Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience. Learn about the possibilities of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and virtual reality (VR). Independently analyze electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) data, learn about technical solutions in the field of neural interfaces. The latest developments of the Center for Bioelectric Interfaces - the technology of passive mapping of speech zones and the technology of neurofeedback with zero delay - will also be presented.

All lectures and workshops will be held at HSE University.

The program includes 17 lectures by leading experts in the field of neural interfaces, such as Pavel Bobrov (Institute of Computer Science and Science of the Russian Academy of Sciences), Sergey Shishkin (MEG Center of the Moscow State University of Psychology and Education), Elizaveta Okorokova (The University of Chicago), Mikhail Sinkin (Sklifosovsky Research Institute of Computer Science), Yuri Danilov (The University of Wisconsin), Christoph Guger (g.tec, Austria), Alexey Osadchiy (Higher School of Economics), Alexey Sedov (Federal Research Center of Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences), Ilya Semenkov (Higher School of Economics), Alexey Voskoboynikov (HSE), Olga Sysoeva (IVNDiSP RAS) and master classes from HSE researchers.

Who we invite: students, postgraduates and researchers in the natural sciences (medicine, biology, physics, psychology, neurolinguistics) interested in neurosciences.

Students are expected to have mastery of the basics of neurophysiology. Basic knowledge of physics and mathematics is preferred, but not required.

To take the master class on machine learning in neural data analysis (15.05), you will need a laptop and basic knowledge of Python.


Center for Bioelectric Interfaces


February 26, 2024
Alexey Osadchiy spoke at the Forum of Future Technologies!


On February 13–14, Moscow hosted the second Future Technologies Forum, a key event for the presentation of advanced scientific solutions and technologies. The Forum was organized by the Roscongress Foundation with the support of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation.



Alexey Osadchiy spoke at the Forum of Future Technologies!

Technological progress has led to the creation of a whole park of technologies aimed at the treatment and rehabilitation of neurological patients. In the last decade, the technologies of neural interfaces (brain-computer interface) have acquired serious and large-scale development.

The following issues were discussed at the forum:
What neurotechnologies are the most promising in the present and near future?
What will the neural interface of the future look like?
Will it be possible to decode and transform brain activity into speech, thoughts, and feelings?

The broadcast of the session dedicated to the discussion of the image of neurotechnologies of the future, at which Alexey Osadchy spoke, can be viewed here:


14 February 2024
10:00—11:30
World Trade Center Moscow

Technological progress has led to the creation of an entire myriad of technologies that aim to treat and rehabilitate neurological patients. Today, many neuro-technologies have found applications in medicine and have begun to be successfully introduced in domestic healthcare. Thus, over the last decade mechano-therapeutic rehabilitation devices (including robotic devices) have convincingly proven their effectiveness in restoring a patient’s movement and ability to walk. Virtual reality technologies that provide partial and complete immersion in a computer-generated space have become especially popular. Neural interface technologies (brain-computer interfaces) have gained serious and large-scale development over the past decade. Which neuro-technologies are the most promising in the present and in the near future? What lies ahead for us when various neuro-technologies reach critical mass and inevitably begin to hybridize with one another? What will the neural interface of the future look like? Will we move from the correction of neuro-pathologies to the augmentation of human capabilities? Will neural interfaces connect individuals into an ‘Internet of Brains’? Will it be possible to decode and reconstruct speech, thoughts, and feelings from brain activity? Will we understand the causes of neurodegenerative diseases and learn how to treat them?

Broadcast [record WITH ENGLISH TRANSLATION]
 
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Research and Production Complex "Integral" is a modern non-profit multidisciplinary organization formed on the principle of a full-cycle engineering and technological holding. One of the main principles of the company's work is the full use of existing engineering knowledge and experience, and the system integration of proven professional resources and advanced technologies.

Research and Production Complex "Integral" originates from the brand "NPPC "Integral", which was founded in 2004 by military engineers, physical technicians from Tomsk State and Tomsk Polytechnic Universities and operates in the market of engineering services, specialized applied scientific research, development and implementation of industrial technologies, technological innovations and is a reliable business partner.

Research and Production Complex "Integral" provides non-profit professional services to state and commercial enterprises in the field of engineering, research, development, implementation of technologies and innovations for industrial, civil, defense and special purposes. The company develops and manufactures advanced control and measurement equipment for molded production technologies.

Research and Production Complex "Integral" works in the field of non-commercial development and implementation of GIS technologies in the management of industrial enterprises and urban economy. Such a diversified sphere of activity of Research and Production Company Integral is possible due to close cooperation with universities, research institutes and innovative companies of the city of Tomsk, one of the leading Russian regions in the field of technology and innovation.

Research and Production Complex "Integral" is one of the Russian non-profit engineering organizations that enjoy the trust of the Company and Customers, based on long-term and mutually beneficial cooperation, and is rightfully a dynamically developing engineering company. The range of our company's activities is constantly developing and enriching with new competencies and opportunities.




Neurochip for implantation in the brain: what it is needed for and whether it will become a common procedure for a person in the near future?

Published 12.04.2024




The entire conglomerate of scientists and developers related to the emerging industry aimed at creating and subsequently introducing into practice neural interfaces that can be implanted in the human brain is quite compact. Here, the bulk of the work is carried out on monkeys, and today there are no more than one thousand cyborg monkeys on the entire planet, into whose brains scientists have integrated certain electrodes or chips. Despite the significant advances of the industry in recent years, there are many times fewer practical experiments on the human brain – now there are no more than a few dozen people with serious brain pathologies, whose relatives have agreed to such rather exotic forms of experimental treatment.

Experiments by neurobiologists from the world's leading universities are aimed at identifying the possibilities of practical medical implantation of electrodes into the human brain to restore motor skills or sensory skills in patients suffering from neurological lesions. The areas of immediate widespread use of brain neural interfaces are the treatment of the consequences of brain injuries, strokes, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Electrodes implanted in the head, by stimulating the affected area of the brain and helping to transmit the signal, actually prosthetize the problematic brain function. Vision, hearing, speech, and motor activity are fully or partially restored.

The main current challenge for the industry remains the physical integration and survival of electrodes implanted in the brain. Today, Lebedev integrates up to 2,000 electrodes into the brains of experimental monkeys. The 3000-electrode chip presented by Elon Musk's company Neuralink this year is probably able to slightly increase the productivity of operations, but there is no revolutionary answer to the pressing question of the survival of the interface.

If the problem of chip integration and survival is reliably solved, the control of human motor activity can already be intercepted today. That is, you will sit in front of me, I will control your finger or foot from my phone, and you will not be able to resist. The same applies to the restoration of vision and hearing functions through the impact of electrodes on the corresponding areas of the brain. It's easy to imagine the "courage" button that soldiers turn on when it is advantageous for generals to turn off the fear of their subordinates if a chip is implanted in the appropriate part of the brain.

Things are much more complicated with the "smart" software of the neocortex, the neocortex where our thoughts, not reflexes, are born and stored. Reading and influencing thoughts is a matter of the distant future, although there is no doubt that this too is just software that will be described as computer code.

Of course, humanity will not limit the use of neural interfaces only to the field of medical pathologies. The number of appeals aimed at the possibility of improving certain qualities and abilities of the brain is already very high. This is reasonable because a huge number of brain functions have a well-known localization. This means that the introduction of a chip into the area of the brain responsible for visionary properties or, conversely, mathematical talents, will make it possible to effectively stimulate them through methods such as physiotherapy. Neural interfaces could already compete with pills to create a feeling of happiness, but there is still a lack of practical research in this area.

Most likely, ethics and politics will prevent the United States and Europe from competing with China in the actual provision of such market services. In the near future, neural interfaces in this "store for improving human qualities" will compete, first of all, with pharmacology, and then with the products of geneticists.

In the same way that geneticists digitally deciphered the genome, the description of the brain as a set of digital programs partially tied to the biochemistry of our body is not far off. It will take a long time for science to get to this point, but it will get there. Therefore, the time zone of reliable emigration for "natural" human talents is creativity. The transfer of creative information to the brain by means of neural interfaces is still a matter of the distant future. But from this side, humans are beginning to compete with the growing capabilities of artificial intelligence, which writes poetry and paints pictures. The most interesting thing will begin, of course, when the neural interfaces in our heads begin to interact with artificial intelligence outside of them.

Next, we want to tell you about Elon Musk's sensational chips. And also about how many monkeys managed to complete the game of Pong with the power of thought and when we will start following each other in our heads.


What are these chips and how did they appear?
In 2016, Elon Musk created the Neuralink project. The guys are developing a chip that transmits brain signals via Bluetooth. Or rather, they have already developed it. In April 2021, the world saw a macaque playing a video game thanks to such a chip, and in 2023, it was successfully implanted in humans. The implant is called "Telepathy" and can be controlled "just by thinking."

It turns out that there is a cyborg among us – a patient with an implant has opened a new level with expanded capabilities, because now he can control his prosthesis, as well as a computer or phone with the help of brain impulses.

Here's how it works: a capsule is inserted into the head, from which there are threads connected to a special area of the brain. This setup communicates via Bluetooth with devices such as a phone, computer, or tablet.




Who is Neuralink for?
The main mission is to empower people who have neurological diseases. With the help of the chip, it will be possible to control your hormones, cope with anxiety, and the brain will generally work more efficiently. And they want to make the operation itself robotic, like laser vision correction. Fairy tale!

In 2021, the company conducted experiments on a macaque and showed a video where the animal plays a video game using a chip implanted in its brain. Scientists connected Pager's monkey to a video game console. At first, he played with a joystick for a reward in the form of a banana smoothie, which was delivered through a metal straw. And then the joystick was removed and they began to send a signal to the gaming device, simulated from the data that comes from the brain through the chip.




But an even more striking example emerged as recently as March of this year, when the Neuralink team showed a man with an implanted chip playing chess on a computer. Thanks to the implant, Nolan Arbo, who was paralyzed from the shoulders down after the accident, was able to control the cursor with the power of his mind.



But the tests were going on even before Neuralink came along
It is difficult to call these two stories a revolutionary scientific discovery. After all, the very first prosthesis that interacted with the brain was a conventional hearing aid with an implant. It has been used since the 1960s and is found in many people. A hearing aid connects the neural connections between the ear and the brain, and this is how a person hears.

More complex implants began to be tested on humans in 2004. At that time, the startup BrainGate showed a system that consists of sensors connected to the brain and an external decoding device.

Here's how it worked: First, a paralyzed person gave a mental command to his arm. The arm was not yet obeying, but the sensor was reading the signal in the brain and transmitting it to the decoding device. The device then recognized the signal and routed it further. After all, the cyberprosthetic was following a man's command instead of his hand.

Experiments yielded good results, but progress in the development of the BrainGate startup slowed down due to an undeveloped business plan.



BrainGate Implant

Other analogues

Chinese scientists have developed and placed an implant of a wireless brain-computer neural interface in the human head. In simple terms, it is a system that helps information exchange between the brain and an electronic device.

It took about 10 years to create it. It was called the Neural Electronic Opportunity. And the first person to be operated on was a man with paralysis of the limbs. The surgery took place on October 24, 2023.



The First Patient with China's NEO Chip

According to the source, the neural implant helped the person regain control of his hands. The man can again move, squeeze and unclench objects with them. The only drawback is that before performing all these manipulations, you have to put on prostheses connected to the neural interface.

There are other examples of patients being implanted with neural interfaces to compensate for lost functions.


  • Spaniard Neil Harbisson has lost the ability to distinguish colors. He was implanted with a special camera that converts color into sound and sends information to the inner ear.
  • American Nathan Copeland suffered a serious spinal injury. A neurochip was implanted in him, with the help of which he learned to control an artificial arm.
  • A 53-year-old paralyzed American woman learned to control a robotic bed with the help of implants in her brain.


A 53-year-old paralyzed American woman mentally controls a robotic bed.

How soon will these technologies enter the masses?

The examples we talked about above are isolated. Such interfaces have not been put into mass production because there is a possibility that some people's tissues may reject foreign bodies.

But recently, scientists have discovered a biosynthetic material that can be implanted into the human brain to connect it with artificial intelligence. And it will not be rejected by tissues and leave visible damage. Perhaps it will be used for future “cyborgs”, but this is still speculation.

Scientists will take about 10 more years to create universal neuroimplants that will suit everyone and help restore damaged areas of the brain. But, as we see, implants that use and expand the capabilities of a healthy brain already exist. Perhaps, with their help, very soon we will control not only a computer or smartphone, but also all the devices around us.


Author: Chad AI @Chad_AI, Mikhail Lebedev, Bulat Stolyarov
Source: https://habr.com/, https://www.forbes.ru/

They missed the two most beautiful photos from Habr, where the article is titled "When will we start implanting gadgets into our brain and who needs them?"

Otto Octavius - a character from Spider-Man who controlled his limbs with his mind




***
"...
On October 16, 2014 at the office of the Russian Venture Company (RVC), an expert seminar “The Neuronet Roadmap” was held with the participation of Stephen Dunn, director of Starlab Neuroscience Research; Karen Casey, creator of the Global Mind Project; Randal A. Kuhne [Koene], CEO of the Science Foundation Carboncopies.org and the founder of NeuraLink Co.; Mikhail Lebedev, Senior Researcher An employee at the Neuroengineering Center of the Department of Neurobiology at Duke University Medical Center (M. Nicolelis Laboratory); Evgeny Kuznetsov, Deputy General Director of RVC. The seminar was conducted by the co-founders of the Russian Neuronet Group Pavel Luksha and Timur Shchukin, as well as the head of the RVC Innovation Ecosystem Development Service Georgy Gogolev.

In the RVC office hosted an expert seminar “Neuronet Roadmap”, at which the world’s leading experts in the field of neuroscience and members of the Russian Neuronet group discussed neuroscience and neurotechnology – one of the most relevant areas of research.
...
The seminar participants said that applied solutions in this area are developing at an accelerated pace. With the help of implanted electrodes, the monkey can already control two independent moving targets. New neural interfaces are just around the corner
...
The Neuronet is the next generation of the Internet, which will use neural interfaces to create new types of communication between people and machines. By linking hundreds or, in the future, even billions of intelligences into a neurocomputer network, it will be possible to achieve a synergistic effect in their joint work, since the brain has the property of plasticity. Perhaps, in the era of the Neuronet, people will finally agree on solving the world’s problems, because an environment will appear that will help overcome the usual human distortions of thinking and perception. New opportunities will open up in teamwork and improving the effectiveness of educational programs.

The roadmap for the development of the Neuronet for the period from 2014 to 2040 is shown


..
BiometriNet (pre-Neuronet) (2014-2024),
The onset of the Neuronet (2025-2035),
Full-Fledged Neuronet (2035+)
...
When Biometrinet becomes commonplace, the “Neuronet Offensive” will begin (2025-2035), during which communication protocols based on digital models of mental processes will be developed and approaches to organizing a “collective consciousness” capable of “brainstorming” and solving tasks that require the concerted efforts of many people will be found.
…..

The Neuronet Roadmap was approved by Protocol No. 1 of 02/28/2022 by absentee voting of the members of the Presidium of the Government Commission for Economic Modernization and Innovative Development of Russia.
..
 
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8.4.2024

IoB will unexpectedly arrive

What threats does the Internet of Bodies pose to humanity?

The Internet of Bodies (IoB) is a dynamic field where smart devices connect directly to clothing, accessories, and bodies. The technology can be a lifesaver for people with disabilities and significantly expand physicality, but at the same time it is not safe, experts say. Read more about IoB regulation and the prospects of this technology in RSpectr's article.

MORALITY AND ETHICS

So far, humanity has not formed moral and ethical attitudes and does not understand how to treat the Internet of bodies, said Ruslan Yusufov, founder and managing partner of MINDSMITH, at the IV Youth Digital Forum Youth RIGF 2024 held on April 5. He recalled that Elon Musk's company Neuralink has already implemented the first neural implant for a person with disabilities, and by 2030 Neuralink plans to increase the number of such operations to 22 thousand.

Ruslan Yusufov, MINDSMITH:

"This means that in 5-10 years the first cyborgs will coexist with us. How we will interact, whether we will have a civilizational split – there are still more questions than answers.

THE FUNDAMENTAL POINTS ARE THE DETERMINATION OF THE LEGAL STATUS OF IOB DEVICES

as well as the regulation of incidents that may happen to them, said Stanislav Makhortov, lawyer, Deputy Head of the Department of Special Projects and Academic Programs of the Scientific and Technical Center of the GRFC. According to him, data from such devices is subject to processing and belongs to the category of "personal".

In turn, their processing carries risks in the form of potential leaks of sensitive data, which is regulated by the current legislation on administrative offenses or the Criminal Code.

Stanislav Makhortov, GRFC:

"Parliament is considering a bill to toughen penalties for data breaches, under the provisions of which data leakage from smart devices will also fall.

An important aspect in the regulation of personal data in the context of the spread of IoB is the implementation of the right to be forgotten, the expert believes.


CYBORGS AMONG US

In connection with the rapid development of IoB in the next decade, it will be interesting to see how the digital environment will be transformed, said Andrey Golubinsky, Acting Deputy Director for Science at the Institute for Information Transmission Problems (IITS) of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

In his opinion, now these are mobile phones, laptops and other user devices, as well as badges where screens are projected, and so on. Until this technology becomes widespread, it will remain a toy of a few companies to solve a very narrow problem for people with disabilities.

Andrey Golubinsky, IITP RAS named after A. A. Kharkevich:

"Doctors are seriously thinking about what data about a person's body, for example, about his lifestyle, seriously affect the course of the disease. We need to establish a correlation between the two.

The medical resource is very expensive for the state, since it takes about 10 years to train a specialist, said Yuri Vasilyev, Director of the Scientific and Practical Clinical Center for Diagnostics and Telemedicine Technologies of the Moscow City Health Department. And this, in his opinion, is a kind of "bottleneck".

Yuriy Vasilyev, NPKC D&T DZM:

– And what if we entrust a simple X-ray screening procedure for normality or pathology to artificial intelligence? Doctors mistakenly consider about 3-4% of cases to be normal, and this is a lot. Artificial intelligence can determine this with an accuracy of up to 0.08%.

However, for the active implementation of neural networks in healthcare

A HUGE NUMBER OF LEGISLATIVE ACTS NEED TO BE CHANGED, THE EXPERT IS SURE

So, now there are a number of medical services that can only be provided by a doctor. In addition, the output is highly dependent on the quality of the data that the AI analyzes. Until now, patient data is not accumulated in a single repository, and this is the task of the state, Yuri Vasilyev believes.

Despite the fact that neural networks are confidently integrated into the system of diagnostics and medical decision-making, not all IT infrastructures are ready to support the most advanced and futuristic technologies, continued Evgenia Chistova, Head of Sustainable Development at Beeline. Also, in her opinion, it is necessary to ensure both legislative and ethical readiness of society for the perception of such technologies.

Evgeniya Chistova, Beeline:

Russia became the second country in the world to adopt a bill of rights for cyborgs.
This is a document that fixes the provisions about corporeality: about the technologies within us, about the limitations of corporeality and the possibilities of overcoming it.

So far, there are more questions than answers, the expert believes.

PEOPLE MUST REMAIN HUMAN BEINGS AND MAKE FREE DECISIONS,

regardless of whether they have built-in devices that complement the physicality or not.

The Internet of Things and the Internet of Phones are already a thing of the past, said Alexey Lukatsky, information security business consultant at Positive Technologies, at Youth RIGF 2024. So, three years ago, at one of the conferences, it was demonstrated how to remotely disengage the brakes on a car moving at a speed of more than 100 km/h, he recalled.

Alexey Lukatsky, Positive Technologies:

"For an information security specialist, the main question is not whether the devices we build into ourselves are safe, it's a myth. And how to make them a little more trustworthy, so that our future does not end in 10-15 years, if the IoB "revolts"."


Russia became the second country in the world to adopt a bill of rights for cyborgs:
7 Rights of Russian Cyborgs Formulated by Users of Medical Technical Devices

15 August 2018




Active users of medical technical devices have announced their rights, as well as outlined expectations from manufacturing companies and society. The Bill of Rights of Russian cyborgs was signed at the Geek Picnic festival in Moscow by Evgeny Smirnov, Assistant to the Deputy Mayor of Moscow for Transport, Sergey Bachu, Dmitry Koshechkin, Tatyana Demyanova, and Andrey Davidyuk, Chairman of the Board of the Cybathletics Union.

"We appealed to the users of prostheses who are actively engaged so that they formulate their appeal to society and set expectations from manufacturers," Andriy Davidyuk, the initiator of the signing of the document, explained to the editorial board of the asi.ru website. - Yes, indeed, from the point of view of Russian legislation, such a term [bill] does not exist in the legal field. The closest concept in international law is the charter."

A charter is a legal act that is not binding, but formulates the main provisions of agreements between the subjects of political and legal relations.

According to the authors of the document, its main task is to draw the attention of society and the state to people who use cyber devices and initiate a public dialogue. "The result of this interaction should be the adoption of specific changes to regulations, standards, legislative acts," Andriy Davydiuk said.



Photo: Facebook Dmitry Koshechkin, Motorika Ambassador

"All its signatories act as a guarantor of the implementation of the bill. First of all, it will be performed by the participants of "Cybathletics" and prosthetic enterprises. In the course of the discussion with the society, we plan to bring it to an optimal state and further create a legal framework for regulating relations related to cyborgs on its basis," said Dmitry Koshechkin, ambassador of Motorika.

A separate task, according to him, will be the transformation of social relations.

"It is important to understand that the acceptance of cyborgs is not a one-day task, accepting another person as he or she is is a gradual psychological task, in our case, a socio-psychological one," Dmitry Koshechkin added.


Basic rights of cyborgs
1. A person has the right to access certified cyber devices;

2. A person has the right to independently and voluntarily choose the appropriate cyber devices;

3. A person has the right to use cyber devices necessary for a comfortable life and development under any circumstances. Exceptions are situations where these devices are illegal, uncertified, or pose a danger to others;

4. A person has the right to sole possession of cyber devices integrated into his body.

5. A person has a priority right to make decisions on the intervention of third parties in his body;

6. A person has the right to equal opportunities with other candidates before and after being hired by an employer, regardless of whether they have cyber devices;

7. A person has the right to an adequate attitude of others to his cyborgization.



The document also ascribes expectations from companies and medical institutions that produce cyber devices. In particular, companies have the right to attract potential cyborgs to test new developments, disseminate marketing information about their products in medical institutions and attract cyborgs for this, develop technologies that allow cyborgs to live fully and realize themselves, and be responsible for technologies that are created and implemented in the human body.

"Manufacturers are obliged to provide full information about the factors affecting the use of cyber devices, their service life and warranty conditions, inform about the rules of operation and the consequences of using cyber devices for other purposes, use an individual approach and take into account the characteristics of the user, design cyber devices based on the best option for the user. If there are several options, leave the choice to the user," the text of the cyborg bill of rights says.

In September 2018, the Eastern Economic Forum (EEF) will discuss and detail the provisions of the bill, and in December 2018, a similar discussion will be held at the Cybathletics competition in Moscow.

For reference
Basic concepts of the bill: A cyborg is a person whose body is integrated with a medical device that expands his mental or physical capabilities or replenishes those lost as a result of injury or disease. Cyborgization is a movement that supports the development of science to improve the mental and physical capabilities of a person (the main difference from the transhumanism movement), actively introducing modern technologies to turn a person into a cyborg. A cyber device (device, gadget) is a medical device that provides a person with the opportunity to make up for the missing functions of the body, to expand its capabilities.

The Cybathletics Union co-organized the Geek Picnic program, within the framework of which it held a public talk on cybernetic solutions for people with disabilities and presented modern technical means of rehabilitation. The project "Cybathletics – Social and Technological Shift. The Era of New Heroes" is being implemented with the support of the Agency for Strategic Initiatives (ASI).
 
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Everyone wants the star of time in their newspaper.

("to address global challenges")

Aurum Kettunen



The head of the company for neural networks implanted three chips in himself

April 9, 2024

RUSSIA / TECHNOLOGIES / ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE / IMPLANTS / CHIPPING




Aurum Kettunen, the head of Neurotech, decided to prove by his own example that artificial intelligence (AI) is able to help people and lead most of their life processes in a positive way. In a conversation with Izvestia, he said that he implanted three chips in himself.


"At one point, when we were discussing further actions, the idea of microchipping appeared. The first chip contains Kettunen's business card, the second is the key to the company's office spaces, and the third is a bank implant," Kettunen said.

"We're testing some of the technology on ourselves to explore how it might develop in society in the first place," he added.

According to him, implanting a chip is the simplest procedure that takes just a few minutes. The man also noted that the procedure is absolutely safe. Even "the simplest medical personnel associated with such operations" can cope with this.

However, the technology is moving further and there is no need for several chips, the man pointed out - it is enough to optimize the technology to one, which will combine all the functionality.

"It's pretty damn convenient," Kettunen said.


Earlier, on March 13, American businessman Elon Musk said that in 2025 AI will become smarter than any person on earth, and by 2029 this technology could surpass all of humanity in intelligence.

In January, it was reported that the first person was implanted with an implant from Elon Musk's Neuralink. The device is designed to control a smartphone.





"Humanity is beginning a new chapter of its existence"

November 24, 2023

Life is changing dramatically, so it is necessary to create an infrastructure in Russia for the widespread use of new technologies, Vladimir Putin addressed the participants of the plenary session. By the way, joint efforts are already yielding results: in recent years, the economic and social sectors in Russia have expanded the use of such solutions by 1.5 times. Nevertheless, the regions are lagging behind these indicators: the head of state asked them to invest more actively in this work.

"With the introduction of artificial intelligence in science, education, healthcare, and all spheres of our lives, humanity is starting a new chapter of its existence. These, in my opinion, are absolutely obvious things," the president emphasized.




According to the head of state, the country should significantly expand the training of scientists and developers in the field of AI. To this end, Vladimir Putin instructed a number of universities on September 1, 2024 to expand enrollment in such training programs.

"We are ready to think about changing the structure of funding for science and allocate additional funds for research and development in the field of generative artificial intelligence and large language models," Vladimir Putin said.

The technological world of the future should be multipolar, Vladimir Putin stressed, so it must be built together on the basis of trust and cooperation.

But it is impossible to stop the development of this sphere, the president emphasized. "I am convinced that the future does not belong to bans on the development of technology. It is simply impossible, it is impossible to ban it," Vladimir Putin concluded.

On the same day, the President held an operational meeting with members of the Security Council. At the meeting, he proposed to discuss the activities of Russian foreign missions, as well as issues of work with the CIS.





17.4.2024

VTB is developing a metaverse for virtual communication


VTB Bank is testing a platform that will allow online events with 3D avatars.

This platform resembles a Roblox game in which users have their digital identities. You can walk around real locations, while being in front of the screen of the device, the press service of VTB reported.

Only unlike the American version, VTB's metaverse will act as a communication tool, explained Vadim Kulik, Deputy President and Chairman of the Management Board of VTB.

According to him, the user will be able to choose a 3D avatar that can move, speak, show emotions and interact with each other and other virtual objects of the metaverse.


 
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Lalas

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April 02, 2024

Are Neural Implants the Future of Our Body? Is this what we dreamed of?

Recently, news has often flashed on the Internet that scientists from different countries are making progress in creating neural implants that in the future will return the ability to move to the paralyzed, see the blind, and give a healthy person the ability to control technology with the power of thought. What is a neural implant and how soon will we live like in Cyberpunk, Ghost in the Shell, or Blade Runner?



Neural implants are electronic devices that are implanted in different areas of the brain depending on the desired effect.

It works like this: brain cells generate electrical signals associated with certain thoughts or actions (for example, the movement of the hands). Neurochips pick them up and send response impulses back to the brain or transmit them to other devices, such as prostheses, etc.

There are also robotic artificial nerves controlled by electrodes that are implanted directly into the brain. They are implanted in people who are completely paralyzed and cannot control their body. In practice, neurochips are also used, which interact with the senses, helping people with hearing and vision impairments.



Who develops and researches the new technology?

In the world of science, neural implants and chips are now one of the most popular areas. In the U.S. alone, more than 35 companies are working on technologies to connect the human brain to a computer. Similar studies are underway around the world, for example in Western Europe, Japan, China and Russia.

The approach to development depends on the specific company. For example, by using fewer electrodes than Neuralink, Blackrock Neurotech and Paradromics arrays can connect to multiple brain regions at once, and this is their undeniable advantage.

In 2016, the notorious Elon Musk founded Neuralink, a company that develops and manufactures neural implants. The main tasks of the organization are to create a device for the treatment of serious brain diseases and "improve" people. One of Elon's first works was a Telepathy chip. The device allows you to control your phone or computer (and through them any other gadget) simply with the power of thought. In May 2023, Neuralink received permission to test its technology on humans, and in January 2024, it implanted a chip in the nervous tissue of the human brain for the first time. A couple of weeks later, they reported the result: the patient controlled a computer mouse without contact, using his brain. A month later, there was news that the chipped man had managed to play chess with only the power of his mind.

The process of implantation and operation of the Neuralink N1 chip is as follows:


Implantation. The operation is performed by a robotic surgeon. It cuts a small hole in a person's skull, into which flexible strands of electrodes are inserted.

Signal detection. The electrodes of the implanted device are located next to the neurons of the brain. They read brain signals, detecting the electrical activity of neurons.

Signal transmission. The electrical activity of the neurons read by the electrodes is transmitted wirelessly to an external device, and this is the innovation of Neuralink.

Signal decoding. A computer system receives the transmitted signals and then decodes them into commands or actions.

Feedback loop. The Neuralink device reads signals from the brain, but can also transmit them back, allowing for two-way communication.




And in Beijing, a team from Tsinghua University spent 10 years developing a neural implant for wireless analysis of electrical impulses in the brain, Neural Electronic Opportunity (NEO), and tested it on a paralyzed man. He was able to independently move the prostheses, which were connected to the neural interface. The Chinese implant, unlike its main competitor Neuralink, is placed in the epidural space of the skull rather than in the nervous tissue. According to the developers, their device is potentially capable of combining human intelligence with a computer.


And what about Russia?

Sensor-Tech is developing Russia's first line of ELVIS neural implants, which are capable of influencing human sensory organs. Russian scientists have already conducted successful experiments to install a chip in the brain of a monkey, and in the coming years they plan to perform the operation on a human.

ELVIS V allows you to "connect" cameras to the brain and transmit images directly to it, without the help of your eyes. The synchronous operation of the three ELVIS components allows you to see the world around you — to confidently distinguish the silhouettes of objects and people, to understand where and what is located. The technology will be effective for blind and deaf-blind people with different diagnoses: retinal damage, optic nerve pathology or other severe visual impairments.

The Elvis C cochlear implant is designed for the inner ear. The external part of the device, the sound processor, picks up sounds and transmits them to the cochlea of the inner ear, stimulating nerve endings. This is how deaf people get electronic hearing.

ELVIS DBS will be able to help people with various severe neurological diseases: Parkinson's disease, Tourette's syndrome, chronic pain disorders. The device is implanted in the subcortical structures of the brain and connected to a neurostimulator in the patient's chest. The doctor will be able to program the device individually for everyone, setting the parameters of brain stimulation depending on the disease.



What does a person see using ELVIS V (*as a final result, the person sees this on the right)

Also, researchers from the National University of Science and Technology MISIS have developed a prototype of a neuroimplant that can help in the rehabilitation of patients with spinal cord injuries. Therapy with its help can potentially restore the motor and sensory functions of the body.

Another development is being tested by a group of scientists from St Petersburg University. The main feature of NeuroPrint neural implants is that they are printed on a 3D printer. This technology will make neural implants much more affordable: scientists expect that due to the compactness of the equipment and the speed of production, devices can be created for each patient right in the clinic. It was also possible to print soft samples similar to the outer tissue membrane of the brain: they are not as rigid as existing implants – they can be used in different cases in clinical practice.




How can neural implants harm the body?

Let's go through the list of possible problems and popular questions:

Compatibility of the implant and the living organism. When implanting neurochips, the biocompatibility of the materials used in these devices is important. If this is not observed, the person may simply die. In addition, the implantation of the chip increases the risk of infections, so strict aseptic conditions during implantation and follow-up care are necessary.

Possible disturbances in the psyche and magnetic fields. It is also necessary to take into account the effect of electromagnetic fields (especially strong ones) on the implanted devices. Moreover, it is not yet clear what effect the implants will have on the human psyche after a long time. However, it is unlikely that we will have a "cyberpsychosis".

But what about hackers? One of the most popular questions in the media. Since the technique involves the transmission of information via Bluetooth or the Internet, there is always a risk that someone will try to hack into the system and, in the case of microchipped people, get into their heads.

Termination of the implant manufacturer's work. The brain implant is there, but it is no longer maintained. And what to do?

Legal issues. Due to the fact that the phenomenon itself is new to humanity, there are no laws that could both regulate the activities of organizations that deal with neural implants and protect the rights of their patients.



So when will the golden age of cyberpunk begin?

According to researchers from different countries, in the next few years, the first operations on humans with the introduction of neural implants are only planned. Depending on their results, the approximate dates when such studies will become a full-fledged part of medicine will also be known. In the next 10 years, it is definitely not worth expecting.

However, now there are many factors that hinder the development of this promising direction: ethical issues, bans on conducting experiments on animals and humans, and a lack of funding. Obviously, the payback of such technologies is not a quick thing, and the chances of failure and hype in the media have not been canceled. All this stops investors who do not want to take such big risks."

**

In the next 10 years, it is definitely not worth expecting.
The roadmap for the development of the Neuronet for the period from 2014 to 2040

BiometriNet (pre-Neuronet) (2014-2024)
The onset of the Neuronet (2025-2035)
Full-Fledged Neuronet (2035+)


 
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The National University of Science and Technology MISIS is one of the most dynamically developing centers of science and education in Russia. The university was founded in 1918 as a faculty of the Moscow Mining Academy and in 1930 became an independent educational institution.


MISIS University is a leader in the field of new technologies and materials

5.04.2023  #sustainability #implants #scientists

From a dream to an idea, from an idea to a fulfillment, there is a long way.

Every day, MISIS University scientists work to improve the quality of people's lives, make the world around us better, and multiply our common opportunities.

Next-generation solar panels, implants for repairing damaged tissues, ways to safely transfer information, environmentally friendly production technologies, platforms for the digital transformation of the economy — all this is being developed, tested, and improved at MISIS University today as part of the implementation of the Priority 2030 federal program.

How do dreams become reality, and how do dreamers become creators? Watch in our new video!


RESEARCH AND EDUCATIONAL CENTER OF BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING
(lab 104)


The Research and Educational Center of Biomedical Engineering was established in December 2020.


The global challenge facing the REC Bioengineering is to close the gap between the need and the availability of medical supplies based on the advanced development of bioengineering and biomaterial science to improve the quality of human life.

The strategic goal is to create scientific and technological foundations for the development of biomedical engineering and biomaterial science, involving the introduction of bioengineering technologies, the integrated use of renewable raw materials and bio-waste, the expansion of the range of biomedical products and the development of new materials for medical devices with enhanced characteristics through the use of new effects and technological methods of formation at various dimensional levels of architecture, given the structural features of biological objects.

Research tasks

  • Conducting problem-oriented research and development of technologies in the fields of tissue engineering, biomaterial science, cellular and proteomic technologies, genetic engineering, bioprinting of tissues and organs.
  • Development of theoretical and engineering solutions for the creation of biomaterials and a wide range of devices for medicine.
  • Conducting fundamental research in the field of biomaterial science, bioengineering and genetic engineering, cell technologies.

Educational tasks
  • Implementation of educational programs in the field of biotechnology and medical materials.
  • Creation of educational courses on modern methods of research and development of medical devices in the field of biotechnology and medical materials.
  • Expansion of the capabilities of NUST MISIS in the most relevant fields of knowledge through research work of students, postgraduates and young scientists at the modern scientific level.

The main directions of research:
  • Tissue engineering;
  • 3D bioprinting;
  • Bioimplants;
  • Cellular and proteomic technologies;
  • Genetic engineering;
  • Biomimetics;
  • Intelligent biomaterials and devices;
  • The use of renewable raw materials and bio-waste.



 
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Lalas

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“Brain. Evolution” Documentary film. 64 / 86 min. 2019. Russia.

Director: Julia Kiseleva

Production company: studio “Risk-Film” (supported by Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation and “INEY Production”)

Abstract. Will we ever be able to understand how the brain works, cure Parkinson’s disease, offer the paralyzed people the capacity to interact with the outside world and perceive the prosthesis as their own arm? The film about brain research, where scientists conduct experiments, argue, and think not only about the practical scientific applications but also the influence of science on our views on the world, freedom and ourselves

FESTIVALS:

«Brain. Evolution» was selected to the:


1) China Dragon Awards (Conference of Science & Education Producers) Bronze Prize (China)

2) Raw Science Film Festival (USA) – Finalist

3) The International Documentary Master Doc Film Festival (USA) — Best Science Documentary

4) Nomination for EURASF Award (Best European Science Film 2019/20)

5) International Competition of the International Festival of Science Documentary Films Academia Film Olomouc (Czech Republic)

6) The «Premonition» Film Festival (Russia) — opening film of the documentary program

7) Barents Ecological Film Festival (Russia) — opening film of the festival

8) Zero Plus International Film Festival (Russia) — diploma for the festival

9) Ismailia International Film Festival (Egypt)

10) «Future. Doc» International Film Festival (Russia)

11) Long list of The Golden Eagle Award (Russia)

12) Long list of The “Laurel branch» (Russian National Award in the field of non—fiction movies and television)

13) Contemporary Science Film Festival (Russia)


14) Won Together Doc and TV Film Festival (Russia)


THE FILM STARRED


Mikhail Lebedev – Ph.D., Neurophysiologist, Academic Supervisor of the Center for Bioelectrical Interfaces at the Higher School of Economics, Professor at the First Moscow State Medical University named after I.M. Sechenov, Senior Research Fellow at the Center for Neuroengineering, Duke University (USA)

Maria Falikman – Cognitive Psychologist, Doctor of Psychology, Professor, Head of the School of Psychology at the Higher School of Economics

Vadim Nikulin – Leading Research Fellow, Max Planck Institute for Brain and Cognitive Studies (Leipzig, Germany); Leading Research Fellow at the Institute for Cognitive Neuroscience, Professor at the Higher School of Economics



Alexander Kaplan — Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor, Head of the Laboratory of Neurophysiology and Neural Interfaces, Faculty of Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University


Raul Gainetdinov – Neuropharmacologist, Director of the Institute of Translational Biomedicine, St. Petersburg State University

Alexander Frolov – Professor, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Head of the Laboratory of Mathematical Neurobiology of Learning at the Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Vasily Klyucharev — Neuroscientist, Director of the Institute for Cognitive Neuroscience at the Higher School of Economics, Professor at the Higher School of Economics

Danil Razeev – Doctor of Philosophy, Professor of St. Petersburg State University

And others.




REVIEWS

"Perhaps the biggest mystery of the brain is how a 'circuit' built from billions of neurons gives rise to our consciousness, will, and thoughts. Watch this film and you'll learn how psychologists, philosophers, neuroscientists, and creators of brain-computer interfaces are trying to solve this problem. The viewer is immersed in a kaleidoscope of scientific experiments, lectures and comments by scientists. And although modern science does not provide an answer to all questions related to the work of the brain, the viewer undoubtedly receives unforgettable impressions and new knowledge after watching this fascinating film."
- Mikhail Lebedev, Academic Supervisor of the Center for Bioelectric Interfaces, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Professor of the First Moscow State Medical University named after I. M. Sechenov



"There are very few films like this. It is in this film that the viewer can see the dialogue between the scientists themselves without any interpretation from the journalist. Disputes, disagreements between scientists who, by the way, deal with the same problem."
- Alexander Kaplan, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor, Head of the Laboratory of Neurophysiology and Neural Interfaces, Faculty of Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University



"I liked the lyricism of the film. The theme is difficult, complex, but it is so lyrically and poetically constructed that it looked from the very beginning to the end in one breath."
- Yuliana Lopatukhina, spectator












Five stories of people with implants in their heads.

2023 — honorable mention at the Germany International Film Festival (Germany)

2023 — XXVIII International Film Festival "Cinema for Children", in competition

2022 — First Place Award "For Fidelity to Science" in the category "Scientific Director of the Year" — Yulia Kiseleva for the film "The Chip Inside Me" (Russia)

2022 — finalist of the Laurel Branch National Award in the field of non-fiction film and television in the category "Best Popular Science, Educational Film" (Russia)

2022 — Audience Award at the FUNK Festival (Russia)

2022 — Grand Prix of the Russian program of the film festival "World of Knowledge" (Russia)

2022 — Jean Luc Godard Award Nomination (Kolkata, India)

2022 — official selection "Raw Science Film Festival" (USA)

2022 – official selection "Blue Star International Film Festival" (Brazil)

2022 — official selection "Man and Nature" (Russia)

2022 — Outstanding Achievement Award in the Documentary category at the Cult Critic Movie Awards (India)

2022 – Outstanding Achievement Award in the Documentary category at the Tagore International Film Festival (India)

2022 — Finalist of the Stockholm City Film Festival (Sweden)

2022 — White Unicorn International Film Festival Award in the category "Documentary Film", (India)

2022 — Opening Film of the FUTURE.DOC Festival (Russia)

2022 — opening film of the festival "Form of Life" (Russia)

2022 — the closing film of the Gagarin festival. Doc (Russia)








Against the backdrop of the growing popularity of the topic of "chipping" and people's fears of becoming controlled by artificial intelligence, the authors of the film find five dramatic stories where "a chip in the head" is a vital necessity.

Among other things, the film solves the important problem of destigmatizing cyborg people and ridding society of technophobia.




What scientific discoveries of recent decades lead to, whether it is possible to control people with the help of such technologies, and what neuroethical questions arise in connection with their use – these are the topics discussed in the film by world-class neurophysiologists: Alexander Kaplan (Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia), Mikhail Lebedev (Skoltech, Russia), Jonathan Wolpaw (National Center for Adaptive Neurotechnologies, USA) and others.

"Chip Inside Me" is produced with the financial support of the Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation.
 
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National Research Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (UNN)
Research Institute of Neurosciences


The range of tasks of the Research Institute of Neurosciences includes research in the field of studying the structures and functions of the brain, the molecular genetic basis of neuronal development, as well as the creation of artificial intelligence and the development of human-computer neural interfaces

Research Laboratory of Neurodynamics and Cognitive Technologies

ABOUT THE LABORATORY
Main research directions:


The Laboratory of Neurodynamics and Cognitive Technologies conducts interdisciplinary scientific research and experimental work to develop neural interfaces used in education, medical rehabilitation, and sports training.

The competencies of the laboratory team also include: the study of the dynamics of neural networks of the brain using models of various levels of detail of biophysical processes, mathematical methods for processing and analyzing multichannel neurophysiological data of various nature, including artificial intelligence technologies, human-machine interfaces.




Objectives of scientific research:

study of the dynamic principles of representation, transformation and processing of information in the brain, the study of the basic regularities of the observed oscillatory-wave processes and their role in the implementation of cognitive functions;
search for ways to influence the processes of intercellular signaling in the performance of cognitive functions, including with the help of transcranial magnetic stimulation;
development and testing of high-tech neural interfaces for use in personalized rehabilitation medicine.

Tasks:

– identification of functional networks in the human brain that are formed in the process of sensorimotor integration when performing tasks for motor imagination and processing of sensory information;

– development of methods for influencing the processes of formation and reconfiguration of functional neural networks in accordance with the set goal;

– development of neural interfaces for the correction of sleep disorders based on multimodal biofeedback;

– study of dynamic mechanisms of formation of pathological states of local neural populations of the brain by methods of biophysical modeling




In 2022-2023, the following main scientific results were obtained in the Laboratory:

"As a result of studies of human brain activity in the processes of processing visual stimuli and imagining movements, it was possible to identify areas of the cerebral cortex and the structure of functional neural networks involved in the performance of these cognitive tasks. It has been shown that transcranial magnetic stimulation of the identified areas can accelerate a person's response to visual commands and improve coordination of movements [1]. This discovery will make it possible to create a neural interface that includes magnetic stimulation, which will speed up the human response. Potential areas of application of the system are the compensation of slowed reaction in old age, the creation of new methods for the rehabilitation of movement disorders and the development of effective training methods for athletes. The development of such a neural interface will be carried out in 2024 at Lobachevsky University. To date, a number of preliminary studies have been carried out to formulate a hypothesis and a methodology for the implementation of the project.

A unique experimental paradigm has been developed to assess a person's response depending on the influence of various factors, including fatigue, stimulus complexity (top-down, influence), and stimulus morphology (bottom-up, influence). Within the framework of this paradigm, experiments were conducted at Lobachevsky University to record behavioral and neurophysiological data in a group of 63 volunteers. Features of stimulus processing have been discovered, taking into account which the type of stimulation will be selected at the next stage [2].

– A technique has been developed to classify brain states associated with impaired processing of a visual stimulus in real time. For these purposes, new approaches based on deep learning using a convolutional neural network have been proposed. This technique will be used in the system under development to select the optimal timings for stimulation. The developed method was published in a mathematical journal [3].

– a database of EEG, EMG and behavioral characteristics of subjects (more than 100 people) was created during the performance of cognitive tasks of imagining movements and processing sensory information before and after TMS stimulation.

– EEG-TMS neuroimaging was used to study the structure of a functional neural network when performing a cognitive task for motor imagination. An area of the prefrontal cortex involved in the functional neural network in imagining motor activity was discovered. A method of activating a functional neural network has been revealed, which makes it possible to increase the efficiency of performing a cognitive task to imaginate motor activity.

– Extreme synchronization in complex dynamic networks modeling pathological states of local neural populations of the brain has been studied.

Information on cooperation with other educational and scientific organizations and organizations of the real sector of the economy:
Pirogov National Medical and Surgical Center of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation
I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation (Sechenov University)
Volga Region Research Medical University
Samara State Medical University
Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University
Research and Production Firm MADIN
Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Center for Biomedical Technology, University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain
Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel
University College London, UK
University of Leicester, UK


GRANTS:
Grants under the direct supervision of employees:

Grant of the President of the Russian Federation for state support of young Russian scientists – candidates of sciences. MK-1940.2019.4 Study of the role of astroglia and neuron-glial interaction in neurodegenerative diseases and the aging process by methods of mathematical modeling. 2019-2020

Grant of the Russian Science Foundation "Conducting Initiative Research by Young Scientists" AGREEMENT No. 19-79-00254 Study of the dynamics of neurophysiological indicators when working in a brain interface circuit of a motor-imaginary type computer with tactile feedback for the purposes of rehabilitation medicine2019-2021

RFBR grant for fundamental scientific research carried out by young scientists – doctors or candidates of sciences in scientific organizations of the Russian Federation. Oscillatory-Wave Processes, Signal Transmission and Processing in Neuron-Astrocyte Networks No. 16-32-60145. 2016-2018

Grant of the President of the Russian Federation for state support of young Russian scientists – candidates of sciences. MK-2909.2017.4 Study of the mechanisms of intercellular signaling in neuronal-glial systems of the brain for the creation of software tools and models for testing pharmacological effects. 2017-2018

Grant of the Foundation for Assistance to Small Innovative Enterprises in the Scientific and Technical Sphere "Robotic Complex for the Rehabilitation of Patients with Musculoskeletal Disorders with a Control System Based on the Technology of the Closed-Loop Brain-Computer Interface" No. GRNTIS5/25973 2017-2018

Grants executed by the laboratory staff:
"The Influence of Neuro-Glial Interaction on Information Dynamics and Integrated Information Generation in Neural Systems", RSF No. 16-12-00077, 2016-2018. Zaikin A.A.

"Development of Theoretical and Practical Foundations of Closed-Type Brain-Computer Interfaces Based on Feedback Sensory and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for the Purposes of Rehabilitation Medicine" RSF No. 15-19-20053, 2015-2017 manager Kaplan A.Y.

"Digital Personalized Medicine for Healthy Aging (MTC): Network Analysis of Big Multiomic Data to Find New Diagnostic, Predictive and Therapeutic Targets" Megagrant Agreement No. 074-02-2018-330(1) dated May 21, 2018 Lead Scientist: Francesci Claudio 2018-2020

"System for Registration and Decoding of Bioelectrical Activity of the Human Brain and Muscles (SRD-1)", Federal Target Program 2014-2016, No. 14.581.21.0011 manager Kazantsev V.B.

"Theory of Information Processes in the Brain: Neural Network Mathematical Models of Signaling, Information Processing, Intellectual and Cognitive Functions", RSF 2014-2016, No. 14-11-00693. M. Tsodyks

"Development of a set of scientific and technical solutions for neurointegration of exoskeleton robotic devices", Federal Target Program 2014-2016, No. 14.578.21.0094 manager Kazantsev V.B.


PUBLISHING
Main significant publications:
Kurkin, S.; Gordleeva, S.; Savosenkov, A.; Grigorev, N.; Smirnov, N.; Grubov, V.V.; Udoratina, A.; Maksimenko, V.; Kazantsev, V.; Hramov, A.E. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Increases Posterior Theta Rhythm and Reduces Latency of Motor Imagery. Sensors 2023, 23, 4661



Kuc A., Maksimenko V., Savosenkov A., Grigorev N., Gordleeva S., Kazantsev V., Hramov A.E. Switching from Insight to Analytical Strategy May Explain Perceptual Bias in Favor of Certain Necker Cube Projections, Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience (2023) accepted.

A. Batmanova, A. Kuc, V. Maksimenko, A. Savosenkov, N. Grigorev, S. Gordleeva, V. Kazantsev, S. Korchagin, A. E Hramov. Predicting Perceptual Decision-Making Errors Using EEG and Machine Learning. 2022. Mathematics 10 (17), 3153

Abstract
We trained an artificial neural network (ANN) to distinguish between correct and erroneous responses in the perceptual decision-making task using 32 EEG channels. The ANN input took the form of a 2D matrix where the vertical dimension reflected the number of EEG channels and the horizontal one—to the number of time samples. We focused on distinguishing the responses before their behavioural manifestation; therefore, we utilized EEG segments preceding the behavioural response. To deal with the 2D input data, ANN included a convolutional procedure transforming a 2D matrix into the 1D feature vector. We introduced three types of convolution, including 1D convolutions along the x- and y-axes and a 2D convolution along both axes. As a result, the 1-score for erroneous responses was above 88%, which confirmed the model’s ability to predict perceptual decision-making errors using EEG. Finally, we discussed the limitations of our approach and its potential use in the brain-computer interfaces to predict and prevent human errors in critical situations.

1. Introduction
Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) have become a popular subject of scientific research in the fields of neurotechnology and neurorehabilitation. In the most common paradigm, known as active BCI, the BCIs aim at decoding brain activity into the control commands for the external devices...
..
In this manuscript, we made the first step towards the perceptual errors’ prediction in the brain-computer interfaces—we proposed a machine learning model that predicts errors from the short EEG segments on a single-trial basis.
..
Finally, we discussed the future development of error decision-making prediction in assistive BCIs.
..

5. Conclusions
..
Our approach performs a single-trial classification; therefore, it can be implemented in BCI. The further studies will test this possibility using BCI paradigm.


..
Funding
V.M. received support form the President Grant (MD-2824.2022.1.2) in part of conceptualization and methodology. A.S., N.G. and S.G. received support from the federal academic leadership program “Priority 2030” of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the RF in part of data collection. A.H. thanks the Presidential Program to Support Leading Scientific Schools of the Russian Federation (grant NSH-589.2022.1.2)."


Tsybina, Y.A., Gordleeva, S.Y., Zharinov, A.I., Hramov, A.E., Kazantsev, V.B. Toward biomorphic robotics: A review on swimming central pattern generators. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, 2022, 165, 112864.
Abstract
Neuro- and biomorphic approaches in the design of intelligent robotic systems and, more specifically, various technical applications have attracted much attention from researchers and engineers. Biomorphic robotics implies that a machine should be able to reproduce movement and control it the same way animals do in a real-world environment. Fish-like swimming robots seem to be the simplest candidates to reproduce biological mechanics of movement in aquatic medium adhering to the principles of its control and navigation. At the heart of the fish movement control system is its central pattern generator (CPG) located in the spinal cord. This CPG creates a robust rhythmic signal that activates muscles inducing movement in space, i.e. locomotion. The fish actuator system involves body muscles and fins and looks quite simple in comparison with land-walking animals. Hence, it has become the center of attention for many modeling and engineering studies that we review in this article. Many fish-like robots have been developed since rather simple CPG controllers can induce robot swimming. However, existing robotic solutions are still far from natural prototypes in terms of speed performance, power efficiency, and maneuverability. Something seems to be missing in understanding the actuator control principles and hence appropriate CPG design. A tuna fish’s cruising speed of more than a hundred kilometers per hour, and acceleration of dozens of g in pike attacking its prey remain unreachable digits for existing robotic solutions. Along with the development of bionic muscle-like actuators, state-of-art research in this field focuses on finding possible ways of CPG integration with sensorial systems and higher-level brain controllers. Needless to say, a close study of biological fish swimming in terms of its biomechanics and control still raises fundamental questions about how fishes are capable of moving so efficiently. Inertial and dense aquatic medium requires CPG to be highly integrated with sensorial receptor systems. Fish swimming is finely optimized relative to energy loss into fluid turbulence. How this control is organized remains a question. We also review some concepts on how a higher-level of movement control can be incorporated into the intelligent CPG design.



Acknowledgment
The work was funded by the Russian Science Foundation (Grant No. 21-12-00246)"



A Zhao, A Ermolaeva, E Ullner, J Kurths, S Gordleeva, A Zaikin. Noise-induced artificial intelligence. 2022. Physical Review Research 4 (4), 043069. doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevResearch.4.043069

Z Li, Y Tsybina, S Gordleeva, A Zaikin Impact of Astrocytic Coverage of Synapses on the Short-Term Memory of a Computational Neuron-Astrocyte Network. 2022. Mathematics 10 (18), 3275. doi.org/10.3390/math10183275

A. Batmanova, A. Kuc, V. Maksimenko, A. Savosenkov, N. Grigorev, S. Gordleeva, V. Kazantsev, S. Korchagin, A. E Hramov. Predicting Perceptual Decision-Making Errors Using EEG and Machine Learning. 2022. Mathematics 10 (17), 3153. doi.org/10.3390/math10173153

E.V. Pankratova, M.S. Sinitsina, S. Gordleeva, V.B. Kazantsev. Bistability and chaos emergence in spontaneous dynamics of astrocytic calcium concentration // Mathematics. 2022. 10(8), 1337. doi.org/10.3390/math10081337

S. Makovkin, E. Kozinov, M. Ivanchenko, S. Gordleeva. Controlling synchronization of gamma oscillations by astrocytic modulation in a model hippocampal neural network // Scientific Reports. 2022. 12, 6970. doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-10649-3

Y. Efremov, A. Ermolaeva, G. Vladimirov, S. Gordleeva, A. Svistunov, A. Zaikin, P. Timashev. A Mathematical Model of in vitro Hepatocellular Cholesterol and Lipoprotein Metabolism for Hyperlipidemia Therapy // PLOS ONE. 2022. 17 (6), e0264903. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0264903

Y. Tsybina, I. Kastalskiy, M. Krivonosov, A. Zaikin, V. Kazantsev, A. N Gorban, S. Gordleeva. Astrocytes mediate analogous memory in a multi-layer neuron–astrocyte network // Neural Computing and Applications. 2022. 34(11), pp. 9147–9160. doi.org/10.1007/s00521-022-06936-9

N. Grigorev, A. Savosenkov, M. Lukoyanov, A. Udoratina, N. Shusharina, A. Hramov, V. Kazantsev, S. Gordleeva. A BCI-Based Vibrotactile Neurofeedback Training Improves Motor Cortical Excitability During Motor Imagery // IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering. 2021. 29, 1583-1592





SY Gordleeva, SA Lobov, NA Grigorev, AO Savosenkov, MO Shamshin Real-time EEG–EMG human–machine interface-based control system for a lower-limb exoskeleton // IEEE Access. 2020. 8, 84070-84081.


Patents:
Tsybina Yu.A., Gordleeva S.Yu., Kazantsev V.B., Kastalsky I.A. Simulator of epileptic activity based on the effect of explosive synchronization in a multiscale spike neural network Registration number: 2022682719 Registration date: 25.11.2022
Tsybina Y.A., Gordleeva S.Yu., Kazantsev V.B. Software Complex for Modeling Astrocyte-Mediated Development of Pathologies and Aging in the Brain for Testing Pharmacological Effects Registration number: 2022682343 Registration date: 22.11.2022
Tsybina Y.A., Gordleeva S.Yu., Kazantsev V.B. Working Memory Simulator Based on a Multilayer Neuron-Astrocyte Network Registration number: 2022617606 Registration date: 25.04.2022
Tsybina Y.A., Gordleeva S.Yu., Kazantsev V.B. New Architecture of Analog Memory Based on the Neuron-Astrocyte Network of the Brain Registration number: 2022610891 Registration date: 17.01.2022


Information on cooperation with other educational and scientific organizations and organizations of the real sector of the economy:

Pirogov National Medical and Surgical Center of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation
I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation (Sechenov University)
Volga Region Research Medical University
Samara State Medical University
Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University
Research and Production Firm MADIN
Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Center for Biomedical Technology, University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain
Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel
University College London, UK
University of Leicester, UK
 
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Lalas

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In China, a paralyzed man was able to write hieroglyphs with the help of neural implants

According to experts, the device decoded signals in the patient's brain and transmitted the appropriate command to a mechanical manipulator

BEIJING, April 24, 2024. A paralyzed 76-year-old Chinese man was able to write hieroglyphs with the help of neural implants implanted in his brain. This was reported by the Zhongxinshe news portal with reference to scientists from Zhejiang University in China.

According to experts, the device decoded signals in the patient's brain and transmitted the appropriate command to a mechanical manipulator, which wrote hieroglyphs on the board. The accuracy of the neural implant's recognition of Chinese writing signs, the images of which were represented by a man in the experiment, was about 91%.

As noted in the university, such studies in the future will be able to help a significant number of patients with limited mobility. In particular, they will be able to control exoskeletons that are being developed for patients who have lost mobility with the power of their minds.

Earlier in the journal Nature Medicine, it was reported that a group of Russian and American neurophysiologists managed to restore the ability of a paralyzed man to walk by implanting electrodes in the injured part of the spinal cord.




China's Neucyber Neural Interface Allows a Monkey to Control a Robot

April 26, 2024

An implant implanted in the monkey's brain taught the animal to control the power of thought. Beijing Xinzhida Neurotechnology, the developer of the neural interface, said the technology was developed independently, that is, without any help from Western competitors, and the Neucyber chip is China's first high-performance neural interface. According to Reuters, it will be a direct competitor to Elon Musk's neural chips.

A year ago, representatives of the Ministry of Industry and Informatization of the People's Republic of China, speaking at the country's main technology forum "Zhongguancun", named the technology of neural interfaces as one of the important advanced innovations. Last Thursday, the Zhongguancun Forum reopened, and Beijing Xinzhida Neurotechnology, a company supported by the country's government, showed its development - the Neucyber neurochip.

The Neucyber chip consists of flexible microelectrodes, two "neural signal recording devices" and a "generative algorithm" to decode these signals.

Neural interfaces make it possible to detect the smallest changes in the brain's electrical signals, decoding the brain's intentions and providing control of actions with the power of thought. In other words, the technology promises to connect a person to a machine without intermediate devices in the form of buttons, levers, or voice commands. The signal goes directly from the brain to the computer. In theory, this should significantly speed up the interaction between man and machine, as well as endow people with unprecedented capabilities.

A number of Western companies are actively engaged in such developments, including the Australian Synchron, in which Gates and Bezos invested, and Neuralink, the brainchild of Musk. They are already conducting human trials. Similar developments are underway in China. Last year, a team of specialists led by scientists from Nankai University successfully implanted an implant in the brain of a monkey, with the help of which it was able to control a mechanical prosthesis. And scientists from Tsinghua University implanted a chip in a paralyzed patient who was able to control a special electronic glove. In addition, a laboratory has opened in China that deals with the creation of neural interfaces, PC Mag reports.

Recently, engineers from the United States presented their own version of the neural interface. The uniqueness of this development is in the use of machine learning technology. Thanks to it, the new, non-invasive neural interface claims to be a universal solution, that is, it does not have to be adapted to the unique features of each patient's brain.


Elon Musk met with Prime Minister Li Qiang in China

April 28, 2024

American businessman Elon Musk met with Prime Minister Li Qiang during his visit to China, local newspaper The Beijing News reported on April 28.

The Chinese premier noted that the development of the American electric car company Tesla, of which Musk is the CEO, in China can be seen as a successful example of economic and trade cooperation between the countries.

Li Qiang expressed hope that the United States and China will meet each other halfway, follow the strategic guidance of the two heads of state, and promote the steady and stable development of bilateral relations. Beijing will continue to work to expand market access and provide foreign-invested enterprises with a better business environment, he said.

In turn, the American entrepreneur drew attention to the fact that the Shanghai Tesla factory is the most efficient thanks to the hard work and wisdom of the Chinese team. The company is ready to further deepen cooperation with China and achieve mutually beneficial results, he added.



...
...And what I’m going to reveal to you today here in this analysis is that the reinstatement of Alex Jones on Twitter is no accident. And it has much larger implications than what most people imagine. Because it coincides with Elon Musk, the military, what I call deep intelligence networks, and how they are now supporting Elon Musk, and they are supporting Tucker Carlson. And they’re also preparing to put Trump back into office..
..
Now you might ask, Why then is Alex Jones reinstated on Twitter? And what does Elon Musk have to do with all of this? Well, Elon Musk is deeply involved in research projects for the military. Many experimental projects, which are exotic weapons systems, exotic launch systems, exotic optical systems, and of course, neural link systems, which is human brain interface, both surveillance and active motor control systems. The United States military knows that the future of warfare is going to very heavily involve drones and automated systems. And we’ll talk about AI coming up here in a little bit. But part of the answer here is also going to be cyborg systems…But the real aim here is to build cyborg soldiers.
..
So what does this have to do with Elon Musk, and Alex Jones and Tucker Carlson, and Donald Trump? Well, everything, it’s simple. In order for the United States to remain viable, in terms of its military projection around the world, it needs to develop more autonomous drone systems and cyborg systems. It needs to become a world leader in AI, and also neuro link implants as well as other key technologies
..
So I believe a deal has been made between the deep military intelligence networks and Elon Musk. And this deal involves the reinstatement of Trump. And Tucker Carlson was activated on Twitter in order to help bring back Trump by going full tilt at the fascist Biden regime. And the loser leftists who are losing our wars in Ukraine, and potentially in the Middle East, and certainly coming soon in Taiwan.


...
February 9, 2024
...
"Tucker Carlson: So when does the AI empire start do you think?

Vladimir Putin: (Laughing.) You are asking increasingly more complicated questions. To answer them, you need to be an expert in big numbers, big data and AI.

Mankind is currently facing many threats. Due to genetic research, it is now possible to create a superhuman, a specialized human being – a genetically engineered athlete, scientist, military man.

There are reports that Elon Musk has already had a chip implanted in the human brain in the USA.

Tucker Carlson: What do you think of that?

Vladimir Putin: Well, I think there’s no stopping Elon Musk, he will do as he sees fit. Nevertheless, you need to find some common ground with him, search for ways to persuade him. I think he’s a smart person, I truly believe he is. So you need to reach an agreement with him because this process needs to be formalized and subjected to certain rules.

Humanity has to consider what is going to happen due to the newest developments in genetics or in AI. One can make an approximate prediction of what will happen. Once mankind felt an existential threat coming from nuclear weapons, all nuclear nations began to come to terms with one another since they realized that negligent use of nuclear weaponry could drive humanity to extinction.

It is impossible to stop research in genetics or AI today, just as it was impossible to stop the use of gunpowder back in the day. But as soon as we realize that the threat comes from unbridled and uncontrolled development of AI, or genetics, or any other fields, the time will come to reach an international agreement on how to regulate these things."



“Modern Medical Technologies. The Challenge of Tomorrow: Getting the Jump on Time”

February 14, 2024

The Future Technologies Forum showcases domestic scientific progress, as well as the latest achievements and best practices in various areas. In 2024, the forum focused on progress in modern medicine, the development of new medications and innovative approaches to treating diseases.
..
* * *

President of Russia Vladimir Putin:

Good afternoon, friends,

I am happy to welcome our Russian and foreign guests – scientists, physicians, business representatives and all participants in the Future Technologies Forum. We have created this platform to discuss promising solutions that are just being born and tested now. In some cases they are even ahead of the times, but very soon they should and certainly will dramatically change people’s lives. ...



 
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Lalas

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MIPT Student Develops "Perpetual" Power Source for Pacemaker

The press service of the institute reported that glucose from the human body is used as fuel during the operation of the biofuel cell


MOSCOW, April 23, 2024. Ekaterina Vakhnitskaya, a student at the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT), has developed a power supply for heart implants that does not need to be replaced after a few years. According to the press service of MIPT, the biofuel cell works using glucose from the human body as fuel.

"A Master's student at the Kurchatov School of Physics, Plasma and Nuclear Technologies has developed an enzyme biofuel cell for implantable medical devices. The proposed model does not need to be replaced, unlike lithium-ion batteries, which need to be rotated every 5-10 years," the press service said.

An enzymatic biofuel cell (BTE), as the scientists explained, is a device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy using biological catalysts. It consists of an electrolyte, an anode, and a cathode. In this case, the formation of electrons at the anode occurs due to the oxidation of glucose contained in the body.

"The principle of operation of the element is the oxidation of fuel at the anode with the release of electrons and protons. The protons then pass through the electrolyte solution to the cathode, and the electrons pass through an external circuit to which a load is applied. After that, the electrons are transferred to the cathode, where they are used together with free protons to reduce oxygen to water," Vakhnitskaya said.

The use of BTE, according to the author, will allow many patients with pacemakers to do without battery replacement operations, since the mechanism uses glucose from the body as fuel, the concentration of which is maintained constant due to homeostasis. The electrochemical element is injected into the blood vessel in a minimally invasive way, by angioplasty, through a puncture in a vein or artery. A stent is inserted into the vessel, which, when it hits the desired place, is inflated with a special balloon.

The project "Development of an enzyme biofuel cell integrated into a stent for vascular surgery" became the winner of the "Umnik" [="Clever"] competition and received a grant in the amount of 500 thousand rubles. In the near future, Vakhnitskaya plans to conduct in vitro tests (in artificial conditions, while outside the body or natural environment).


Scientists from the United States and China have successfully implanted rat neurons into the brains of mice for the first time

The researchers were able to do this with the help of the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editor


April 25, 2024. For the first time, biologists from the United States and China have grown chimeric mice, some of the neurons in the brain of which have been replaced with their rat counterparts. The brains of rodents have successfully adapted to work with foreign nerve cells, the press service of the American Columbia University reported.

"Our observations showed that rat neurons were present in virtually all regions of the mouse brain, which was a big surprise to us. This means that there are relatively few barriers to such cell transplantation. Accordingly, we will be able to replace a large number of types of mouse neurons with their analogues from the brains of rats in this way," said Professor Christine Baldwin of Columbia University (USA), whose words are quoted by the press service of the university.

Baldwin and her colleagues made the discovery as part of an experiment to grow the world's first mice with "hybrid" brains containing nerve cells from two different but closely related rodent species. In the past, biologists have tried to grow chimeric animals whose brains contained two dissimilar sets of cells, but all these attempts have failed.

Chinese and U.S. researchers have solved this problem with the help of the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editor. It allowed the scientists to selectively remove some of the embryonic stem cells of mice by damaging the genes DKK1, HESX1 and SIX3, which are responsible for the formation of various brain tissues, and replace them with similar bodies extracted from rat embryos. This procedure allowed the future neurons to take root in the developing brains of mice and successfully replace the missing cells.

This result came as a surprise to biologists, since the brains of rats are larger and develop more slowly than the nervous system of mice. Despite this, the transplanted "blanks" of rat neurons adapted to life inside the mouse brain and accelerated their development. After the mice with hybrid brains were born, they were just as successful in performing the tasks assigned to them, including smell recognition, as the nerve cells of mice.

"At the moment, scientists are conducting experiments on transplanting stem cells and neurons into the brains of people with epilepsy and Parkinson's disease. So far, we don't have a clear idea of how successful this therapy may be. Creating model organisms with 'hybrid' brains will allow us to get an answer to this question much faster than clinical trials will allow," Baldwin concluded.

About Chimeric Organisms
Chimeras are living organisms consisting of a heterogeneous set of cells, the source of which can be different individuals of the same species of living beings, as well as representatives of different species. The first artificial chimeras were created by scientists half a century ago, and until recently they were used to study the processes of development of mammals and other representatives of the animal world.




A system for the safe connection of implants to peripheral nerves has been created

Nanodevices are thin films made of a special polymer material


LONDON, April 26, 2024. South Korean and European materials scientists and neurophysiologists have developed nanodevices that are able to envelop peripheral nerves and safely connect various implants and sensors to them. This was reported by the press service of the British University of Cambridge.

"Our devices are able to envelop the nerves on their own, which makes their implantation easier for surgeons and safer for patients. Moreover, this approach makes it possible to connect implants bypassing the brain to nerves that are difficult for surgeons to access, including bundles of nerve cells responsible for vision, hearing and pain," explained Damiano Barone, a researcher at the University of Cambridge, whose words are quoted by the press service of the university.

The nanodevices developed by Barone and his colleagues are thin films made of a special polymer material PPy-DBS, on the surface of which a large number of electrodes made of gold and organic substances are applied. This polymer is designed in such a way that when electricity is applied, its volume decreases, which allows you to control the three-dimensional shape of the film and move it in space, supplying current to specific regions of the device.

The scientists took advantage of this feature of the PPy-DBS to create thin, flexible electrodes that can twist themselves around bundles of nerve cells after these wires are injected into the patient's body. These nanodevices can be inserted near the nerve of interest to doctors or researchers using a simple syringe and then connected to the nervous system of the test subject or patient and connected to a neural implant.

According to the researchers, they have selected such application parameters and properties of PPy-DBS that allow them to control the shape of this polymer using current pulses with a voltage of several hundred millivolts. This allows doctors and biologists to connect nanodevices to nerves, as well as adjust their shape and change the location of electrodes with minimal harm to the peripheral nerve connected to them.

The scientists tested the operation of these devices in experiments on rats, in which the researchers tried to connect to the sciatic nerve of rodents. Scientists were able to insert nanodevices into the body of animals without surgery, connect to a nerve, record the signals it produces, and then remove the electrodes without harm to the animal's body. Soon, Barone and his colleagues hope, their development will make it possible to safely connect implants to people's peripheral nerves."



****

 

Lalas

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In Russia, a digital twin of a worker in production was created

It is assumed that this will help prevent industrial injuries and equipment breakdowns

MOSCOW, April 28, 2024. Specialists from ITMO National Research University have developed a system for collecting data on an employee's work in production to prevent injuries to workers and equipment breakdowns. This was reported to TASS in the press service of the Platform of the National Technology Initiative (NTI).

With the help of sensors and software based on artificial intelligence technologies, the authors developed a digital profile of a worker and a piece of equipment in production. They equipped employees' workwear and equipment with lightweight sensors and ensured the transmission of data wirelessly to the information processing center.


As Artem Simakovsky, the project leader, explained, digital twins in production make it possible to monitor work in real time, ensure the safety of employees, reduce equipment downtime, reduce the number of overdue projects, and at the same time increase the speed of current tasks. "If a person enters a potentially dangerous area at a construction site, for example, under a crane, the management and the worker himself receive an alarm notification through the sensor-receiver built into the helmet. This makes it possible to avoid accidents, injuries, as well as production stoppages and losses of millions of rubles," he said.

The uniqueness of the project lies in the decision support system based on the recommendations of artificial intelligence. Unlike analogues, the new system keeps automatic records of working hours, is easily transferred from the helmet to the equipment, and also analyzes the state of the atmosphere.

The development has been selected for participation in the project and educational intensive "Archipelago", which will be held in July on Sakhalin. Authors will have the opportunity to present their solutions to potential investors and customers, as well as development institutions.



01.09.2016
Action Plan ("Road Map") "NeuroNet" of the National Technology Initiative


The next technological revolution will be associated with neurotechnologies and a radical increase in the productivity of mental labor due to the integration of the human brain and computers. The rapid development of this direction will begin after the completion of the decoding (mapping) of the brain, by analogy with the biotechnological revolution, which started after the decoding of the human genome.

Neuronet will be the next stage in the development of the current Internet (Web 4.0), in which the interaction of participants (human-human, human-machine) will be carried out using new brain-computer interfaces, in addition to traditional methods, and the computers themselves will become neuromorphic (similar to the brain) based on hybrid digital-analog architectures. The emergence of social neural networks and full-fledged hybrid human-machine intelligence is predicted.



 
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