russia through the hidden eye 3


Nov 8, 2022
Ultra-Flexible Base for Biocompatible Flash Memory

The material is developed on the basis of polymer and oxide films

MOSCOW, March 14, 2024. Researchers from Russia have developed an ultra-flexible material based on polymer and oxide films, which is able to store information and at the same time endure a large number of bends and stretches. It can be used as a basis for smart sensors, neural implants and other devices, according to the MIPT Center for Science Communication.

"To show that the device has unprecedented mechanical properties – it can withstand repeated folding in half – we designed an entire setup. On it, we demonstrated that the flexible flash drive we created can withstand 150 thousand cycles of bending and stretching with a load of one and a half kilograms," said Anastasia Chuprik, head of the Laboratory of Advanced Data Storage Concepts at MIPT (Dolgoprudny), whose words are quoted by the Communication Center. She also stressed that scientists would not have been able to achieve such figures manually.

The basis for the development of flexible memory created by Chuprik and her colleagues is a film made of polyimide polymer material, inside which an ultra-thin layer of hafnium oxide is embedded, which also contains zirconium atoms. This material is the so-called ferroelectric (ferroelectric) - a substance in which the distribution of electrons can be controlled using electric fields.

This makes it possible to use films and crystals of such substances to create a new type of non-volatile memory, where data is stored in the form of "piles" of electrons. According to engineers and physicists, it will work as fast as modern RAM, but at the same time, information from it will not disappear when the power is turned off, which is akin to flash chips. In the case of hafnium oxide, these films can have a very low thickness, on the order of 10 nanometers.

"Hafnium oxide films exhibit ferroelectric properties when they are very thin: from 4 to 30 nanometers, and with other materials you need a thickness of more than 100 nanometers. Therefore, we expected that the material would be very flexible and would retain its ferroelectric properties under bending and various mechanical deformations," Chuprik explained.

For example, scientists have created a flexible prototype of flash memory based on a film made of polyimide and hafnium and zirconium oxides, which has a high level of biocompatibility. Subsequent tests of its operation showed that the device did not lose its ability to read and write information after 150,000 deformation cycles. This paves the way for the creation of ultra-flexible information storage systems, the researchers concluded."


"What I see now is a new Russia! Many wanted Russia to collapse and no longer be able to rise from its knees. But the Russians took it all together, got together and did what they have now! It's an incredible example of pride!" said Scott Ritter.



Nov 8, 2022
The International Scientific Forum will discuss the future of AI and the training of IT personnel

March 19, 2024

On March 21, the Plekhanov Russian University of Economics (PRUE) will host the VI International Scientific Forum "Step into the Future: Artificial Intelligence and Digital Economy", during which the future of AI and the training of IT personnel will be discussed.

The event will be attended by domestic and foreign experts in the digitalization of the economy, representatives of public authorities, the scientific community and IT companies. The forum will become one of the platforms of the national project "Data Economy", the development of which the country's government is already finalizing.

It is noted that on March 21, the participants will discuss the image of a specialist of the future, the role of the "Code of the Future" project of the federal project "Professionalitet", as well as the main results of the national program "Digital Economy of the Russian Federation" and the federal project "Personnel for the Digital Economy".

Yuri Sinodov, Director for the Development of New Media Projects at SMI2, will also speak at the forum and will make a presentation at the session "Modern Technologies in the Media Sphere and Education: Risks and Prospects".

Earlier, on February 29, Russian President Vladimir Putin said that at least 700 billion rubles will be allocated for the implementation of the national project "Data Economy" in the next six years. According to him, for the state, such technologies open up great opportunities for planning the development of the economy of individual industries, regions and cities. In particular, the country will build effective work at all levels of government around the interests of every Russian, the head of state said.

Back in September 2023, Putin instructed the government to approve a national project to form a data economy for the period up to 2030. It provides for activities in various areas of data processing. These include data collection, including the use of highly sensitive sensors based on quantum sensors, as well as the creation of an infrastructure for computing and storing data using domestic equipment and technologies.

About the Information Technology Development Fund
In accordance with Article 151 of Federal Law No. 127-FZ of August 23, 1996 "On Science and State Scientific and Technical Policy", the Government of the Russian Federation decided to establish the Russian Fund for the Development of Information Technologies in order to provide support for the development and promotion of Russian software, scientific and technical, innovative activities and the development of innovative infrastructure in the field of information and communication technologies.

The Russian Foundation for the Development of Information Technologies (RFRIT) is a non-membership unitary non-profit organization. RFRIT is a fund for the support of scientific, scientific, technical, and innovative activities, established in accordance with the Federal Law "On Science and State Scientific and Technical Policy".


A Russian system with artificial intelligence will help increase the motivation of employees


Knowledge Lab has completed the refinement of the Wortex employee engagement, productivity and motivation management system based on behavioral and physiological analytics. The solution allows you to monitor and improve the psychological climate in the team. The project was implemented with the grant support of the RFRIT.

A favorable emotional atmosphere helps you focus on your work and complete tasks in a timely manner. To track problems in the psychological state of employees, some companies conduct surveys, others use foreign solutions that collect a variety of statistics from the corporate landscape or analyze correspondence in mail and messengers for emotionally charged words.

The Knowledge Lab company offered its original approach to assessing the productivity, involvement, motivation and psychological climate in the company. With the help of artificial intelligence technologies, Wortex builds a digital twin of the team. The system then evaluates the various scenarios and determines the most effective business model that can be put into practice.

"The company was founded in 2017. We specialize in artificial intelligence, neural networks, and neurotechnologies. The portfolio of existing and already implemented projects includes B2B solutions to enhance people's intellectual activity, improve the quality of business processes, and effectively synchronize them. Products are created and implemented by our own team of psychophysiologists, functional architects, system analysts, developers, and testers using the achievements of modern science and advanced technological solutions," said Alexander Makarov, General Director of Knowledge Laboratory LLC.

The revision of Wortex was carried out with the grant support of the Russian Development Development Fund (part of the VEB.RF group) as part of the Digital Economy national project. The total cost of the project was 125.2 million rubles, the grant amount was 62.6 million rubles. Government support made it possible to completely redesign the user interface and business logic of the system, as well as bring the technological prototype to a full-fledged product ready for implementation. Thanks to the grant, the development team was strengthened by highly qualified specialists. It was possible to implement complex and voluminous functionality in just a year and a half.

"The first version of Wortex was a technological prototype. With the help of artificial intelligence, we have learned to assess the user's condition automatically, without interrupting work. We quickly realized how useful this technology could be for managing employee engagement, productivity, and motivation. But we had a long way to go from a prototype to a full-fledged product, and we had to go through it in a short time in order to have time to get into the "window of opportunity". The solution must be functional and competitive so that it can be implemented by companies in the real sector of the economy. Thanks to the RFRIT grant, we were able to expand the team and go through this path several times faster. As a result, we are ready to enter the market while it is in the phase of active growth," said Alexander Makarov, General Director of Knowledge Laboratory LLC.

To determine the level of stress, fatigue, motivation, and productivity, Wortex analyzes the employee's individual "handwriting" of work at the computer, the speed of typing, the frequency of switching between applications, and the pattern of mouse movement. The system also uses data from corporate systems, which may be unique for each organization and require an individual approach to analysis.

The key advantage of the Russian development in comparison with foreign analogues is that it not only detects problems, but also provides tools for solving them. For example, Wortex can offer biofeedback training (BFB), which is carried out using a neural interface, a device that monitors a person's condition in real time. Electroencephalography (EEG) indicators measure levels of stress, motivation, alertness, and fatigue.

A special biofeedback application helps employees learn to manage their own well-being and improve their self-regulation skills. Its regular use for relaxing workouts reduces levels of cortisol, the stress hormone, by 12%. The atmosphere in the company becomes less tense and more productive. You can monitor the dynamics of changes through Wortex dashboards.

"Employee retention is one of the main trends in HR. If a person at work is bored or under a lot of stress, and you don't notice it, you've lost them. But it is very difficult to track such changes from the outside. So, the technology that allows you to quickly respond to the mood swings of an employee is now very much needed by business," said Alexander Marlov, Ph.D., founder, technical director and one of the founders of AST JSC.

At the moment, the Wortex system is undergoing comprehensive testing. Negotiations are underway with key customers, the first sales will begin this year. Intellectual property rights have been registered with Rospatent, and an application has been filed to include Wortex in the Unified Register of Domestic Software.

The application of the developed solution in the business environment is designed to increase the productivity of employees, improve the psychological and emotional climate in teams. As a result of reduced staff turnover, retention and recruitment costs will be reduced.

The positive effect of using the product should be reflected in the growth of financial results of both the companies that are direct users of Wortex and the Russian economy as a whole.

Russian AI has learned to check the authenticity of passports of all countries in the world

Scientists of the Russian company Smart Engines have trained AI to detect forged passports of absolutely all countries and jurisdictions of the world. The anti-fraud system is able to check not only the main spread, but also all pages of documents. An AI solution with patented algorithms will help reduce fraud using forged documents and strengthen the fight against terrorism.

In total, artificial intelligence is able to check more than 500 passport templates, including passports of the European Union, the CIS, South, Central and North America, Australia and Oceania, New Zealand, the Middle East, Asia and Africa, India, China, Korea and Japan.

When training AI, the Smart Engines team used a one-shot learning approach. This means that to add a new document template, artificial intelligence does not need to be trained on a hundred examples and show all sorts of fakes. The algorithms only need one image (reference) of the document, and then they themselves will find anomalies – if present – on other samples. The algorithms and mechanisms used in the software have already been patented by Smart Engines researchers in the Russian Federation. In 2023 alone, the company received 12 patents for inventions in the field of document authentication.

"We have been working for a year and a half to finally present a system capable of checking the passports of absolutely all countries and jurisdictions for authenticity. First, with the financial support of the Foundation for Assistance to Innovations, we learned how to detect forgeries of the main ID document of a citizen of the Russian Federation – an ordinary passport, then we expanded the functionality to all CIS countries. Now AI is able to detect a dummy of any passport, whether it is a passport of Côte d'Ivoire or a passport of Liechtenstein," comments Vladimir Arlazarov, CEO of Smart Engines, Doctor of Technical Sciences.

The hardware and software complex includes Smart Engines software and a special multispectral scanner, which allows you to solve two key tasks at the same time. The system instantly extracts data from a document and checks it for authenticity and validity in three bands – optical, ultraviolet (UV), infrared (IR). The entire scanning and verification process takes only a couple of seconds.

Built-in AI checks the originality and security of the document form (protective fluorescent fibers, fluorescent ink, special printing paper, etc.), detects mechanical interference in the document itself (mechanical data corrections, plywood, and reprints, etc.). In addition, the artificial intelligence in passports with chips compares the data of the chip with the data on the document. The system also checks the "validity" of the document at a given point in time.

The Smart Engines software package can be used in banks to detect fraudsters, as well as used in the tourism and transport industries to prevent terrorist acts. In addition, the system can be installed at border points, not only increasing security, but also increasing the flow capacity.

Earlier in 2023, Smart Engines researchers presented a system that allows you to verify the authenticity of documents from all countries in the world in a digital channel. Users have access to document liveness checking, anti-photoshop (image editing), copy-paste detection, and hologram checking. The system automatically verifies the fonts used in the document. It is able to check the security elements of passports, including machine-readable MRZ zones. The project was implemented with the financial support of the Russian Foundation for the Development of Information Technologies (RFRIT, part of the VEB.RF group) as part of the Digital Economy national project.

The decision is relevant in connection with the law that allowed domestic banks to identify foreigners for opening accounts in Russia. The law, which made it easier for foreign nationals to access financial services in Russia, was passed in June last year. It gives Russian banks the right to entrust the identification of clients – foreign individuals and legal entities – to foreign banks. Thus, it is allowed to open an account or deposit in a bank without the personal presence of the client, provided that the foreign person has been identified in a foreign bank on behalf of a Russian partner bank.

They also have such a product presented with such a picture:
Anti-Photoshop – Digital Interference Detection

(Matt Damon's true identity was successfully identified. His name is Foma Kinyaev, from Moscow.)

Another news from RFRIT:
Self Made Woman: Strong Women in the World of Technology


March 7, 2024 | Moscow, Novinsky Boulevard, 31, "VEB Center"

RFRIT, VEB.RF and Eurasia.Conf invite you to an open event that combines the themes of International Women's Day, spring, beauty and technology.

Within the framework of the forum, meetings will be held with the brightest business representatives, each of whom has shown outstanding personal qualities and achieved very noticeable results in her field. For one day, the VEB Center will become a leading platform where success stories of beautiful, weak, strong women will be told, where each participant will find ideas for further development, like-minded people and partners.

The speakers of the forum are women who are successful in various spheres of life, strong in spirit, motivating and inspiring development. These are famous people who have found their favorite business and achieved success.

The program includes:
Discussion "Modern Women in the World of Technology" – discussion of issues of business, fashion, beauty industry, Russian production of goods for women, success stories from self-made woman;
Interactive congratulations from robots on March 8;
Digital exhibition.

Moderator of the discussion:
Alexander Misurkin, pilot-cosmonaut, Hero of Russia.

Intertwining innovations and elegance

Within the framework of the event, it is planned: Exhibition "Floral Metamorphoses" by Andy Warhol and other artists

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Nov 8, 2022
Ministry of Higher Education and Science of Russia

*The photo on the website of the Ministry of Education, that leads to the article:
132 applications will be examined for the grant competition for science popularizers


The Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation summed up the results of the technical examination of applications for participation in competitions for the provision of grants to the authors of popular science programs, as well as to the organizers of events that popularize science for a wide audience. A total of 141 applications were received for the competition: authors of popular science content submitted 63 projects to the competition, organizers of popular science events submitted 78 applications.

Authors or teams of authors working on the creation of television or radio programs, texts for print media and other media content were invited to participate in the first competition. The size of each grant will be up to 5 million rubles, in 2024 81 million rubles are provided for these purposes.

Organizers of science festivals and other large-scale projects dedicated to the popularization of science could take part in the second competition. The winners will receive up to 30 million rubles, the total amount of funding in this area in 2024 will be 432 million rubles.

Based on the results of the technical audit, 132 applications were admitted: 73 applications for the organization of popular science events and 59 applications for the creation of content aimed at covering science and technology issues in the priority areas of the Strategy for Scientific and Technological Development of the Russian Federation.

Projects that have passed the technical selection will be evaluated by independent experts, including scientists, popularizers of science, editors-in-chief of the media and journalists who widely cover scientific topics, representatives of government agencies, companies, universities, and research institutes.

The results of the expert evaluation of the submitted applications will be announced no later than April 1, 2024.

The grant competition is held as part of the implementation of the federal project "Popularization of Science and Technology".


TSU Scientists Have Developed a New Method for Assessing Cell Viability

The study of cell viability is included in the list of mandatory studies in the creation of new materials for implants designed to replace solid tissues. In this way, the biocompatibility of implants with the human body is assessed. Scientists from Tomsk State University have developed a method that makes it possible to determine the state of cells that are indicators of implant survival in real time."

The website "Science and Universities" tells about the development of the laboratory

The website of the national projects "Science and Universities" quotes the news of the TSU press service about the development of the TSU Laboratory of Laser Molecular Imaging and Machine Learning. In the course of the implementation of the national project "Science and Universities", scientists have created a new method for assessing the viability of cells. It will make it possible to create materials with high biocompatibility for reconstructive surgery and improve the quality of life of patients.

Scientists from Tomsk State University (TSU) have developed a new method for assessing cell viability during the implementation of the national project "Science and Universities". It will make it possible to create materials with high biocompatibility for reconstructive surgery and improve the quality of life of patients, the university said.
The study of cell viability is a mandatory study in the creation of new materials for implants designed to replace solid tissues. In this way, the biocompatibility of implants with the human body is assessed.
The main goal of the national project "Science and Universities" is to bring Russia to the top five world leaders in developments in priority areas. Conditions are being created for scientists to live and work comfortably in our country, and much attention is also paid to the popularization of science in order to attract young people to this area. A program to create a network of modern campuses has been launched. Researchers are provided with state-of-the-art equipment and infrastructure, including unique mega-science facilities and new research vessels. Universities, research institutes and businesses are invited to participate in joint projects, which makes it possible to use advanced discoveries faster and more efficiently for the benefit of the country's development. National projects have been implemented by decision of the President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin since 2019.

March 6, 2024


On March 3, the first international Games of the Future, which combined classical sports and digital disciplines, ended in Kazan. More than 2000 athletes from 107 countries, who competed in 21 phygital disciplines, took part in the tournament. The importance of the innovative tournament was noted by Russian President Vladimir Putin in his speech.

At the phygital level
The bright closing ceremony of the Games took place at the Kazan Expo IEC. Physical and digital realities have been reunited through mobile programmable screens and projections. Famous Russian artists and no less famous digital characters performed for the guests, for example, the "tired" robot dog Fijik and the digital version of Cheburashka — real and virtual stars perfectly complemented each other.

The level of interest in the first large-scale phygital competitions turned out to be even higher than expected, with broadcasts of the Games watched more than 2 billion times. At the final ceremony, several agreements were signed on further cooperation in the development of digital technologies. The next Games of Future will be held in 2025. The host country will be determined by the International Federation of Phygital Sports.

Russian Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Chernyshenko spoke at the ceremony: "Friends, we did it! The first-ever "Games of the Future" have taken place! Russia has invented and held a tournament in new sports in a format called phygital. Technological, dynamic, inspiring and very spectacular. Spectators from more than 100 countries watched the competitions at the intersection of traditional and e-sports. Thanks to the Games of the Future, Russia has once again proved its leading role in the global sports community."
The Games of the Future were held with the support of the federal project "Sport - Norm of Life" of the national project "Demography".

In Russia, a miniature inspection robotic platform "Bogomol" was shown

The device is designed to collect audio and video information in hard-to-reach and dangerous areas

MOSCOW, March 13, 2024. In Russia, for the first time, the "Bogomol" ["Mantis"] inspection robotic complex, used in the course of ensuring security at concerts, rallies and other public events, was shown. This was reported to TASS in the PIK PBA company.

The platform was presented at the exhibition "Robotics and Artificial Intelligence" in Moscow. Bogomolis is designed to collect audio and video information in hard-to-reach and dangerous areas. The dimensions of the complex allow it to move under cars, showing everything that is under the bottom. Accordingly, we see whether something is laid down there. Or, let's say, a scene. Often, given the elements of metal structures, it is almost impossible to get under the stage. However, the compactness of the robot allows it to penetrate into the most inaccessible areas," the organization noted.

The dimensions of the complex are 425 by 450 by 165 mm. The weight of the platform is 12.9 kg. The carrying capacity of the Bogomol is 15 kg. "In reality, the robot is capable of carrying a person, we have conducted such tests. It is up to the customer to decide what to transport on this platform. Our robotic complex with a load of 30-40 kg can move to any place," PIK PBA emphasized.

The organization clarified that the product has a modification with a lower carrying capacity - "Scarab". The platform is capable of moving with a payload of up to 7 kg.

The exhibition "Robotics and Artificial Intelligence" is held from 11 to 12 March.
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Nov 8, 2022
Institute of Chemistry St. Petersburg State University
Scientific group of Professor R.M. Islamova

Konstantin Deryabin and Regina Maratovna's review on self-healing silicone materials was selected for the cover of MDPI Biomimetics, DOI: 10.3390/biomimetics8030286.

Our research group, together with the Laboratory of Neuroprostheses of the Institute of Translational Biomedicine of St. Petersburg State University (Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor P.E. Musienko), has developed a new type of neural interface of the spinal cord based on nanocomposites of the composition of ferroprice-containing silicone rubbers – multiwalled carbon nanotubes. It has been established that the obtained nanocomposites have the level of elasticity, mechanical strength and electrical conductivity necessary for neuronal implants (at the level of semiconductors). Ferroprice groups in nanocomposites increase charge injection, which reduces the risk of negative effects of electrical stimulation, including damage to nerve tissue. In addition, a specific reaction of nanocomposites to neuroblastomas was found, which may be due to the anti-cancer activity of ferrocene compounds.

Learn more:
Ferrocenyl-containing silicone nanocomposites as materials for neuronal interfaces

Konstantin V. Deriabin, Sergey O. Kirichenko, Alexander V. Lopachev, Yuriy Sysoev, Pavel E. Musienko, Regina M. Islamova

• Ferrocenyl-containing silicone nanocomposites with carbon nanotubes were obtained.

• The nanocomposites are semiconductors with suitable tensile properties.

• A novel prototype of a spinal cord neural interface was created.

• The nanocomposite electrodes promote spinal cord stimulation and locomotor circuitry.

A synthetic method involving hydrosilylation reactions was developed to produce semiconductive, elastic and flexible EFSR-MWCNT nanocomposites. EFSR-MWCNT has good mechanical properties, as well as electrical conductivity comparable to that of semiconductors, all of which are necessary for application as neuronal implants. The ferrocenyl groups also increase the charge injection and “electrochemical window” for neurostimulation compared to PDMS-MWCNT that declines the risks of negative effects...

Financial support for the assessment of the mechanical and electrical properties of the synthesized ferrocenyl-containing silicone rubbers and composites was provided by the Russian Science Foundation (project № 20-19-00256). Financial support for the polymers synthesis was provided by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project № 18-33-20062 mol_a_ved). The infrastructure for the in vivo tests and analysis was provided by the St. Petersburg State University (project ID: 73025408)..
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Nov 8, 2022
NeuroChat is a Russian development of a neural interface

Kashuro L. A., Pokhodnykh S. A. "Quantorium"
Development of an intelligent system of neurointerface on the basis of the children's technopark "Quantorium" of the city of Oryol — Text : direct // Young scientist. — 2020. — № 12 (302). — S. 25-32.

With the development of the market for kit electronics, it has become quite easy for a teenage project group to produce a neural interface to control a model (for example, a model of a toy helicopter, quadcopter, etc.).

A neural interface or "brain-computer interface" (BCI) is a device that recognizes brain signals and transmits them to specialized computer programs.

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Nov 8, 2022
Moscow Aviation Institute (MAI)
Congratulations on the 94th anniversary of MAI from Rector Mikhail Poghosyan

March 20, 2024

Today Moscow Aviation Institute celebrates its 94th anniversary.

We are proud of the fact that MAI is always on the frontier of world science. Together with the industry, MAI is shaping the technologies of the future in breakthrough areas, such as mathematical modeling, unmanned aircraft systems, composite materials, space systems and IT.

On the basis of the university, large-scale projects are being implemented to develop the system of higher education and science, including a pilot project to change the levels of professional education. MAI occupies one of the leading positions among the participants of the Priority-2030 program.

Our university is not just an alma mater for 180,000 graduates, it is a big family where traditions are valued and the desire for new knowledge is supported. MAI has brought up more than one generation of engineers, designers and scientists who have made an outstanding contribution to the development of aviation, cosmonautics and world science as a whole. Our alumni are talented and multifaceted, among them there are famous writers, musicians, directors and Olympic champions.

On this day, I would like to express my gratitude to everyone who contributes to the development and prosperity of the Moscow Aviation Institute: our esteemed teachers, for their invaluable work and dedication; to our undergraduate and graduate students, for their talent, diligence and thirst for knowledge; to our graduates, who are leaders of change and continue the glorious traditions of our university.

MAI is a place where dreams come true, where the most daring ideas find support, and scientific discoveries become reality.

New achievements and victories are ahead of us!

March 20, 2024

The student design bureau "Signal" of the Moscow Aviation Institute (MAI) is developing a cyborg cockroach capable of shooting in hard-to-reach places.

The insect will be controlled by electrical impulses, the press service of the university told TASS.

"The size of the neurostimulator will be no more than 2 by 3 cm, the weight will be about 15-20 g. The device is designed for the Madagascar cockroach (one of the largest species with a size of 6 cm - TASS). By sending a signal, you can direct the insect to the right or left. We also plan to add start and stop commands. In the future, we will not only send, but also receive response signals and analyze them," said Maria Zolotenkova, a master's student at the Institute of Radio Electronics, Infocommunications and Information Security of the Moscow Aviation Institute, whose words are quoted in the message.

The nerve endings in cockroaches are located very close to the shell. Using this feature, the students placed two electrodes on the insect's shell, which are attached to a miniature control neurostimulator. The device receives signals via Bluetooth and transmits electrical impulses to electrodes, which affect the insect's nervous system, controlling its movements. If you attach a micro camera to a cockroach, you can see something that a human cameraman will not be able to capture.

"The project will help to better study the biology of the nervous activity of cockroaches, and the results of the development will be useful for companies that need filming in hard-to-reach places, for example, to check pipelines or in archaeological research," the university expects.

March 4, 2024

Brazil is interested in expanding scientific cooperation with the Russian Federation within the framework of BRICS

André João Ripple, Scientific Attaché of the country's Embassy in Russia, noted that the common challenges for the two states are the issues of environmental protection, global warming due to climate change

Official website of the TV channel "Russia-Culture"

A Russian state-owned television channel, part of VGTRK.
The TV channel is about culture in all its manifestations and aspects — on the air, viewers are presented with a wide range of programs dedicated to various areas of cultural and social life — music, painting, theater, literature, cinema, religion, science, education and many others.

March 16, 2024
The theme of the program "Agora" on March 16 is new discoveries in the field of brain research. Human brain cells don't work the way scientists used to think: the role of the so-called glial cells, which were previously perceived exclusively as service cells, has been revised. Scientists can now explain the formation of long-term memory. There has been a paradigm shift that explains the function of brain cells.

Konstantin Anokhin, Director of the Institute for Advanced Brain Studies of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pavel Balaban, Scientific Director of the Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Susanna Gordleeva, Professor of the Department of Neurotechnologies of the Moscow State University of Nizhny Novgorod, discuss what this discovery means for the study of the brain and the future of humanity. N.I. Lobachevsky, Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Alexey Osadchiy, Director of the Center for Bioelectric Interfaces, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Head of the "Neural Interfaces" Group, AIRI, Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Professor, Alexander Yakovlev, Leading Researcher of the Laboratory of Functional Biochemistry of the Nervous System of the Institute of Internal Physics and the Scientific Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Alexey Brazhe, Senior Researcher, Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, head of the group Neuron-glial dynamics, IBCh RAS, Ph.D. in Biology.
Hosted by Mikhail Shvydkoy.

❗ "Agora" March 16 at 22:00
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Nov 8, 2022
Strategic Projects/ Socio-Humanitarian Engineering: Research and Design of Man and Society


A project that is important for the whole country

Today, Yulia Antonovna Emer, Doctor of Philology, Vice-Rector for Information Policy and Digital Communications at TSU and head of the strategic project "Socio-Humanitarian Engineering: Research and Design of Man and Society", is summing up the results of its implementation in 2023.

— The project 'Socio-Humanitarian Engineering: Research and Design of Man and Society' has recently been included in the pool of strategic areas of research at TSU. Meanwhile, the outgoing year has shown that the topics dealt with by the project teams are not only interesting, but also very relevant both for the scientific and educational community and for industrial partners and business.

At the last meeting of the TSU Steering Committee this year, when discussing the intermediate results of the development of this ambitious and extremely important project, a heated discussion arose about its content. The main question that concerned those present was how the results of socio-humanitarian research can be refracted in the life of our university and come out. It is about this, as well as plans for the future, that I would like to tell you today in the "Journal of Social Gum".

The project on "social gum" is a challenge that TSU is ready to respond to

For quite a long time, academic circles have been discussing the crisis of humanitarian knowledge, which has arisen for various reasons, including the traditional opposition of this type of scientific knowledge to others, such as natural and technological. There was an opinion that the humanities had "lost its position". However, upon closer examination, it becomes obvious that most of the achievements, including technological ones, are based on humanitarian models and developments, because in one way or another, these achievements are intended for the individual and society.

The project "Socio-Humanitarian Engineering: Research and Design of Man and Society", of course, does not claim to replace all fundamental and applied research implemented in the scientific schools of our university. The point is that he has taken on the mission to talk about high humanitarian technologies that are in great demand by society and the state, which is quite natural, since the object of research in this case is a modern person in a stable multipolar hybrid world, experiencing cognitive, biological and media expansion at the same time. So, in a sense, we're focusing on exploring the "mind, body, and soul" of the new man.

Reasoning about a person in modern reality, where "anthropo" and "techno" should interact and not harm each other, leads to different versions of who this person will turn into in the future. According to Sberbank, it will be a cyborgized person. Futurologists, prognosticators, and academic researchers have their own options.

Of course, a classical university should also have such a version. In the mission and development program of our university, the following target model of a graduate was formulated: this is a person who acts above professional capabilities, constructs social reality and bears responsibility. Hence, the main task of the strategic project is to find answers to the questions about what explicit and implicit risks, opportunities, and humanitarian technologies will contribute to the formation of such a person.

Principles of the project: interdisciplinarity and cooperation

The main principles on which the project is based are the interdisciplinarity of teams as the only way to solve the problem, and cooperation with academic and industrial partners. Adherence to these principles, as well as the organization of work from fundamental to applied research, in our opinion, will lead to the creation of new high-hume technologies.

Technology in the humanities, of course, is not the same as technology in the natural sciences and engineering. However, these are also technologies, since they are alienable and allow us to achieve the designated goal: to create, literally "build" a new person, working with his values, beliefs, expectations, and views. With his worldview and, if you like, a picture of the world. After all, it is at the university, I repeat, that a person becomes a person, and not just a professional.

The strategic project "Socio-Humanitarian Engineering: Research and Design of Man and Society" consists of fifteen projects. They are completely different, but all of them solve the main tasks in the chain of "fundamental – applied – technological research":

describe the value in a person;

describe a person's cognitive expansion;

to describe the biological (bodily) expansion of a person.

There are areas that came to us back in Project 5-100. For example, a strong project by Zoya Ivanovna Rezanova, Professor and Scientific Supervisor of the Laboratory for Cognitive Studies of Language, with a mega-grant and a school built from the very beginning on interdisciplinary foundations. There are very young projects that joined the "sotsgum" literally in September of this year in response to the challenges posed to us by modern reality. For example, the project of Artem Viktorovich Feshchenko, who is engaged in research on the attitude of teachers and students to the possibilities and limitations of the use of artificial intelligence in education.

The "social gum" project must be very mobile, as the situation is changing rapidly. The answers that everyone expects from him will be, on the one hand, fundamental and time-tested, and on the other hand, they will make it possible to "keep your finger on the pulse".

Results of Two Years: Number and Content

In each of the areas of the project — value-based, cognitive, and biological — today there are already groundwork, solutions and achievements.

The first thing I would like to draw your attention to, speaking about the results in general, is that interdisciplinary projects involve not only humanities students, who, by the way, are constantly building up their competencies in such areas as big data and neuroresearch. Secondly, 75% of the project participants are young people. In the context of the shortage of young personnel in Russian higher education, this in itself is very significant. From the point of view of the project's objectives, we are convinced that something truly new can be created, first of all, by young researchers. Although, of course, under the guidance of experienced mentors.

Following the initially developed strategy, over the two years of the project's implementation, we received seven grants from the Russian Science Foundation and four state assignments! This is objective evidence that the topics we discuss and study are in demand, and they arouse real interest.

More than sixty events of various levels were held. In the last month and a half alone, the Forum of University Sociology and Public Opinion Research, which brought together employees of sociological centers from 42 leading universities and 22 regions of Russia, students and young scientists; the Language, Culture, Technological Transits Congress, which brought together leading researchers from Russia and Asia: philologists, philosophers, linguists, psychologists, lawyers, specialists in the field of IT and educational technologies, artificial intelligence, cognitive and neurosciences; Yet another conference on Education-2023, a joint online conference with Yandex IV on the use of innovative IT technologies in the field of education; a round table for digital vice-rectors as part of the anniversary Open Data Forum, which was attended by representatives of the capital and regional universities.

We always try to participate in dialogues with our academic partners – the Academy of Sciences, researchers from other universities, as well as in dialogues with industrial partners. After all, all topics of research interest to us are of concern and interest to business.

It can be said that in 2023, the focus of the strata project as a whole was primarily on the worldview foundations of the modern student. Here, a team of representatives of different projects included in the strategic project has done a lot of work. Its most tangible and visible result was the dashboard nashitseniya.rf, which allows you to see the value orientations of Russian students. To make such a product, it was first necessary to conduct a huge research work with the participation of linguists, historians, philosophers and sociologists. Their task was to identify linguistic markers, which later made it possible to adjust search algorithms. In addition to linguistic markers, it was necessary to find answers to very complex questions, which many philosophers and scholars in the humanities had been searching for for decades. For example, what is value? How is this value changing? What types of values exist and on what grounds can we identify them? After formulating the basics of the study and identifying linguomarkers, a large number of texts that needed initial "manual" cleaning and markup were downloaded from the network content arrays. And only after that did we get what became the "visible part of the iceberg".

By the way, the created dashboard sets new research tasks for us, since the interpretation of the results obtained requires subsequent humanitarian reflection. For example, it has been found that the Internet has been flooded with an official-bureaucratic language or style. Representatives of various official institutions, municipalities and administrations speak and write in a language that is fundamentally different from the language in which worldviews within society and communities are discussed. Hence, an important research problem arises: to identify these differences, to determine possible options for improving the effectiveness of communication between, let's say, the state and "living people." The possible practical results of such studies are also quite clear: recommendations for the development of programs of additional professional education for representatives of government agencies.

Significant results have been achieved by our historians who have studied public consciousness with the help of big data analysis. They will help to identify the constructs perceived by the public consciousness so that it is then possible to explain and predict the reaction of society to a particular event. The colleagues received a grant from the Russian Science Foundation and will continue to verify the results using neurotechnologies.

A remarkable result of the project was the opening of three online master's programs in partnership with Skillfactory, Yandex.Practicum, and Sber's Edutoria Academy. These are not subsidized programs, they showed a good enrollment in paid training, which confirmed the interest in them from the target audience.

Another important area of the project is holding interdisciplinary open seminars for TSU staff and students. This format of professional communication allows you to expand the horizons of your research interests, look at topical problems from the point of view of various sciences, feel part of a large academic community, and, finally, integrate into the very interdisciplinary teams of TSU strategic projects. The 2023 series of seminars was united by such a topical topic as national security in its various aspects, including social and humanitarian.

For example, at this year's last seminar, Professor Natalia Trubnikova touched upon the topic of human security in her lecture "Memory Studies in Russia and the World: Historical Memory of Social Media Users in the Mirror of Big Data".

Value orientation is the basis of the new man of the future

The problem of value and semantic orientation is one of the most important today, because it is impossible to achieve the goal of "creating a new person" without relying on the fundamental foundations for the formation of this person's picture of the world. Our scientists are working on the value component together with colleagues from the Federal Center of the Russian State University for the Humanities, the Neurotrend company and other partners. And this is a fundamental point, because very often we, as researchers, go into the depths, immersing ourselves in the discussion of research issues, distracting ourselves from the result that our partners expect from us. And here, from the very beginning, everyone harmoniously complemented each other, working for a common final product — a matrix of educational means for the formation of value systems. It turned out to be a kind of guide to action, explaining how to work with events, how to form the images of heroes, how to use semiotic principles when creating a network and information and communication space as a whole (online and offline) in order to form new meanings and, as a result, the value potential of the personality of a person in modern society.

Now this "guide to action" is being drawn up in order to appear in the format of a methodological manual. It can be used when planning the value component of the campus of the Big University of Tomsk. The need to create a so-called "value campus" is felt today more than ever. All coworking spaces require not just a new design, but also a visualization of the semantic core of communities. For example, an esports club is a community that should promote not only the value of the game as a way to spend time, but also the value of communication, teamwork, and determination. Soon we will have the Neuro space, and it, among other things, should convey the value of a person and his choice as such.

The university is the place where a student's personality is formed. It seems to us that the focus of 2024 should be primarily aimed at the cognitive component of this complex process: the mechanisms and technologies for creating, preserving, and transferring knowledge are important; authorship of meaning and value; search for an answer to the question "What should be an educational result?" For example, one of the projects of Sotsgum is dedicated to the metacognitive skills of teaching a foreign language. Everyone is now saying that soon there will be no need to learn the language, online translators will be able to translate any format of speech from any language in a matter of seconds. What, then, will be the educational result of teaching foreign languages? Certainly not the skill of speaking or understanding. Perhaps the result will be the mastered technology of self-learning complex things and the ability, leaving the comfort zone, to "grow" the competencies that are needed in a particular situation.

The topic that was indispensable for any discussion within the framework of the strategic project was artificial intelligence and the combination of humans and AI. What will we come to in the near future? Will it be "human plus artificial intelligence" or "artificial intelligence and human"? To what extent and in what role should artificial intelligence be present in education? It is clear that it is already being used. But does it contribute to the development of critical thinking, for example, or, on the contrary, harm?

Many questions arise about corporeality, external and internal expansion of a person. And it's not just a matter of being in a certain physiological state through the use and implantation of digital devices or being in an online environment. It is necessary to look for answers to the sea of philosophical questions about how ready a person is in principle to change his corporeality. All these questions are addressed specifically to the "sotsgum".

The Future of the Project: We See Obstacles, but We Are Moving Towards the Goal

Of course, we also face problems. For example, we would like the number of published articles in the first and second quartiles to be much higher. Of course, they exist, but it has always been more difficult for scientists in the humanities, especially those who use interdisciplinary "optics", to publish in prestigious scientific journals than for natural scientists and representatives of technical sciences. In such cases, it is not easy for works to find "their" journal. Often, specialized publications simply do not have experts who are able to evaluate the work, which, of course, no one will admit. We are rejected because of the affiliation of the authors, and in this regard, nothing changes and, most likely, will not change in the foreseeable future.

In the near future, we plan to write a collective monograph on the intermediate results of the strategic project. We are also thinking about issuing analytical reports, because it is important to acquaint both colleagues and the general public with research results and show the current vectors of interdisciplinary research. Another task is to create a platform, a virtual club with the function of an expert platform for discussing the developments and problems outlined above.

A qualitative leap in our work will consist in solving specific problems that arise in modern man. Again, this can only be done in close discussion between representatives of different disciplines, the public and in interaction with partners. The results will be applied in educational activities, in educational work with young people; with different faculties and institutions within TSU in various fields: from campus to digital policy, where there are also a number of orders.

Our interdisciplinary strategic project is a significant case not only for our university, but also for the entire Russian social university. It shows an example of how such projects can take shape and develop.

Important Observation:

Focusing on research within the framework of human value, cognitive and biological extension, this project has proven to generate both additional results and concrete products. Among these, for example, is a research platform that allows you to save the researcher's efforts by generating literature reviews on the topic of his work. So far, this is a pilot that is being tested within our project.

Summing up, I can say with confidence: the project "Socio-Humanitarian Engineering: Research and Design of Man and Society" gained a good "mass and speed" in 2023, providing relevant scientific and practical results. Thus, the prerequisites have been created for solving the main ambitious task: the development of interdisciplinary scientific foundations and the necessary high humanitarian technologies for meaning-oriented and value-filled education of a person who will live, work and create the future in a sustainable multipolar world, where he, a person, will not become an "appendage" of artificial intelligence, but will be able to use technology for the benefit of society.
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On March 3, a press conference was held at the Press Center of the World Youth Festival 2024, at which the start of accepting applications for the National Award in the field of future technologies 'VYZOV" ["CHALLENGE"] was announced. The mission of the Prize is to form a clear motivation and aspiration of representatives of the new generation to connect their lives with science and technology in our country.

"Our goal is to make scientific discoveries and scientists symbols of success in modern Russia. Scientific awards are designed to reward the best scientists for their most daring ideas that can radically change the life of modern society and business. The uniqueness of our award lies in the fact that we not only reward our laureates, but also promote them as opinion leaders and public figures. We consider it important that they receive not only professional recognition, but also be media and recognizable persons," said Leonid Shlyakhover, President of the Challenge Foundation for the Development of Scientific and Cultural Relations.

In 2024, the Award will go international. A decision was made to establish the "Discovery" nomination. Scientists from any country in the world, both foreign citizens and Russians who live and work outside of Russia, can apply for this nomination. The appearance of the international nomination of the Prize demonstrates Russia's openness to dialogue in the field of scientific and technological cooperation, and also confirms that there are no borders for science. The previous four nominations will also remain: "Perspective" – for a scientific achievement that influenced the dynamics of the development of future technologies (awarded to scientists under 35 years old); "Scientist of the Year" – for personal contribution to the creation of future technologies and changing the landscape of science; "Engineering Solution" – for an invention that made it possible to significantly advance a particular technology; "Breakthrough" – for scientific research that paved the way for the creation of future technologies."


Russia is a country whose scientific discoveries will forever remain on the pages of world history. There are still many outstanding people in our science today, many truly great discoveries. How did we know this?

We established a prize in the field of future technologies, announced a call for applications and received an incredible response - many talented people are right now engaged in research in Russia that will change the future. We have assembled a scientific committee of the most authoritative scientists in the country, who took the liberty of choosing those ideas that could become the basis for a breakthrough.

Our goal is to become the leading expert community in the field of future technologies, which will unite science, society, and investors in order to find technologies that have great potential to become breakthrough products and provide Russia with technological leadership.
Among our tasks is the popularization of scientific achievements. Every discovery has a face, a name, and we want to reveal these names to society. We want to show society that scientists are the real heroes of our time. This is the path to which it is worth striving for, in which it is worth looking for self-realization, where young people should go.

In many ways, this is a challenge. That's why we chose this name.

Leonid Shlyakhover


On December 19, in Moscow, at the Manege Central Exhibition Hall, the first ceremony of awarding the National Award in the field of future technologies "VYZOV" ["CHALLENGE"] took place. The laureates are outstanding modern scientists who have achieved breakthrough success in the field of future technologies. The President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin greeted the participants, organizers and guests of the solemn ceremony.

"Today we are honoring the first winners of this award – talented, enthusiastic people endowed with great creative potential – brave enthusiasts and innovators. Their outstanding achievements have become a real breakthrough in the development of priority areas of Russian science and engineering, a vivid example of selfless service to the chosen cause," Vladimir Putin said.

The President of Russia stressed that "in recent times, in the context of global changes, large-scale renewal of all sectors of the economy, agriculture, the social sphere, infrastructure, and public administration, it is extremely important that promising discoveries and developments of Russian scientists, researchers, and designers are put into practice as soon as possible, contribute to strengthening our technological sovereignty, ensuring the security of the state, and improving the quality of life of citizens".

Vladimir Putin also congratulated the Prize winners and wished them success and the implementation of their plans.

The CHALLENGE Future Technology Award was first announced in July 2023 as part of the Future Technologies Forum organized by the Roscongress Foundation. Within the framework of the Forum, at a closed meeting with scientists, the idea of the Prize was presented to the President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin. Following the results of the Forum, the President instructed to establish an award for outstanding scientific discoveries and achievements in the field of future technologies (PR-1743 dated September 3, 2023).

The National Award in the field of future technologies "CHALLENGE" is timed to coincide with the Decade of Science and Technology announced in 2022 and is designed to celebrate breakthrough ideas and inventions that are changing the landscape of modern science and the life of every person. The mission of the Prize is to form the desire of the younger generation to connect their lives with science and technology in our country. The Prize was founded by the Challenge Foundation for the Development of Scientific and Cultural Relations together with Gazprombank with the support of the Moscow Government and the Roscongress Foundation. The General Partner of the Award is Rosatom State Corporation."

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For our purposes, the notion of "future technology" encompasses science-intensive projects that can be implemented within three to ten years to significantly improve people's lives. Achievements to be acknowledged by this Prize are bound to shape the future and benefit various aspects of human life, such as health, communications, logistics, energy, etc.


The Prize aspires to encourage the new generation to pursue science and technology.

The Prize aims to make scientists and their discoveries a symbol of success in modern-day Russia and create conditions for the practical implementation of future technologies.


We humans start cognizing the world as soon as we are born.

As we cognize the world, we start asking questions.

Failing to find sufficient answers, we decide to change the world.

Obviously, we should not look up to science, hoping it will answer age-old questions like "What am I living for?" Many mysteries of human life have, in fact, nothing to do with science and technology. And still, a scientist's journey begins with a question.

At the turn of the millennium, the brightest minds of humanity thought it was crucial to find answers to the following questions:

– What is the dark matter and dark energy of the universe?

– What is the physical nature of memory?

– How are the thinking process and the human brain organized?

– Can a "theory of everything" be devised?

– Will we ever run out of energy?

– Can natural intelligence and artificial intelligence be combined?

– Can we decipher the genetic code?

– How can we build a quantum computer?

Scientists continue to ask questions that will only be answered in the future. Their discoveries gradually bring all humanity closer to the coveted heights, opening new horizons before them. But is the public status and authority of the scientists strong enough in today's world? It is time for us to reflect. Throughout the twentieth century, resonating from its greatest historical upheavals, the world started rethinking the role of science and debated the public status of scientists. The most significant role in this process for many decades has been played by the first among scientific awards, the illustrious Nobel Prize, established in 1901.

Obviously, a significant discovery, let alone a real breakthrough, is not made with prestigious prizes in mind. Science is hard work spanning many years, filled with successes and disappointments, sudden enlightenments and years of wandering in the dark. As the great Max Weber admitted, "Every scientific 'fulfillment' raises new 'questions'... [and we] will be surpassed scientifically – let that be repeated – for it is our common fate and, more, our common goal... We cannot work without hoping that others will advance further than we have."

But no matter how inspired a scientist may be by the unachievable radiance of pure reason, public recognition is essential to both the development of their own unique career and the technological progress of all humanity. Let us cast a nostalgic glance back to our recent Soviet past – the early sixties: Gagarin is the first human in space; “physics is in favor", young people are flooding university admission offices inspired by charismatic Wits & Humor team captains; everyone's favorite movie characters are four-eyed nerds and nuclear physicists, scientists of world renown host popular TV shows.

Their challenge to the soon-to-be-over era was, “Being smart is in vogue!”

Our challenge is the VYZOV Prize for Future Technologies.
We challenge the established paradigm of the national science and socio-cultural space:

• It is the first national Prize designed to recognize fundamental breakthroughs, ideas, and inventions that change the landscape of modern science and the life of every single person.

• The Scientific Committee of the Prize, consisting of top Russian scientists of international renown, has developed impartial criteria and a transparent procedure for selecting the winners, ensuring the high credibility and prestige of the Prize.

• The Prize timely identifies and recognizes the contribution of scientists, inventors, and engineers to the most advanced technology, emphasizing Russia's commitment to being at the forefront of global technological innovation.

• The Prize is given out in five categories covering the full range of future technologies. A significant money prize will be awarded in each of the categories.

• The Prize ceremony will bring together top scientists, artists, politicians, and athletes, creating a community of future technology ambassadors.

As the eminent Soviet philosopher Merab Mamardashvili said, “Never be afraid of going too far because the truth is still farther.”

Face the challenge
for farther means into the future.
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December 20, 2023

The "Scientist of the Year" according to the Scientific Committee of the CHALLENGE Award was the Director of the Institute of Translational Biomedicine of St. Petersburg State University, Ph.D. Raul Gainetdinov. The laureate works in the field of experimental pharmacology of brain diseases. His research paves the way for new approaches to drug treatment of diseases such as schizophrenia, depression, Parkinson's disease, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children (ADHD).

St. Petersburg State University

About the Institute
Main areas of activity

Creation of a network of research groups from various disciplines focused on the problems of translational biomedicine.

Fundamental research aimed at studying the pathological processes of human diseases, identifying new ways of treating and diagnosing these diseases.

Educational activities aimed at training specialists in this field at St Petersburg University.

Purpose of the work

The rapid development of such a new discipline as translational biomedicine, which aims to improve the state of personal health and the health of society as a whole by "translating" the results of interdisciplinary research into diagnostic tools, treatment procedures, medical policy and education, is one of the most important trends in modern biomedicine and public health research. In essence, translational medicine brings together diverse medical and non-medical disciplines, especially the fields of biomedical research, focusing on interprofessional interactions (e.g., between researchers and clinicians) by introducing new technologies and data analysis tools to translate new approaches into the clinic.

History of Creation
In December 2014, St Petersburg University won the competition for grants in the priority area of the RSF's activities "Implementation of Integrated Scientific Programmes of Organizations" for the development of translational biomedicine at St Petersburg University.

In February 2015, the Institute of Translational Biomedicine of St Petersburg University was established, which was headed by Raul Radikovich Gainetdinov on April 1, 2015.

The Institute of Translational Biomedicine includes:

Laboratory of Neurobiology and Molecular Pharmacology
The head of the laboratory is Gainetdinov Raul Radikovich

The Laboratory of Neurobiology and Molecular Pharmacology, established in 2014 and headed by R.R. Gainetdinov, is a structural unit of the Institute of Translational Biomedicine of St. Petersburg State University, established in 2015 (Director – R.R. Gainetdinov). The laboratory's activities are aimed at studying the neurochemical basis of human behavior and diseases and developing new pharmacological agents for the treatment of mental and neurodegenerative diseases.
An important area of our laboratory's work is devoted to the creation of an original collection of genetically modified lines of laboratory animals for use as the most adequate experimental models of human diseases in animals. The search for new TAARs ligands in cell cultures, as well as the unique possibility of using transgenic models in vivo, provides an effective opportunity to study the role of these receptors in the regulation of the most complex forms of mammalian behavior. Detailed studies are carried out on these mutant animals using molecular, biochemical, physiological and other approaches that make it possible to identify the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of these diseases and thereby identify new targets for the development of innovative pharmacological agents.

At the moment, 8 breeds of mice and 4 breeds of rats have been identified and maintained in the laboratory of R.R. Gainetdinov: conventional C57Bl6 mice, CBA mice, Wistar rats and transgenic models: DAT-KO rats, TPH2-KO rats, TAAR9-KO rats, DAT-KO mouse, TAAR1-KO mouse, TAAR2-KO mouse, TAAR5-KO mouse, TAAR6-KO mouse, TAAR8-KO mouse.

Laboratory of Biological Psychiatry

The Laboratory of Biological Psychiatry specializes in the study of pathologies of the central nervous system, especially affective disorders and addiction, as well as the study of the psychopharmacological effects of classical and new psychoactive substances. Particular attention is paid to modeling and bioscreening using a new model organism – zebrafish (Danio rerio). The laboratory is the leading laboratory in Russia for the use of this organism in neurobiological research. One of the main models used by the laboratory is the zebrafish chronic unpredictable stress model, which contributes to the development of an anxiety-depressive phenotype in these fish. On this model organism, the laboratory tested many psychoactive substances, as well as studied the specifics of the development of a number of brain diseases. The main methods used are behavioral, pharmacological and molecular (genomic) studies.

Synapse Biology Laboratory

The research of the Laboratory of Synapse Biology is aimed at identifying molecular mechanisms in synaptic junctions involved in pathological processes in neurodegenerative diseases and at searching for therapeutic approaches and drugs to restore the functions of nerve cells. Our research uses genetic, molecular-biological, physiological, morphological and other cellular technologies. Transgenic animals, isolated animal brain preparations, cell cultures, and synthesized proteins and lipids are used as model systems.
The laboratory's research is supported by: RSF grant 21-15-00227, St Petersburg University funds grant No. 76118589 and an international scientific programme within the framework of a cooperation agreement between St Petersburg University and the Karolinska Medical Institute (Sweden)

Amyloid Biology Laboratory
In the works with the participation and under the guidance of Professor Y.O. Chernov, started at the Laboratory of Physiological Genetics of St. Petersburg State University and continued in Japan and the USA, it was first shown...

Figure 2. Intracellular Localization of Human Protein Aggregates in Yeast Cells
Objectives and main directions of research

The main goal of the research at the Laboratory of Amyloid Biology of St Petersburg University is to decipher the mechanisms of formation and reproduction of the biological effects of amyloid in living systems, and to apply this knowledge to the development of methods for the prevention and therapy of human amyloid diseases. As part of this goal, the laboratory conducts research in the following areas.

These studies use or will use yeast genetics, biochemistry and laboratory diagnostics (including in vivo and in vitro protein aggregation analysis), fluorescence and electron microscopy, mammalian cell culture work, genomic sequencing, and bioinformatics.

Inter-laboratory collaboration

Center for Nanobiology of the Macromolecular Assembly Disorders, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, USA

University of Montpellier, France

Center for Algorithmic Biotechnology
(no connection )

Centre for Computational Biology

Centre for Computational Biology is a multi-disciplinary lab providing broad expertise in analytical, algorithmic and infrastructure solutions for computational biology, translational bioinformatics and agrigenomics. Areas of research interest are immunooncology, genome stability and integrity, transposable elements biology, as well as population and medical genetics. We are also engaged in several crop genetics initiatives to achieve high-accuracy marker-assisted selection and delineate mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions. As large-scale data management is essential for experimental science, we design big data and analytics ecosystems to support and drive biomedical research and agrigenomics studies to the next level.

Large-scale data management is essential for experimental science. We design big data and analytics ecosystems to drive and support biomedical research to the next level.

Translational Medicine

Our goal is to establish a comprehensive measure of genomic integrity in order to elucidate complex interrelationships between genomic architecture, genome maintenance mechanisms and phenotypic traits. Last but not least, we will work towards development of clinical guidelines and industry-grade standards for application of genome integrity metrics in diagnostics, prognostics and treatment selection.


We aim to develop analytical and computational approaches to search for neoantigens through the integration of high-throughput molecular data and clinical cohorts. Identification of a wider array of tumour neoepitopes will contribute to a more complete understanding of the tumour immune landscape and to the development of personalized cancer vaccines.

Center for Transgenesis and Genome Editing

As part of the development programme of the Institute of Translational Medicine of St Petersburg University, the Centre for Transgenesis and Genome Editing (CTWC) was opened in 2020. The infrastructure of the CTTRG provides an opportunity to carry out advanced genetic research in accordance with international standards.

On the basis of the CTGC, under the leadership of the director of the center Leonova E.I., research is carried out on various CRISP/Cas systems used in genome editing, the creation of test systems and the visualization of gene expression. The center implements the entire cycle of work with CRISP/Cas technology, from the production and isolation of recombinant Cas nucleases to the production of genetically modified mice.

The center's employees have developed and successfully implemented a technique for fluorescence assessment of the efficiency of substrate cleavage, and optimized methods for selecting guide RNAs. Along with highly specific technologies, the center uses a wide range of modern molecular biological methods and biotechnological techniques. Active work is underway to create new lines of mice necessary for modeling various human diseases. Modern techniques for cryopreservation of gametes and embryos at different stages of development are used to quickly reproduce genetically modified lines as they are needed.

The center is equipped with all the necessary specialized devices for zygote isolation, microinjections and work with embryos, including IVF workstations and Nikon Eclipse Ti2 inverted microscopes with a system of micromanipulators and microinjectors.

On the basis of the center, under the guidance of leading staff, the implementation of the thesis by students of St Petersburg University was organized. It is also planned to launch network education in cooperation with NTU Sirius and to carry out a thesis at two sites.

Main areas of research and development:

Production of recombinant Cas nucleases, testing of their specificity and fluorescence assessment of collateral activity

Development of new genotyping methods based on CRISPR/Cas systems

Creation of animals that simulate human diseases using CRISPR/Cas systems that make targeted changes to the genome

Improvement of vitrification techniques for cryopreservation of embryos at an early stage of development and rederivation for the development of a line from frozen embryos

Laboratory of Neuroprostheses

Research interests:

In recent decades, significant progress has been made in the study of the structure and function of the neural networks of the spinal cord and brain. Modern bioengineering technologies have been developed for artificial control of CNS functions in pathology. Past studies (Gerasimenko et al. 2008; Courtine et al. 2009; Musienko et al. (2009, 2011, 2012) set specific tasks to optimize neuroprosthetics algorithms, create models of neuromotor diseases for in-vivo testing, elucidate the mechanisms and effects of effects on the nervous system, as well as translate ready-made treatment methods into clinical practice. Work at the Laboratory of Neuroprostheses is devoted to these tasks.

Current areas of work and research interests

Study of the Structural and Functional Organization of Neural Networks of the Spinal Cord Controlling Locomotor Activity

The project is devoted to the study of the structural and functional organization of neural networks of the spinal cord that launch and control locomotor programs. What allows us to move accurately in space? How is the subtle integration between sensory information from the locomotor system and patterns of muscle activity (sensorimotor integration) carried out? How is there a connection between motion control programs and signals from internal organs (visceromotor integration)? An integrated approach that combines neuromorphological and neurophysiological methods will help answer these questions. The analysis of the distribution patterns of sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons in the gray matter of the spinal cord, as well as their further superposition in 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional models, make it possible to elucidate the structural organization of spinal integrative networks. And neurophysiological methods of multicellular registration of neuronal activity during locomotion – to answer the question about their operation during different acts of locomotion.

Dopaminergic control of postural and locomotor functions
Monoamines play a critical role in the overall regulation of human and animal behavior by altering the reactivity of neural networks, in particular those that provide movement and posture maintenance (Simon N. Jacob et al. 2018). We use transgenic animals with dopamine transporter knockout (DAT-KO) to study the spinal and supraspinal mechanisms of motor activity control in both hyper- and hypodopamine conditions. It has been shown that the absence of DAT in DAT-KO animals leads to a 7-fold increase in extracellular dopamine concentration (Leo et al., 2018), and blockade of dopamine synthesis leads to its complete absence in the neuron and synaptic cleft, which makes it possible to model a severe degree of Parkinsonism.

The Role of Trace Amine Receptors in the Control of Sensorimotor Functions
Trace amines (TAs) are structurally close to classical monoamines, but their functions are still poorly understood: TAAR-KO mice with a knockout of the gene encoding the trace amine receptor is a convenient model for studying their effect on neuronal networks. We use a wide range of different behavioural tests for rats and mice, including locomotor behaviour analyses in locomotor tests such as walking on a treadmill or treadmill, climbing stairs (which require precision and coherence in many systems), swimming (immersion and gravitational relief conditions), and electrophysiological techniques that provide a comprehensive study of movement and other sensorimotor functions.

Development and Production of Biocompatible Electrically Conductive Composites for Medical Purposes Based on Carbon Nanomaterials
The project is dedicated to the development of electrically conductive and biocompatible composites designed to create electrodes for neuronal implants. Carbon materials, silicone, and conductive polymers are used as the basis for the production of composites. In the course of the project, the methodology for obtaining composites of various compositions should be worked out, their mechanical, electrical and biological properties should be tested, and optimal formulations for the manufacture of biocompatible electrically conductive composites for medical purposes should be found.

Development and Production of Nanostructured Silicone Surfaces to Create a Biocompatible Matrix of Neuronal Implants
The project is dedicated to the production of biocompatible nanostructured surfaces from silicone and its composites, designed to create a matrix of neuronal implants. In the course of the project, methods for obtaining nanostructured surfaces by X-ray, ion-beam and electron lithography should be worked out, mechanical and biological properties of the resulting surfaces should be tested, and optimal morphological parameters of nanostructuring should be identified, at which silicone surfaces are distinguished by a high level of biological compatibility with nerve tissues.

Analog and digital circuitry, programming of microcontrollers and interfaces (C++, Matlab) for experimental data collection and development of analysis methods (including automation of data processing)

- Development of a method for processing myographic signals to assess and quantify the complex pattern of limb muscle activity during locomotor movements and posture maintenance

- Study of the spatial distribution of conductive pathways in a biological object on the example of interference stimulation and surface stimulation

- Isolation of neuronal activity from signals of multichannel registration of extracellular potentials under conditions of instability of electrode matrix positioning

- Miniature energy-efficient circuitry solutions for electrical stimulation modules for implantable devices

- Miniature energy-efficient circuitry solutions for biopotential signal recording and radio transmission modules for implantable devices

- Mechanized system of spatial orientation of the treadmill of the neurophysiological installation (height, roll and pitch angles)

- Mechanized optical microscope stage for high-resolution detailed digitization system

- Experimental Setup for Automated Endurance Testing of Implantable Elastic Electrode Arrays

- Coordinate extruder of gel-like conductive compounds for prototyping elastic electrode arrays

- Energy-efficient interfaces and data transfer protocols for a wearable network of sensors on the example of the implementation of an inertial kinematic system

- A program interface (C++, MatLab) for the implementation of a neurophysiological experiment, which provides synchronous data collection from a variety of different sources


1. "Neuronal implant" priority for patent dated 15.05.2020, issued on 07.09.2021, No. 2020116844

2. "Method for obtaining neuronal implants" priority for patent dated 09.03.2021, issued on 11.10.2021, No. 2021106033"


December 19, 2023

I would like to emphasise that in recent times, in the context of global changes, large-scale renewal of all sectors of the economy, agriculture, the social sphere, infrastructure and public administration, it is extremely important that promising discoveries and developments of Russian scientists, researchers and designers are implemented in practice as soon as possible, boosting our technological sovereignty, ensuring state security, and improving people’s quality of life.
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Nov 8, 2022
March 19, 2024

St Petersburg University Scientists Become Heroes of the Photo Exhibition of Winners of Prestigious Awards in the Field of Science and Culture

Four scientists from St Petersburg University took part in the photo project 'Physicists and Lyricists', which was presented as part of the World Youth Festival in Sochi. Now everyone can get acquainted with it in an online format.

The photo exhibition is timed to coincide with the Decade of Science and Technology, announced in 2022, and is designed to celebrate breakthrough ideas and inventions that are changing the landscape of modern science. Its heroes are the winners of the largest awards in the field of science and art, such as the Prize of the President of the Russian Federation in the field of science and innovation for young scientists, the Golden Mask National Theater Award, the Prize of the Government of the Russian Federation in the field of culture, and others.

In total, 20 outstanding scientists and artists of our time were selected to participate in the project. Raul Gainetdinov, Director of the Institute of Translational Biomedicine of St Petersburg University, winner of the Challenge National Award in the field of future technologies, and Valentin Ananikov, Professor of St Petersburg University and Head of the Laboratory of the Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, winner of the Sber Science Prize, were recognized as stars of the world of science. Laureates of the Presidential Prize in the field of science and innovation for young scientists, professors of St Petersburg University Irina Timofeyeva and Olga Yakubovich, also took part in the photo project.

Life is a canvas. Science and art are different colors. Both are needed to make a masterpiece.
- Director of the Institute of Translational Biomedicine, St. Petersburg University Raul Gainetdinov

Next to each picture there are quotes from scientists and artists about the relationship between science and culture. "We show the heroes of the project not in a working atmosphere, but in a solemn atmosphere. To emphasize: these people are the pride of the country, those whom you want and need to look up to," the creators of the exhibition noted. They are sure that scientists should be as popular and famous as actors, directors, and musicians.

The exhibition was organized by the Vyzov/Challenge Foundation for the Development of Scientific and Cultural Relations, whose activities are aimed at forming an expert community in the field of science and technology, as well as developing international scientific communications.

(with Eng subs)

Susanna Gordleeva
"There is beauty and grace in science.
If you can see it, your research
will be a work of art

(with Eng subs)

Vladimir Putin signed Executive Order On Awarding the 2023 Presidential Prize in Science and Innovation for Young Scientists

February 7, 2024
Susanna Gordleeva, Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Professor of the Lobachevsky National Research University of Nizhny Novgorod, for the development of models and technologies of neuromorphic artificial intelligence based on biophysical neuron-astrocyte network models for memristive electronics;
Nauka.rf is the official website of the Decade of Science and Technology in Russia. The site contains basic information about the main news, initiatives, projects and events of the Decade of Science and Technology.

(*The pictures on the main page, about the article "DIGITAL EVOLUTION: HOW SCIENTISTS CREATE NEUROMORPHIC SYSTEMS":

March 5, 2024
Artificial intelligence technologies have become almost commonplace. Neural networks help diagnose diseases, become business consultants, and automate workflows. But there are tasks that algorithms are not yet able to do. For example, to completely reproduce the work of the human brain. Such developments at the intersection of biophysics, mathematics and biology are considered to be among the most promising in the world.

Susanna Gordleeva, professor at Lobachevsky University (Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod), winner of the 2023 Presidential Prize in Science and Innovation for Young Scientists, told how scientists are trying to teach a neural network to "think" intelligently and what robots can borrow from nature.
— In what areas can such a neural network be used?

Susanna Gordleeva:

In fact, in any place where information processing is needed. But one of the promising tasks, perhaps, is the creation of neural implants or neural interfaces. Such systems record brain activity. Therefore, it is necessary that information processing should be carried out with the help of systems adapted to biological mechanisms.

St. Petersburg State University
19 Mar at 14:05
Scientists #SPbGU have created a mathematical model for forecasting epidemics:

They modified a previously created methodology that helped predict an increase in the incidence of COVID-19. Now it can be used for any epidemics.

After the first month of follow-up, the model predicts the number of active cases in the next three to four weeks with high accuracy.

The development can be useful for planning the activities of health systems during virus epidemics, both new and previously known.

"300 Years St. Petersburg State University" writes in the lower left corner

March 18, 2024

St Petersburg University Scientists Have Created a Mathematical Model for Forecasting Epidemics
Mathematicians at St Petersburg University have modified a previously created model for forecasting the growth of the incidence of COVID-19, now it can be used to make forecasts of any epidemics. After the first month of follow-up, the model predicts the number of active cases in the next three to four weeks with high accuracy.

In 2021–2022, a team of scientists from the Centre for Dynamics Processes and Systems Analytics at St Petersburg University developed a new approach to the study of dynamic inflow and outflow systems with stochastic parameters and a new methodology for predicting the dynamics of such systems. Mathematicians at the University used this model to predict the spread of new viruses using the COVID-19 pandemic as an example. Thus, scientists were able to identify new peaks in the incidence of the disease and key indicators. The development is based on the hypothesis of the natural nature of the influence of numerous factors on the dynamics of these processes. Therefore, mathematicians at St Petersburg University used a dynamic game against nature as a mathematical model for making decisions about making forecasts. It turned out that the dynamics of the spread of new viruses, as well as the dynamics of population growth in individual countries or the entire planet, can be described using the CIR model with stochastic, i.e. random, parameters.

The possibility of using the developed methodology in practice has been tested in the course of numerous computational experiments to construct retrospective forecasts of the dynamics of statistical data on these processes.

"We have found that the basic stochastic parameters of dynamic inflow and outflow systems can have quite predictable dynamics, which can be detected and described by analyzing the dynamics of existing data. For example, for the COVID-19 pandemic, the data on the percentage increase in the number of cases of the first wave made it possible to significantly reduce uncertainty in the further development of the epidemic and predict further rises and declines in the incidence. Given the natural biological nature of viruses, it can be assumed that the property of predictability of the stochastic parameters introduced in the CIR model can be applied to all new viruses and mutations," said Viktor Zakharov, Scientific Supervisor of the Center for Dynamics Processes and Systems Analytics, Professor of St Petersburg University (Department of Mathematical Modeling of Energy Systems).

Thus, the University's scientists, based on the current analysis of data and the constructed dynamic trends of the percentage increase in the percentage of new cases of the disease and the completion of the disease, can predict the current number of active cases of the disease with a high degree of accuracy in real time over a forecasting horizon of three to four weeks. Such forecasts can become a methodological basis for planning the activities of regional health systems during virus epidemics, both new and previously known.

The results of the application of the developed methodology for predicting the dynamics of active cases of COVID-19 in St. Petersburg and Moscow were presented in the plenary report of the Scientific Supervisor of the Center for Dynamics Processes and Systems Analytics, Professor of St Petersburg University Viktor Zakharov at the international scientific and practical conference "Human Capital: Education, Work, Employment in Modern Society", dedicated to the 300th anniversary of the University.

March 16, 2024
Visitors to the St Petersburg University Exhibition Will Be Able to See All the Dinosaurs of Russia

"Russia is inexhaustible in its talents, and our land is rich, as it turned out, not only in resources, but also in dinosaurs. In its jubilee year of the 300th anniversary, the University, with the help of partners, presents the exhibition "Dinosaurs on the Map of Russia"
"There is enough work for everyone. This year alone, three new species of Russian dinosaurs will be described."

Photographs of © St. Petersburg State University
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Nov 8, 2022
March 19, 2024

President of Russia Vladimir Putin: Mr Bortnikov, comrades,
I am asking the Federal Security Service, together with other special services and law enforcement agencies, to step up their counter-terrorist efforts in all areas in a meaningful way with the National Anti-Terrorism Committee playing its coordinating role. We must understand that we are dealing with a formidable and dangerous adversary who has a wide range of informational, technical, and financial tools up its sleeve. Make no mistake, we know what they are capable of in all these areas, including in terms of intelligence gathering, and we are aware of the terrorist methods they use too. Suffice to mention the bombing of the Nord Stream pipelines in the Baltic Sea. They would resort to anything.
This includes neutralising reconnaissance and sabotage efforts by the Western special services, protecting strategic confidential information, including data stored in the state and military administration systems, as well as information on advanced technologies and solutions for the military and other sectors we are currently working on. The adversary sees that we have it all and that there is a lot of positive momentum. It is obvious that they are targeting us in this context too.

To be continued."

Putin reads my thread and reacts.

I advise him to be careful with veiled threats, because if he repeats himself once more, I am ready to come to extreme measures by reporting him to the VC (the button is right under my nose).

*Besides, all my windows are nailed.
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Nov 8, 2022
Russian Academy of Sciences

Brain activity when looking at a glowing LED allows you to identify a person's identity

March 19, 2024

Department of Energy, Mechanical Engineering, Mechanics and Control Processes

Source of the article: "Scientific Russia"

When a person looks at a lit LED, there is electrical activity in their brain. This is a sustained visual evoked potential (VEVP): the human brain generates electrical signals in the occipital region responsible for visual associations, which can be picked up using an electroencephalogram. The detected waves are unique for each person and depend on his psychophysiological state: this was proved in an experiment by scientists of the V.A. Trapeznikov Institute of Control Sciences of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Based on original neural networks, they created classification models that determine a person's personality and psychophysiological state based on brain activity. In fact, this is the foundation for biometric security systems based on new principles.

The practical application of knowledge about the brain in the context of the developments of ICS RAS scientists was mentioned in the article "Flying by the Power of Thought: Welcome to Neuropilots". It describes an experiment in which the operator controls the copter by stimulating the alpha and beta rhythms of the brain, in other words, focusing on the task and relaxing. At the same time, in a conversation, the author of the development, Daniyar Aleksandrovich Volf, spoke about satellite research: collecting information about the work of the brain, the scientist formulated a hypothesis that the waves registered by sensors are unique for each person. This means that they can be used as biometric markers to identify a person — a kind of "brain fingerprints" in the form of a display of their activity.

The results obtained are the result of the joint work of the two research groups. Data on the brain's response to visual stimulation were obtained at the Laboratory of Medical Cybernetics of Voronezh State University. Researchers from the V.A. Trapeznikov Institute of Applied Sciences of the Russian Academy of Sciences, with the financial support of the Russian Science Foundation, conducted research based on these data, confirming the hypothesis of the uniqueness of the detected waves, and trained neural networks to classify them.

Briefly about the results
In the formation of OVVP, the brain creates waves unique to each person, which can be recorded using an electroencephalogram and used as individual identification characteristics and their condition. This was experimentally proved by D.A. Wolf. In the future, the research will help develop methods for recognizing a person by signs that cannot (at least not yet) be faked.

Daniyar Aleksandrovich Wolf

D.A. Wolf: "Two years ago, I put forward a hypothesis: is it possible to find out from the brain signal from which zone it was taken? Yes, you can. Recently, my article was published in Springer magazine. Then the question arose: Do these signals differ from person to person, and can they be used as biometric markers? The main features of biometrics are known – fingerprints, iris or retina recognition. We have confirmed the possibility of identifying a person by the frequency dynamics of brain waves, that is, it has become possible to determine to whom exactly certain thoughts belonged. It is possible to deceive an iris or fingerprint scanner today, but it is much more difficult to fake a way of thinking. This will limit a person to work on a specific device and in different conditions."

For the identification of people and the analysis of the received electroencephalogram signals, artificial neural networks AlexNet and Mobile Net 2 were used, trained using frequency-time characteristics. The created classification models are able to identify a person with an accuracy of up to 70%. In the paper, the author emphasizes that the 70% probability of identification can be increased by additional adjustment of the neural network architecture with the addition of various mathematical blocks. However, within the framework of the task, it was important not to achieve absolute accuracy, but to show that EEG data are truly unique, and neural networks are able to distinguish them.

The essence of the experiment
The experiment was conducted in 2023 and involved 30 people aged 17 to 23, both men and women. Be sure to have normal vision, no neurological or psychiatric diseases, and no drug users – this is important for the purity of the experiment.

During photostimulation, electroencephalogram data of participants in leads O1, O2, OZ, P3, P4 and PZ were recorded at certain frequencies. The obtained data were grouped by the frequencies of photostimulation and by the groups of leads for each participant. The scientists used the dynamics of frequency change on a time scale as features for training neural networks and subsequent classification. With the help of the short-term Fourier transform, sets of spectrograms were obtained for each participant of the experiment, which were analyzed using neural networks.

To put it simply: the EEG data of each subject were presented in the form of images of the frequency spectrum (spectrograms), the differences in which were sought by artificial neural networks.

D.A. Wolf: "To find the differences, we used the architectures of artificial neural networks AlexNet and MobileNet 2. First of all, they work efficiently with images. Secondly, we intentionally used popular and accessible neural network architectures so that the experiment could be repeated by other scientists and confirm the hypothesis. In my scientific paper, I fully described the steps of the study, indicated which neural networks I used and where I got them."

In the process of training neural networks, it turned out that AlexNet learns faster than MobileNet: 300 epochs versus 600. However, this does not affect the final result, and as a result, neural networks show almost the same accuracy of recognizing a person and his psycho-emotional state by EEG.

Institute of Management Problems

In February of this year, Elon Musk said that the first patient with the implanted Neuralink chip had fully recovered and was learning to use new features — for example, to move the cursor of a computer mouse just by thinking about it. Creating the ability to control devices without physical interaction is one of the priority tasks of science. And the promising areas of application of brain-computer interfaces are enormous: from improving comfort in everyday life and entertainment to partial restoration of lost organs and prosthetics. This is an opportunity to develop cognitive functions, such as concentration and attention, rehabilitation after strokes, control of exoskeletons or wheelchairs.

D.A. Wolf draws attention to the fact that, in addition to controlling systems and devices using neural interfaces, it is important to teach a computer to identify people by signals of brain activity, as well as to determine their state. This will make it possible to limit the actions of a person who is in a state of affect, as well as to prevent another person from performing certain functions.

D.A. Wolf: "The development of technology makes it possible to study new biometric parameters that can be more reliable in terms of user spoofing and the actions of intruders. The use of means of identification goes far beyond the usual security systems of ten years ago. Today, biometric human recognition technologies are being actively implemented and continue to be strengthened in smart city systems, crime prevention and crime detection, medical manipulations, multi-factor systems for providing access to closed data and premises, etc.

Systems for determining personality by brain activity may be important for industries interested in non-traditional methods of identification. For example, it is financial security. Or they can be used instead of ignition keys in cars – the system will be able to recognize the owner on its own."

A new way of identifying a particular person simultaneously opens up the possibility of a broader classification: man to woman, old man to child, sober to drunk. But each study requires separate data collection and analysis. Such binary classification problems are a possible future continuation of research. But even at the current stage of development, the methods of Russian scientists in the field of interpretation and classification of brain activity signals using neural networks are among the most advanced in the world.

D.A. Wolf: "Sooner or later, Elon Musk's Neuralink or their Australian competitor Synchron will come to the same thing – identifying a person by brain activity. And they will loudly declare it to the whole world. That's why it's so important that we're talking about our research today."


All children will be brought to "My School"

The data of all students in the country will be collected into a single IT system

The Ministry of Digital Development has begun work on consolidating student data in the regions into the federal system "My School". In particular, passport data or birth certificates of students, identifiers of parents and teachers (document numbers and dates of birth) should be transferred there.
Kommersant got acquainted with the draft order of the Ministry of Digital Development on the information exchange between the federal state information system "My School" and regional educational institutions, posted on the portal of legal acts on March 13. Among the goals in the document is the formation of "digital portfolios" of students in schools, colleges and organizations of additional education.

According to the project, for the information interaction of the systems, the constituent entities of the Russian Federation will have to create "data marts" that will ensure the collection and processing of information from regional systems.

For example, we are talking about the details of the student's birth certificate or passport, SNILS and account identifiers in the Unified Identification and Authentication System (ESIA). The document states that the data of parents or legal representatives of the child and teachers of educational institutions should be open to the "My School" system.

January 9, 2024
St Petersburg University to Develop a Strong AI Platform for the Internet of Things for High-Tech Industries

With the support of the Government of the Russian Federation, six scientific and educational organizations were selected to receive state support for the development of industry research centers in the field of artificial intelligence. St Petersburg University has overtaken seven Russian universities in the Digital Industry category and will receive a grant to develop an artificial intelligence platform for things. The project will be implemented jointly with Lartech, a supplier and manufacturer of automated information systems and integrated solutions in the field of the Internet of Things, which is part of ER Telecom Holding JSC, and the ITPS group of companies.

The amount of the grant provided to the University for 2023-2026 will amount to over 625 million rubles. The funding will be used to create a modular digital platform for the strong artificial intelligence of things. With its help, it will be possible to combine and process information from thousands of sensors associated with the facilities of a particular high-tech enterprise, as well as, for example, create a voice interface for employees to communicate with the production system. The platform will also help ensure the security of the system with connected IoT devices.

We have long been living in the world of the future, where modern industrial production is a huge robotic complex that generates large amounts of data. To manage such complex complexes, it is necessary to be able to process streams of heterogeneous data coming from many devices, and this is where AI-based technologies are best suited.
- Vice-Rector for Research, St. Petersburg State University Sergey Mikushev

In addition to software development, the University's specialists will be engaged in the development of specialized standards for new software, as well as the study of ethical and legal aspects of the use of information systems to ensure their successful implementation at high-tech enterprises in Russia, the BRICS countries and other countries.

Recent studies show that by 2030, there will be up to ten smart things per person. It is difficult to manage such a volume of devices and data without artificial intelligence technologies.
- General Director of Lartech Dmitriy Poltorak

"Lartech, a major developer and manufacturer of smart things, needed a scientific partner with experience in fundamental research to solve these problems. We are very pleased that St Petersburg University, the oldest university in Russia with great research opportunities, has become such a partner," said Dmitry Poltorak, CEO of Lartech.
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Nov 8, 2022

Meeting with the participants of the World Youth Festival

Vladimir Putin met with participants of the World Youth Festival.

March 6, 2024, 22:50, Sirius

Valeria Montejo: I'm Valeria Montejo from Colombia.

Everyone knows how a leader, president, manager, or head of any corporation, business, or company should behave. But in fact, there are unforeseen situations, and sometimes you have to make some non-standard decisions, which sometimes harm someone, and someone, on the contrary, benefit.

My question. In your experience, how do you properly deal with the uncertainties associated with leadership and the consequences of such controversial decisions, and how do you take responsibility for those consequences?

Vladimir Putin:
You know, in my opinion, it is always necessary to have an internal reference point, and this internal reference point can have the right vector when we think not about the current event, but about the future. And one of the people who was involved in politics, he said: "A good politician thinks about future elections, and a real leader thinks about future generations." (Applause.) But, of course, you always have to choose, and it is clear that when choosing, we proceed from the fact that, of course, not everyone is satisfied with these decisions. But we need to think about the final result and work for the good of the country, for the benefit of the people, for the benefit of the people, for the future of the state. The process is not easy.

We had a statesman, a military commander of German origin – Marshal, I think, or Field Marshal Minich, who said that Russia is a country that is directly ruled by God, because if this is not the case, it is not clear how it exists at all. In the first part, I agree: Russia is a country that is directly governed by God. ..."

Russian Science Foundation
March 18, 2024

Novosibirsk scientists have found out that the protein that cuts DNA does not disrupt the cell repair system

Scientists from the Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine (ICBFM) of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences have found that the Cas9 protein, which "cuts out" the damaged section of DNA, masks the changes made so that the repair system does not correct them. This data will make it possible to control the operation of the editing system, the press service of the institute said. The results of the study, supported by a grant from the Russian Science Foundation, were published in the international journal PLOS One.

All proteins used in this study were purified essentially as described [6, 32, 46, 81–84]. Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 and its mutant forms nCas9 D10A, nCas9 H840A (nickases) and dCas9 (catalytically inactive Cas9 harbouring the double D10A/H840A mutation) were overproduced and purified from E. coli BL21(DE3) using the expression plasmids pMJ806, pMJ825, pMJ826 and pMJ841 (a gift from Dr. Jennifer Doudna; Addgene plasmids ...). The purified Cas9 proteins were dialyzed against the storage buffer containing 50 mM Tris–HCl (pH 8.0), 200 mM NaCl, 5 mM DTT and 40% glycerol and stored at −30°C. Human PARP1 and murine PARP2 were produced in Sf9 insect cells using the expression plasmids kindly provided by Dr. Valérie Schreiber (University of Strasbourg, France). The human PARP1 G972R mutant was expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) using the pET-32a-based expression plasmid [46]. Human RPA was expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) using the expression plasmid kindly provided by Dr. Marc S. Wold (University of Iowa, USA). Human LigI was produced in E. coli BL21(DE3) using the expression plasmid kindly provided by Dr. Robert A. Bambara (University of Rochester Medical Center, USA).
Cell lines and whole-cell extracts
The HEK293 cell line was obtained from Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA..


Novosibirsk scientists have found that the Cas9 protein, when it gets into human DNA, performs its function and at the same time does not affect the work of the repair system, masking the damage caused by it. This data can be used in the application of genome editing tools in biotechnology and medicine.

The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a tool for editing the genome of living organisms, with the help of which it is possible to eliminate mutations that lead to hereditary diseases, obtain new varieties of plants, animal breeds and strains of microorganisms for biotechnology. This system is based on the action of the Cas9 protein, which is produced by some bacteria to protect themselves from viruses.

The Cas9 protein is foreign to human cells, so it was important for scientists to understand whether it would somehow interact with the cellular machinery. In the human cell, there are several DNA repair systems that are responsible for repairing damage. It was necessary to establish whether the repair proteins would perceive the break made by Cas9 as a change that needed to be addressed.

Olga Ivanovna Lavrik, Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences

This issue was studied by researchers of the ICBFM SB RAS under the leadership of Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences Olga Ivanovna Lavrik and Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences Dmitry Olegovich Zharkov. The scientists found that after Cas9 makes a break in the DNA, the protein masks that damage, making it invisible to cellular repair systems for a long time.

Thus, it was found that from the point of view of the rupture repair process, Cas9 in human cells acts as a bioorthogonal enzyme (performs only the function specified by scientists, without interacting with other cellular apparatus). Thanks to the information obtained, it will be easier for scientists to monitor the activity of the genome editing system.

About the method

CRISPR9 is a new method of gene editing, called genetic or molecular scissors, because it allows you to cut unwanted fragments from a DNA molecule. For the development of a breakthrough technology, American Jennifer Doudna and French Emmanuelle Charpentier received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2020."

The results of the study, supported by a grant from the Russian Science Foundation,

Title: Nucleic Acid Modification and DNA Repair as a Source of New Genome Management Tools

Implementation period supported by RSF: 2021 - 2024

Competition No. 56 - Competition 2021 "Conducting fundamental scientific research and exploratory scientific research on behalf (instructions) of the President of the Russian Federation" (genetic research).

Keywords: genome editing, CRISPR/Cas9, DNA repair, DNA damage, DNA damage response, protein-protein interactions, protein-nucleic acid interactions, poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase, RNA-binding proteins, nucleic acid synthesis, protein engineering, base editors, epigenetic editors, RNA guides, phosphoryl guanidines

The "genome editing revolution" associated with the advent of the CRISPR/Cas9 system has led to the possibility of precision genome alteration. A significant number of studies in the world are devoted to the search for ways to increase the efficiency and accuracy of genome editing, as well as approaches to the regulation of molecular genetic processes based on the complementary addressing of effector molecules to certain sequences in genomic DNA.
As can be seen, the creation of new and improvement of existing nucleic acid guides and functional modules for use in addressable systems, as well as the understanding of the processes occurring in cells after the action of such systems, are the main ways of developing technologies for precision control of genomes. The proposed project is aimed at obtaining new fundamental knowledge about the mechanisms of interaction between genome editing systems and cells and at expanding and developing tools for complementary modification of genomic DNA.

Expected results:
The results of the project are both fundamental and applied.
In terms of application, the project will develop several technologies that can be included in the standard toolkit of work in the field of genome engineering and synthetic biology and have significant potential for commercialization. First, the technology of chemical-enzymatic synthesis of nucleic acids will be developed, which is not fundamentally limited by the nature of bases and sugar phosphate backbone. Such technologies are now seen as an alternative to traditional chemical synthesis, with the potential to surpass it in accuracy and the ability to produce a variety of functionalized oligo- and polynucleotides.

The fields of application of synthetic nucleic acids are extensive, primarily in medical diagnostics and therapy, but also in synthetic biology and new ways of recording and storing digital information. The technology that is planned to be created will find its application in all these areas. Secondly, a line of genomic and epigenomic editors with new, patent-clean functional modules and guide nucleic acids will be created.

This will make it possible to facilitate and expand the range of possible operations to change the genome of humans, farm animals and plants, and biotechnological producers. The new genome editing tools obtained in the course of the project are of significant value for the nascent sector of the Russian economy based on modern genetic technologies."
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Nov 8, 2022

Achievements of domestic robotics presented on March 19 in the State Duma

The State Duma hosted the grand opening of the exhibition "Initiatives for the Development of Robotics and Artificial Intelligence in the Russian Federation" today. The exposition presents innovative Russian developments to ensure the country's technological sovereignty. A round table "Strategic Initiatives for the Development of a National Project for the Development of Robotics in the Russian Federation for the Long Term" is planned for the evening.

The purpose of the exhibition is to present domestic advanced developments, products and innovations in the field of robotics and artificial intelligence. The exposition is organized by the Consortium of Robotics and Intelligent Control Systems together with the LDPR faction in the State Duma.

"In our opinion, everything that moves the economy forward must necessarily come to the State Duma, must be comprehensively studied by deputies, because it is true that we have been adopting the best laws in the best state in the world for three weeks, but for one week we work in the regions, at enterprises, in labor collectives, in institutes, schools, and our task is to promote those technologies on a daily basis, those values that our state and our people need today, so today's exhibition is the little that we, as deputies, can do for our industry, for our science, for our economy," said Andrey Svintsov, Deputy Chairman of the State Duma Committee on Information Policy, Information Technology and Communications.

The parliamentarian noted that the exposition presents the developments of domestic companies, which should be introduced into production as quickly as possible.

Ensuring the technological sovereignty of the country is directly related to the quality of the work of the real sectors of the economy. And here there are a number of restrictions, the key of which is the shortage of professional personnel, State Duma deputy Alexei Kanaev emphasized.

"This problem can be solved in different ways, but the main one, in my opinion, is, of course, robotization, increasing labor efficiency through the use of modern technologies," the parliamentarian is sure.

State Duma deputy Artem Prokofiev also drew attention to the issue of personnel. According to him, real progress is impossible without specialists in the field of new technologies. In Russia, it is necessary to involve people in robotics from a very early age. In addition, Prokofiev emphasized the importance of regulating the ethical issues of robotization.

Sergei Kabyshev, Chairman of the State Duma Committee on Science and Higher Education, noted that legislators are faced with the task of ensuring the safety of the development of artificial intelligence.

"Robots should be human assistants, not the other way around. The development of education is really very important, and legislators have already taken some steps, but only some in this area. A compulsory module "Robotics" has been introduced in all secondary educational institutions. And our task is to ensure progressive development, so that human well-being is based on the balanced development of both technology and nature. And here I would like to draw your attention to the Presidential Executive Order on nature-like technologies. Nature-like technologies are when technology develops based on the human organization of nature," the politician said.

nature-like technologies:
Draft Decree of the President of the Russian Federation “On the Strategy for the development of nature-like (convergent) technologies” (June 14, 2022), full text

Anton Tkachev, First Deputy Chairman of the State Duma Committee on Information Policy, Information Technology and Communications, touched upon the topic of changes in the labor market due to robotization. People who are at risk of losing their jobs to robots need to be repurposed.

"Now we see that a third of the state-funded places go to officials, who may be replaced by artificial intelligence," said the deputy of the New People faction.

The parliamentarian also complained about the long cycle of developments, not all of which are eventually introduced into real production. He proposed to consider the creation of a solution exchange that could be openly used by entrepreneurs and developers.

Stanislav Naumov, Deputy Head of the LDPR faction, Deputy Chairman of the State Duma Committee on Economic Policy, said that the solutions presented in the exposition are an illustration of the development of technologies that are taking place in Russia.

"The big round table that will be held today in the Small Hall may partially answer the question of whether we need a tax on robots. And if we need a tax on robots, then how to properly dispose of it so that it becomes a factor of progress, a factor of development and really ensures our country's technological sovereignty," the parliamentarian emphasized.

Evgeny Dudorov, Chairman of the Board of the Consortium of Robotics and Intelligent Control Systems, said that First Deputy Prime Minister of the Russian Federation Andrey Belousov announced 12 new national projects, the first of which is called "Machine Tool Building and Robotics". This indicates that the industry is moving in the right direction.

— If we talk about robotics as such, it is currently in its infancy. Given that there is a real shortage of personnel, we need to change the areas where working conditions can be replaced by robotics. To do this, we need to have certain sovereign technologies in the field of components, artificial intelligence, and the robotic devices themselves. We have organized a consortium to help domestic developers promote their products, find interaction with both customers and the state, and move forward," he said.

The development of robotics today is an existential issue, said Viktor Tolmachev, editor-in-chief of the World of Robotics magazine.

"The three components of success: robotics, control systems and artificial intelligence, and the key factor without which everything else makes no sense is, of course, personnel. Difficult times give birth to strong people. We are together and we are glad that this time unites us," Viktor Tolmachev summed up.

Yesterday, the leader of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation Gennady Zyuganov visited the exhibition, and today the head of the Liberal Democratic Party Leonid Slutsky also visited the exposition. The politician separately noted the level of development of Russian industrial robotics, thanks to which it is already possible to talk about the creation of so-called unmanned industries.

In the evening, a round table "Strategic Initiatives for the Development of a National Project for the Development of Robotics in the Russian Federation for the Long Term" will be held. Experts will discuss key issues of industry development, form the necessary initiatives and measures for the formation of robotics as an intersectoral industry."


Strategic initiatives for the development of robotics were discussed in the State Duma

On March 19, the Small Hall of the State Duma hosted a round table "Strategic Initiatives for the Development of a National Project for the Development of Robotics in the Russian Federation for the Long Term", organized by the Consortium of Robotics and Intelligent Control Systems and the LDPR faction. Representatives of authorities, scientific organizations, leading industrial enterprises discussed the development of the industry.

In Russia, the industrial base focused on the serial production of robotic systems and intelligent control systems for critical infrastructure facilities (including special and military) is currently in the process of formation. The lag of the Russian Federation from the world level in the development of RTK components and technologies is estimated at an average of 5-7 years, and robots for manufacturing enterprises at 7-10 years. Now we need to take prompt measures to reduce this gap and reach the forefront.

Earlier, at a meeting of Russian President Vladimir Putin with members of the government, First Deputy Prime Minister of the Russian Federation Andrei Belousov announced that the government had formed a list of 12 projects. The federal official named four of them: "Machine Tool Engineering and Robotics", "New Materials and Chemistry", "Ensuring Food Security" and "New Medical Technologies". The list will also include: "Development of Unmanned Aviation" (actually launched in 2024), "Development of the Space Industry", "Atom and New Energy Sources", "Production of Ships and Ship Equipment", "Civil Aviation", "Microelectronics", "Data Economics", "Science and Universities".

The participants of the round table discussed the necessary measures for the formation of robotics as an inter-industry industry that has a significant impact on the growth of domestic industry and contributes to the achievement of the country's technological sovereignty. The event was co-moderated by Viktor Tolmachev, Director of the Consortium of Robotics and Intelligent Control Systems, Editor-in-Chief of the World of Robotics magazine, who called for joint efforts to develop the industry: there should be synergy, not competition.

"All the decisions and proposals that were formulated during the round table will form the basis of a meeting between representatives of the LDPR faction and Russian Prime Minister Mikhail Mishustin, which will be held on March 25," said Stanislav Naumov, moderator of the conference, Deputy Chairman of the State Duma Committee on Economic Policy.

Andrey Svintsov, Deputy Chairman of the State Duma Committee on Information Policy, Information Technology and Communications, said that stimulating the systematic work of the authorities, state corporations and developers of innovative technologies is an important part of the work of the entire deputy corps. The main purpose of the round table is to give a start to this work.

"All five factions of the State Duma unanimously confirmed that they will be engaged in robotics: they will delve deeper into it, to promote it at all levels of government, in state corporations. We will make everyone work," the parliamentarian emphasized.

Measures to stimulate demand for Russian robotic solutions are being developed today by the Ministry of Industry and Trade of Russia. At the same time, the department is preparing a draft Strategy for the Development of Robotics until 2030, said Alexei Serdyuk, head of the Department of Unmanned Systems and Robotics of the Ministry of Industry and Trade of Russia. Special measures to support the creators of service robots are also being worked out.

Alexey Serdyuk spoke in detail about the key tasks of the development of Russian robotics. First of all, the Ministry of Industry and Trade proposes to convene a working group that will create a comprehensive development program. It is also necessary to form a component base and a list of necessary studies, introduce uniform standards for the life cycle of Russian robots, unify the component base and create a unified concept for training professional personnel.

"Today, robots are involved in all spheres of human activity, including industry, science, energy, the study of the underwater world, and space. The experience of conducting the special [military] operation shows that without the use of robotic devices, it is virtually impossible to perform modern combat operations. And now the use of robotics has significantly changed approaches to tactics and strategy of military operations. Robotics are closely intertwined with biotechnology and cybernetics, and the collaboration between humans and robots is becoming closer. We, in the Consortium of Robotics and Intelligent Control Systems, which was organized in 2021, determined that we should contribute to the creation and development of the Russian robotics market, unite Russian developers and manufacturers of robotic devices, support them and represent their interests at various levels," said the Chairman of the Board of the Consortium of Robotics and Intelligent Control Systems, Executive Director of the NGO in his report "Android Technology" Evgeny Dudorov.

Ivan Kutsevlyak, Deputy Governor of the Chelyabinsk Region, spoke in detail about the region's experience and competencies in the development of robotics. In the Ural region, there are currently several companies that are seriously engaged in the development and production of robotics. Two of them are the most famous. Android Technics from Magnitogorsk, the creator of the FEDOR robot, has unique expertise in the field of anthropomorphic robotics. In addition, a line of robotic medical equipment is being developed here. Also in February, Chelyabinsk launched the Robot Plant, Russia's first serial production of industrial robotic manipulators with a wide range of applications. Models with a payload of 120 kg are already being produced, and work is underway to prepare for serial production of models with a payload of 60 and 30 kg.

"But manipulative arms aren't the only type of robotics available. It is necessary to develop other types of robots, while at the same time forming specialized expertise for their integration into production processes. Therefore, the Government of the Chelyabinsk Region, in close cooperation with the Chelyabinsk Forging and Pressing Plant, on the site of which the Robot Plant was launched, is now creating a Competence Center in the field of robotization," said Ivan Kutsevlyak.

He added that for the successful implementation of the tasks, it is necessary to modernize the training system in order to provide a sufficient number of specialists in the integration and operation of robotics. And to do this, it is necessary to develop appropriate educational programs, open enrollment in specialized specialties and areas of training in different regions of the country and encourage universities to organize the necessary departments. In particular, a new Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Robotics is being prepared for creation at South Ural State University. Also, together with ChKPZ and the Robot Plant, SUSU will open a special college, which should start working this autumn.

Alexander Lvov, Deputy Director of the Department of Machine Tool Building and Heavy Engineering of the Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Russian Federation, made a presentation on the development of industrial robotics in the Russian Federation. The federal official elaborated on support measures, spoke about various state programs and stimulating demand.

Alexei Rogozin, the head of the consultative council on a voluntary basis of the developer of drone control systems JSC Ecolibri, called for overcoming industry divisions in the first place, it is necessary to unite the efforts of all industry participants to achieve a common goal. This is not a competitive struggle, but a unified state policy.

"The path from import dependence to our own sovereign production is absolutely clear, this is not something supernatural from the point of view of fundamental science, these are absolutely applied steps that we can take, but not each company separately, but us as an industry. I think that our experience of participating in the development of a national project of unmanned flight systems can be very easily extended to all participants in the robotics market. It is coordination, it is the attempt to find common views, common solutions that lead to concrete results," Alexei Rogozin emphasized.

Artem Lukin, General Director of TECHNORED, made a presentation on "Successful Examples of Industrial Robotization", but did not ignore the problematic moments.

"When a lot of people talk about robotics, they think it's about the future, but it's actually the present. Now 100% of Russian enterprises have problems with qualified personnel - these are workers, locksmiths, welders, turners, there are not enough of them. Today, our factories have a unique opportunity to increase production capacity, many want to work in 2-3 shifts due to well-known events, but there is no one to work. Taxi drivers and couriers can earn much more, and this work is often much easier, safer and less routine than the work of a welder or assembler on a production line. When we talk about robotics, we should not think that this is the context of tomorrow. If we do not change the situation with robots today, there will be no one to work in factories. Such is life. This is not only in Russia, but all over the world," Artem Lukin emphasized.

TECHNORED contributes to the solution of this problem. According to Artem Lukin, if earlier only large enterprises could afford robots, now robotics is coming to both small and medium-sized businesses.

Pavel Stepanov, General Director of Geoscan Moscow, made a presentation on "Unmanned Technologies. Advanced Geoscan Solutions". He noted the importance of interaction with the authorities and state support measures.

"The state pays tremendous attention to this topic, which, of course, is important and relevant. I believe that by the end of the first year of the implementation of the national project, serious results will be achieved," the speaker said.

The personnel issue was a special topic within the framework of the round table. CEO of Omega. Technologies of the Future" Yaroslav Aleinik said that three years ago the Consortium created a separate direction — Educational Robotics.

"Last year, together with the members of the Consortium, we created a Russian engineering class, which is a set of solutions and methods for education, starting from school, we have not yet reached kindergarten. Further, this is a college, a university and additional education in terms of retraining specialists at the enterprise. Within the framework of this concept, instrumental and methodological approaches were worked out, and a matrix of competencies was prepared for a number of industries and positions, which made it possible to cover the issues of personnel shortage," said a member of the Board of the Consortium.

Pavel Frolov, the founder of ROBBO, made a presentation on "The Export Potential of Russian Educational Robotics".

— The main problem of the industry, which is relevant not only in our country, but also around the world, is the imposition of a humiliating dependence on foreign technologies. Technologies are taught in a "black box" mode, in fact, there is magical thinking among children and even adult engineers about technology. Most of the specialists are now only able to purchase foreign technologies and components, foreign software, assemble them among themselves and implement them in processes where robotization or automation is required. In this way, the task of achieving technological sovereignty will not be solved. The engineering education system around the world is now mimicking this process. These are not creators, but collectors from other people's technologies. In order to get away from this humiliating dependence, we need to significantly improve the quality of education," Pavel Frolov said.

The expert called for the development of open software and hardware technologies, as well as the joint efforts of business and scientists of the BRICS countries to make one powerful platform for robotics, drones, agricultural robots and all sectors of the national economy.

Andrey Zholobov, General Director of SAGA Technologies JSC, spoke about the experience of his company, which supplied more than 2000 educational robots for schoolchildren and students.

Over the past 3-4 years, more and more robotic classrooms have appeared in schools. Our company often participates in the implementation of these projects, and most importantly, why it is important in schools, in fact, we say that a professional will be trained at a university or college, but if he goes there empty and does not know anything, then it is a rather naïve idea to start training a person in the field of robotics in the first year without some kind of foundation received at school. It is very important that the state is now teaching robotics to schoolchildren, and I am very much advocating that this topic should develop even more," Zholobov commented.

At the end of the round table, a cooperation agreement was signed between the Consortium of Robotics and Intelligent Control Systems and the Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation. The agreement was signed by Elena Didenko, Vice-Rector for Continuing Professional Education of the Financial University, and Evgeny Dudorov, Chairman of the Board of the Consortium.

The document involves the interaction of organizations in order to develop and create educational programs for future roboticists. An agreement was reached to hold joint events, prepare reports and consult each other. The consortium, in particular, will provide the university with an expert assessment of projects and programs.

Throughout the week, from March 18 to March 22, interest in the exhibition "Initiatives for the Development of Robotics and Artificial Intelligence in the Russian Federation" in the State Duma was very high. At the beginning of the week, the exposition was visited by the leader of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation Gennady Zyuganov and the head of the Liberal Democratic Party Leonid Slutsky. And on Thursday, the exhibition was visited by Deputy Prime Minister of the Russian Federation Dmitry Chernyshenko and First Deputy Chairman of the State Duma Alexander Zhukov.

The purpose of the exhibition is to present domestic advanced developments, products and innovations in the field of robotics and artificial intelligence.

Exhibitors of the exhibition were the following companies: Scientific Entertainment, Omega, Smartcore, Geoscan, Intek Industrial Systems, NPO Android Technics, Salute Orto, Prof-IT (Omegabot), NIIMA Progress, AISA IT-Service, Unique Robots, InnoDrive, TECHNORED, NPP PT Okeanos. SAGA Technologies was a guest at the exhibition.

Dmitry Chernyshenko (right)

Dmitry Chernyshenko (left)

October 13, 2021 16:30 Moscow

National Program "Digital Economy of the Russian Federation"

The Government of the Russian Federation and the World Economic Forum signed a memorandum on the establishment of a Center for the Fourth Industrial Revolution in Russia. The event was held in the Coordination Center.

On the Russian side, on behalf of Prime Minister Mikhail Mishustin, the memorandum was signed by Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Chernyshenko, on the part of the WEF - President of the forum Berge Brende.

January 27, 2021
15:10 The Kremlin, Moscow

Session of Davos Agenda 2021 online forum
World Economic Forum Founder and Executive Chairman Klaus Schwab:

Mr President, welcome to the Davos Agenda Week.
Mr President, the world is waiting to hear from you.
President of Russia Vladimir Putin:
Mr Schwab, dear Klaus,

"Hopes that it will be possible to reboot the old growth model are connected with rapid technological development. Indeed, during the past 20 years we have created a foundation for the so-called Fourth Industrial Revolution based on the wide use of AI and automation and robotics. The coronavirus pandemic has greatly accelerated such projects and their implementation."
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Nov 8, 2022
Putin demanded to strengthen the protection of the Russian information infrastructure

Moscow. March 19, 2024 - Russian President Vladimir Putin at the FSB board meeting announced the need to strengthen the protection of the domestic information infrastructure in the face of an increase in the number of cyberattacks.

"The number of attacks on our information infrastructure is certainly growing," he said, demanding to expand the opportunities for a preventive response to such threats and strengthen the protection of the domestic information infrastructure.

The President asked the FSB to actively work in this area with science and the information business, as well as to use Russia's achievements in the field of artificial intelligence and quantum technologies.

In Russia, a third of Safe City cameras are connected to a facial recognition system

Moscow. March 13, 2024 - In Russia, every third video surveillance camera out of more than 1 million installed as part of the "Safe City" is connected to a facial recognition system, the head of the Ministry of Digital Development, Maksut Shadaev, said at the AI Day.

"Despite the fact that artificial intelligence (AI) has been actively discussed in the last few years, we have those areas that are already quite mature. My favorite theme is "Safe City" - a video surveillance system. In Russia, there are more than 1 million cameras that monitor security in places of residence, in public places, at transport facilities, and on the roads. Today, virtually every third camera is connected to the facial recognition system.

"I want to say a few figures about Moscow, which is the undisputed leader in video surveillance. Over the 10 years that have passed since the development of the "Safe City" system in Moscow, the number of registered street crime crimes has halved, the number of registered car thefts has decreased by 10 times, and the detection rate of those crimes that continue to be recorded has doubled. And it's all thanks to these technologies," he added.

According to Shadaev, then video surveillance and security technologies are already moving to the system of monitoring the maintenance of landscaping facilities, the cleanliness of streets, and the timeliness of garbage collection. "We have seen this at the stands of the regions today: these technologies are actively used to control the work of city services that keep our streets clean and tidy," he said.

On November 8, 2023, Moscow Mayor Sergei Sobyanin said that the facial recognition system, as well as vehicle recognition, in Moscow is almost 100%. "In recent years, billions of photo and video images, both cars and people have been processed in Moscow, and the quality of recognition, for example, of faces and cars has reached 99.8%, that is, almost 100% recognition," he said at the plenary session of the Finopolis Forum of Innovative Financial Technologies.


From March 1, it will be possible to open your own business online using biometrics in Russia

On the first day of spring, entrepreneurs will be able to register a business, obtain an electronic signature without personally contacting the certification center of the Federal Tax Service of Russia and open a bank account. At all stages, a single biometric system will be used to confirm the identity of the applicant.

On March 1, the Federal Tax Service will begin conducting the "Starting a Business Online" experiment, which will last until March 1, 2025. The project also includes the Ministry of Finance, the Bank of Russia, the Federal Financial Monitoring Service, the Center for Biometric Technologies and the operator of the unified biometric system. With the help of the service, an individual will be able to register as an individual entrepreneur or open a limited liability company.

"The service will allow entrepreneurs, including beginners, to quickly and conveniently start their own business. Due to biometrics, it will be possible to carry out all the necessary procedures completely remotely. This is a completely new level of comfort in receiving commercial and public services, when a citizen closes the issue comprehensively and literally in a few "clicks," commented Dmitry Grigorenko, Chief of Staff of the Government of the Russian Federation.
The Government of the Russian Federation sees the main goals of the implementation of the "Start Business Online" project: to provide citizens with the opportunity to use the service to remotely receive public and commercial services necessary for starting and developing a business; improving the efficiency of remote interaction and developing electronic document management between all participants in this project. At the same time, the use of the new service will not entail additional costs for entrepreneurs."


Rospotrebnadzor discussed responsible artificial intelligence for consumers


On March 20, Anna Popova, Head of Rospotrebnadzor, held a round table "Fair and Responsible Artificial Intelligence for Consumers" on the sidelines of the Russia exhibition-forum. The event is timed to coincide with World Consumer Rights Day.

The discussion was attended by representatives of the Bank of Russia, Sberbank, AKIT, Yandex, MTS, Wildberries, Tinkoff Bank, representatives of public organizations and associations.

"Russia has a high potential for the introduction of artificial intelligence. The leaders in the implementation and use of artificial intelligence in the Russian market are banks, telecommunications companies, and retail. We are faced with the task of discussing the current state of artificial intelligence and developing areas for our common work for the benefit of the consumer," said Anna Popova, opening the meeting.

The era of global digitalization is characterized by the development of information systems, which often moves faster than the legal regulation of this area. Thus, the legal status of artificial intelligence is currently not legally defined, there is no responsibility for the creation and dissemination of false or inaccurate information that gets into open sources.

In her speech, the head of Rospotrebnadzor stressed that the definition of the concept of artificial intelligence is given in the National Development Strategy for the period up to 2030. One of the key objectives of the document is to achieve a level of public confidence in artificial intelligence of at least 80% by 2030.

As part of the round table, representatives of large Russian businesses discussed the development of a unified approach to the development of artificial intelligence algorithms, which can play a critical role in protecting consumers, their rights and personal data.

In addition, an important topic of discussion was the issue of trust in chatbots, especially in order to protect consumer rights. The participants noted that one of the priority areas of joint activities is the use of artificial intelligence in order to improve law enforcement mechanisms, increase transparency and fairness of the market.

At the end of the round table meeting, Anna Popova emphasized the absolute importance of state legal regulation of this area.

Head of Rospotrebnadzor Anna Popova
Speaking about the use of AI, Popova noted that "various studies show that young people - both Generation Z and millennials - view the use of artificial intelligence from a rather optimistic position, and more than half of them believe that artificial intelligence will turn support into a more personalized service."

Alexander Chulok, Candidate of Economic Sciences, Director of the HSE Center for Scientific and Technological Forecasting (2021):
I think the attitude to technology itself will change dramatically in the next 10 years. Generations will be updated, for the new ones — the Internet is not a miracle, and smart watches are not a gadget. It's all already part of their life as a shirt. It is not so important whether it will be embedded in the body or in clothes. Let's look at the history of mankind, it has always experimented. It is difficult to say how inevitable the cyborgization of man is, but his merging with technology is indeed inevitable."
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Nov 8, 2022
March 28-29, 2024
II Eurasian Neurological Congress

We ask you to express your expert opinion
2. Which neurotechnology do you find most valuable for rehabilitation?

  • Virtual Reality
  • Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
  • Brain-Computer Interface
  • Neural Implants
  • An exercise therapy instructor is enough for us

Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation

BMT2 Medical and Technical Information Technologies
The department is engaged in training personnel in the field of creating medical and diagnostic devices, systems and technologies using modern mathematical, physical, physiological and informational approaches to solving medical and biological problems.

About the Department
The Department of Medical and Technical Information Technologies was founded in 1997 on the basis of the Laboratory of Non-Invasive Treatment and Diagnostic Systems, headed by a student of Professor V.I. Loshchilov, Professor, Doctor of Technical Sciences, laureate of the Russian Government Prize in the field of science and technology Sergey Igorevich Shchukin. In 1998, at the suggestion of the Rector of Bauman Moscow State Technical University, I.B. Fedorov, the first and only Faculty of Biomedical Technology in Russia was established, which continued the traditions of the Bauman Moscow State Technical University, established at the beginning of the 20th century.

The main directions of scientific research of the department today are:

medical and technical information technologies for express diagnostics, non-invasive monitoring and spatial-temporal mapping of vital parameters of the body;

modeling in biotechnical and medical systems;

means and methods of individual therapy and active diagnostics using biofeedback;

bionic control systems and brain-computer interface;

health care support systems;

Bioelectronics and Tissue Engineering.

Scientific and Educational Center "Soft Matter and Fluid Physics" of Bauman Moscow State Technical University

The Soft Matter and Fluid Physics Research and Education Center is the first interdisciplinary center in Russia with a focus on soft matter sciences and fluid physics.

The goal is to train highly qualified specialists, conduct research and development in the field of soft matter, design of phenomena in liquids, fluid physics and advanced biotechnologies.

Main areas of research:

research in the field of controlled self-assembly in soft matter, from molecular to cellular systems;

research in the field of statistical physics of classical condensed matter and phase transitions;

research in the field of active soft matter and collective behavior of multiparticle systems;

translation of advanced scientific results into the educational process and new educational products.

Created products:

original models of various mammalian tissues;

3D bio-printer based on new principles of controlled self-assembly in soft matter;

digital twins of biological tissues for the development of new cell technologies;

advanced chemical and bioreactors, fluid technologies;

educational programs.

Scientific and Educational Center "Functional Micro/Nanosystems"

The Functional Micro/Nanosystems REC was opened jointly by Bauman Moscow State Technical University and Rosatom State Corporation in 2015. Today, the center's team conducts practical research in the field of developing an element base for devices and devices based on new physical principles.

Key areas of research

Heavy-duty hybrid computing

High-performance computing based on new physical principles is one of the key tasks in the field of deeptech development in the world, and the world's leading groups are participating in this technological race today. The FMN REC is developing computing devices based on superconducting materials and photonic integrated circuits. Due to the exponential growth in the performance of such processors compared to conventional semiconductors, humans will be able to calculate molecules of new drugs as quickly as possible, synthesize "smart" materials, optimize logistics, and simulate an artificial intelligence system.

High-Precision Microsystems (MEMS)

The concept of Industry 4.0 provides for the end-to-end digitalization of all technological and physical processes, their integration into a digital ecosystem saturated with a variety of devices and sensors connected into a single network through various communication channels. Of particular importance in such multi-level systems are high-precision microsystems (MEMS). These are sensors and actuators made predominantly on the basis of silicon using group processing methods based on microelectronic technologies. The FMN REC is actively developing such structures and technologies for their manufacture for advanced products: unmanned cars, drones and robots.

From Lab to Organ-on-a-Chip

Biotechnology is one of the most dynamic "deep" branches of world science. The developments of the FMN REC in this area today are aimed at creating a new generation of bioanalytical devices — laboratories-on-a-chip and personalized medicine devices, which will significantly increase the speed and accuracy of analyses, as well as miniaturize the devices themselves. Thanks to this, laboratory diagnostic methods will become available for the most remote settlements, in long-term expeditions and for telemedicine.

A separate task of the center's biotechnologists is to create an organ-on-a-chip. It is a microphysiological system that simulates the response of the human body to various drugs. Such a system could become a substitute for animal experiments in the testing of new drugs. In addition, it is a powerful tool for personalized medicine, allowing you to apply experimental treatments to an organism-on-a-chip containing cells from a specific person without putting them at risk. The developments are being implemented jointly with the Center for Soft Matter of the Bauman Moscow State Technical University and the Brain Institute of the Scientific Center of Neurology.

Single Molecular DNA Sequencer

The optical single-molecule sequencer is the main device for genetic technologies. The most sophisticated device makes it possible to read long DNA sequences with high accuracy. The FMN REC team is developing a technology for manufacturing the key element of such a device — a reaction cell with 100 nm structures — in Russia. The project is being implemented jointly with IAP RAS, ISAN RAS and other partners.

More than half of the installations located in the laboratory of the FMN REC have no analogues in Russia.

And even more, often the opportunities available to Bauman students-employees of the center are not available even for the world's leading laboratories.

Since its inception, the head of the FMN REC has been Ilya Rodionov, Ph.D., winner of the Young Scientists Prize of the Moscow Government.

The technological achievements of the FMN REC are noted in Russia today and are used by scientific groups around the world.

Among the main partners of the center are research teams of leading institutes of the Russian Federation (IRE RAS, CCT MSU, MISIS, MIPT, ITPE RAS, ISAN RAS, ISSP RAS, NSTU, ITMO) and the world (Purdue University (USA), KIT (Germany), University of Southern Denmark (Denmark), University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (USA), CAPP IBS (Korea).

The Center takes an active part in the implementation of the Priority 2030 federal academic leadership program.

IU5 Information Processing and Control Systems

Development of management systems for economic and organizational structures. Use of artificial intelligence methods and big data processing platforms in control systems.

The Department of Information Processing and Management Systems trains students in various aspects of the development of management systems for economic and organizational structures of different industry affiliation and different sizes: from systems for small and medium-sized enterprises to sectoral and national management systems. The department's areas of expertise include system architecture, application software that implements specific business processes, as well as platform software and hardware, including databases, data warehouses, data lakes, knowledge graphs, blockchain systems, application servers, integration tools, Internet of Things platforms, virtual and augmented reality systems, as well as other platform components.

Particular attention at the department is paid to artificial intelligence tools used in the development of control systems. Neural networks, logical artificial intelligence, complex graph and simulation models, natural language interaction tools, and machine learning tools for processing signals, visual images, speech, and video are actively used. As a perspective of management systems, the department offers hybrid intelligent information systems, including consciousness, subconscious, modules of ethics, goal-setting, adaptation to the environment and other blocks of general artificial intelligence.

Graduates of the Department of Information Processing and Management Systems work in the largest IT companies, both Russian (Yandex, Sbertech, VK, Voskhod Research Institute) and foreign (Google, Cisco, and others). Big well-known companies are industry leaders, but they don't tell the whole story. In the country as a whole, everything is much more ambitious: our graduates work in the IT departments of thousands of Russian companies and organizations, implementing and operating management systems in all sectors of the economy and the public sector.

In addition, our graduates work in the Russian Federation and abroad in leading international companies that develop corporate management systems: SAP, Microsoft, 1C, Oracle. IBM, Galaktika, Infor, as well as in hundreds of consulting partner companies for the implementation of business applications, including such large ones as associated companies PwC, EY, Deloitte, KPMG, IBM, Accenture. The great competition for our graduates is due to their high level of training. A wide range of employers provide them with a high level of remuneration and a guaranteed social package.

Bauman to Launch Russia's First Contract Manufacturing of Superconducting Quantum Processors

March 18, 2024
• Wafer Superconducting Quantum Processors – World-Class in Fab and Wafer Order Format (multi-project).
• Serial production of quantum processors will meet the growing demand of the Russian Federation for next-generation supercomputers.
• Unique quantum technologies will become available to Russian Big Tech, technology companies, startups and universities.
Exascale supercomputers (FLOP (floating point operations per second) are actively used today to solve a wide range of problems: from fundamental (problems of theoretical physics, including the problem of the expansion of the Universe) to model (solving differential and other equations for the purposes of oil exploration, interference immunity, seismic exploration, radar, etc.).

Mathematical supercomputer modeling is currently being actively implemented in the business processes of leading technology companies, used to create new drugs and materials for industry, in-depth financial analytics, credit risks, etc. At the same time, one of the main drivers of the development of supercomputers is the acceleration of calculations based on artificial intelligence with the solution of problems related to IT systems and AI-based services.

New types of computers based on the principles of quantum mechanics will significantly increase the performance of classical supercomputers. Acting as coprocessors, they will provide additional power to solve subtasks within a single computing process. In a similar way, graphics accelerators are used today, taking over some of the specific tasks of algorithms and performing them noticeably faster than universal processors. At the same time, quantum coprocessors will cope with these tasks orders of magnitude faster.

"Today, supercomputing is becoming an absolute priority for the world's leading powers thanks to the introduction of artificial intelligence methods," says Alexander Andriyash, Scientific Director of the Russian Research Institute of Computer Science named after N.L. Dukhov of Rosatom State Corporation. "The goal of increasing the power of Russian supercomputers tenfold by 2030 can be achieved, among other things, thanks to the serial technologies of quantum coprocessors developed at Bauman Moscow State Technical University. At the same time, the efficiency of exascale machines based on quantum technologies can be significantly higher than traditional approaches, and this is at a much lower cost. By switching to the quantum series, we are creating fundamentally new opportunities for the accelerated development of quantum devices by technology companies and research groups in our country."

Bauman DeepTech. A cooperation agreement was signed with the Scientific Center of Neurology of the Russian Academy of Sciences

June 23, 2022

Today, an agreement on scientific and educational cooperation was signed between Bauman Moscow State Technical University and the Scientific Center of Neurology of the Russian Academy of Sciences within the framework of Neuroforum 2022, a key event in the professional activities of neurologists, neurosurgeons, cardiologists, resuscitators, geneticists, therapists, general practitioners, radiologists, rehabilitation specialists and pharmacists.

The development of cooperation between Bauman Moscow State Technical University and the Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences is taking place as part of the implementation of the scientific and educational program of the strategic direction "Biotechnology and Soft Matter" of the Bauman DeepTech project of the "Priority 2030" development program. A key outcome of the strategic direction will be the development of body-on-a-chip technologies for accelerated testing of new drugs. The focus of the immediate development is the creation of brain-on-a-chip systems.

Solving such an ambitious scientific and technological task requires combining competencies and developing a number of areas, including tissue engineering and cell technologies, data technologies and machine learning in life sciences, sensor and fluid technologies, advanced biotechnologies and soft matter sciences. Researchers from Bauman Moscow State Technical University and the Center for Neuroscience of the Russian Academy of Sciences will join forces in these scientific fields and in the field of biomedical engineering and advanced biomedical technologies.
Already in September 2022, students will start training within the framework of the new educational programs "Biophotonics and Tissue Engineering" and "Soft Matter and Fluid Physics". Whole blocks of disciplines in them are designed to prepare children for solving interdisciplinary problems and developing new technologies.

"The development of controlled self-assembly technologies in soft matter to assemble tissues from individual cells in fluids is an important area for the engineering of living systems. Today, together with the Functional Micro/Nanosystems Research and Education Center at Bauman Moscow State Technical University and the Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, we are launching a scientific project to create organ- and organism-on-a-chip systems, in which students of our new Master's programs will be able to participate. This will allow the students to gain unique experience in projects and competencies in the field of creating devices and visualizing cell behavior, new microfluidic chips, developing new methods for controlled self-assembly in liquids, and controlling the collective dynamics of cells and bacteria. Cutting-edge science, a lot of laboratory research and engineering — it will be interesting," explains Stanislav Yurchenko, Dean of the BMT Faculty.
The cooperation agreement was signed by Mikhail Gordin, Acting Rector of Bauman Moscow State Technical University, and Academician Mikhail Piradov, Director of the Scientific Center of Neurology of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

"We promise that together we will apply our engineering efforts and competencies to such an important topic as the study of the brain. I hope that our cooperation will bring great results," Mikhail Valerievich said.

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Nov 8, 2022
Scientific Center of Neurology

Clinical Neurology and Neurotechnology. Medical newspaper. No5 dated 08.02.2023

New methods of diagnosis and treatment of the most serious diseases are being developed at the Scientific Center of Neurology.

Technological progress has radically changed the situation in the protection of the health of Russians. The Federal Scientific Center of Neurology is one of the most striking examples of this. The most advanced clinical technologies make it possible to quickly make a diagnosis, prescribe adequate treatment, carry out effective rehabilitation, and develop preventive measures. In addition, the center has a modern world-class experimental base. Research on it results in life-saving discoveries.

The Scientific Center of Neurology remains the leading neurological institution in Russia, the largest research, treatment, diagnostic and educational center in our country.

Interview with Vice-President of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences Mikhail Aleksandrovich Piradov about new breakthrough technologies in neurosciences.

READ more at the source:

In an interview with the Vice-President of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Academician Mikhail Piradov, who has been the head of the Research Center for many years, the editor-in-chief of MG, Alexei Papyrin, asked him to talk about new breakthrough technologies in neurosciences.

– Mikhail Aleksandrovich, what are the challenges facing neurology today?

- Epidemiologists' forecasts say that in just 15-20 years, diseases of the nervous system will come out on top among all non-communicable human diseases. They will be ahead of cardiovascular and oncological diseases. Although even now cerebral circulation disorders are only slightly inferior to cardiac pathology in terms of mortality in our country. Therefore, neurologists face a serious task – to continue to engage in effective prevention and, accordingly, early prevention and treatment of neurological diseases. But it is not always possible to warn them at the very beginning. This leads to an important task – effective neurorehabilitation.

Neurorehabilitation has indeed undergone a revolution in recent years, which is largely due to the scientific and technological progress taking place in society. The restoration of the functions of the nervous system is carried out on the basis of the most modern technologies: neural interfaces, virtual reality, computerized, robotic, biomechanical devices... And this allows us to say today in a completely new way about the old catchphrase: "neurologists know everything, but they can't do anything." Now the situation has changed radically, we can do a lot by returning a large number of people to society, many of whom will be able to continue their previous professional activities in full.

Of course, there are a lot of tasks. Medicine has studied the human body well and knows how to treat many diseases of the kidneys, liver, heart and other organs. Finally, we come to the most complex thing on our planet: the human brain. And now neurologists and neurosurgeons successfully cope with a significant number of diseases of the nervous system.
The logic of our development prompted us to move on to the study of the neurophysiology of a healthy person, a healthy brain. Currently, we have projects related to increasing working memory, where we manage to increase working memory by 20% in one session of 30 minutes with the help of navigational transcranial magnetic stimulation. And the main task is to make sure that this effect does not disappear. All the laboratories in the world that deal with these problems are working on how to fix this improvement, which occurs when stimulating certain areas of the brain, for years.

- Does the Scientific Center of Neurology deal with absolutely all socially significant diseases of the nervous system?

- Yes, that's right.
We are the only institution in the country where, along with the other three, there are two 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanners, one of which is Prizma, the most powerful in this class in the world. Neurosurgery, primarily spinal surgery, is well developed, and we are among the leaders in this area as well. A great pride of the NCI is the Institute of Neurorehabilitation, which is part of it, which is included by the WHO in one of the best European centers of this profile. In total, more than 40 domestic and foreign universities, research centers and institutes actively cooperate with us, including such leading universities in the field of neurostimulation technologies as Milan and Liège, Harvard Medical School, with all of which there are joint projects and publications.

In addition, our center includes the famous Brain Institute, founded back in 1928, where serious fundamental research in the field of neuromorphology is carried out, where the unique and only Pantheon of the Brain in the world is located. It stores the brains of our outstanding politicians, scientists, and cultural figures. But, undoubtedly, our most important wealth is our scientific and clinical schools, which have been successfully preserved and developed for more than 75 years.


- There are programs that allow a person to exchange data directly with a computer. Can this be attributed to artificial intelligence?

- If you mean brain-computer interfaces, then this is considered one of the breakthrough technologies of the early 21st century. Humanity has always dreamed of turning thought into action, and with the help of the above-mentioned technology, it has succeeded. What's it? In 1924, Hans Berger discovered brain biocurrents and recorded what is now called an electroencephalogram. How does Brain-Computer-Interface Technology work? A cap with electrodes is put on the head of the examinee, from which a cord goes to a personal computer. A person looks at the lamp and mentally commands, "Light up." This command is taken from the cap and transmitted to the computer. In it, the most difficult thing happens - the selection of the desired team. With the help of telemetry (the computer has a transmitting antenna, and the other receiving antenna is at the lamp), the latter is switched on. The subject gives the command: "Turn off the light" - and it turns off. Doors can also be opened and closed, kettle, TV, etc. can be turned on and off. All this is important for a person confined to a wheelchair or bed, but at the initial stage requires significant efforts and constant training.

It's not artificial intelligence. In this case, the patient's will and intellect are used. We work as medical co-executors with the company "Neurobotics", which makes special devices to use them when a person is paralyzed to one degree or another. He puts his hand into the appropriate device that mimics it, like a glove, and mentally commands, "Shrink." The machine, having received this order, itself bends the immobile arm, straightens it, etc. A person in this glove hand can take something, even though his hand does not work. The technology is indeed very promising, and not only in medicine. You can fly aircraft, anything.

Sergey Alekseenko: Transforming Classical Education into Individual Trajectories

The statistics of Kuban State Medical University are impressive: more than 100 years of history, 7 faculties, 57 areas of training, more than 8.5 thousand students, 67 departments, more than 700 teachers. Applicants are promised innovative teaching methods, training with doctors of the highest category and experienced mentors, participation in clinical trials and scientific research of the Kuban State Medical University Clinic and leading medical institutions of the city and the region... Rector of the Kuban State Medical University, Head of the Department of Disease Prevention, Healthy Lifestyle and Epidemiology, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor Sergey ALEKSEENKO told us how the model of classical higher medical education is being transformed at the university.

– How is your university represented in the Priority 2030 program?

– Since 2024, the university has been the recipient of the basic part of the grant of the Priority 2030 academic strategic leadership program. Since 2021, we have participated in it and developed our activities as a university candidate.

The university's development program is aimed at the socio-economic development of the region, the healthcare industry and the formation of a center for scientific and technological leadership. We focused on three priority areas: biotechnology, digital technologies and human-centricity.

– The university's website states that the university uses innovative teaching methods. What are these methods?

- At present, work has begun on the design and reassembly of higher education programs, which will transform the model of classical higher medical education and implement individual educational trajectories. We launched two interdisciplinary projects: "Big Data" and "Innovative Educational Environment" with different areas (digital morphology, Virtual Physiology, etc.). A competence center has been created to identify and form soft skills in students.

In 2023, we opened the first medical "Boiling Point" in the south of Russia, a federal platform for collective work of a new format, based on the implementation of the National Technology Initiative program. It is aimed at developing skills in organizing and conducting entrepreneurial and project activities, developing creative thinking, conducting negotiations and public speaking.

To reiterate, it is possible to prepare a doctor for the new challenges of the industry if you form an individual educational trajectory for the student, develop supra-professional competencies, that is, the so-called soft skills. This is possible with the use of innovative, modular training methods, as well as with the use of lean technology tools in medicine.

– You mentioned the project of an innovative educational environment. How is it being implemented?

Today, life is inconceivable without digital technologies. A lot of things in our offline lives are going digital. An electronic information and educational environment has been formed, which allows you to interact with the university at any time online. Students and employees can use digital resources at any convenient time, anywhere, just need an Internet connection. The electronic information and educational environment includes the official website of the university, personal accounts of students and staff, a student notification system, an electronic (distance) learning portal, and an electronic catalog of the KubSMU library.

To simplify the use of digital resources, a single authorization system is used, that is, each student receives a single login/password to enter all services and can use them after graduation. Among the services in the digital environment, such as interaction with the university administration, obtaining certificates of study, submitting a problem/proposal, information about the materials necessary for education, paying for tuition and accommodation in dormitories, etc., are available.

– What research projects at the university do you consider to be the most relevant and promising?

– The university staff carries out more than 50 complex research works, more than 20 grants, more than 120 clinical studies and contractual research works. All of these topics are relevant. But the most promising, in my opinion, are the works in the field of regenerative medicine (in 2012, the International Research Clinical Research Center for Regenerative Medicine was opened on the basis of KubSMU) related to the creation of experimental samples of tissue-engineered structures based on decellularized and synthetic matrices. Another project is being actively implemented – the development of a complex biosynthetic nerve implant to replace extended peripheral nerve defects.

In addition, other projects can be considered breakthroughs. For example, under the leadership of Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences V. Porkhanov, the "Kuban Register of Genomics and Therapy of Lung Cancer" is being created, and under the leadership of Professor I. Bykov, the "Development of highly informative methods for screening chronic alcohol consumption" is being created.

A number of projects are related to the creation of artificial intelligence systems for use in radiation diagnostics, CT and MRI diagnostics, anesthesiology and resuscitation. The research developments of our surgeons are devoted to the creation of a wound treatment system through the simultaneous use of vacuum therapy methods and dosed stretching of soft tissues, which in modern conditions is extremely important for the provision of medical care to participants in the special military operation. An individual extravascular stent for patients, new medical devices for robot-assisted and laparoscopic operations are being developed.

Another important scientific and practical area was aeropalynological monitoring in Krasnodar, which since 2018 has been carried out at our Department of Biology with a course in medical genetics. The essence of the project is to constantly monitor the content of certain types of allergens in the surrounding airspace. The monitoring station is included in the interactive world map for monitoring the allergenic environment.

Genetics to Help Oncology

The system of grant support, implemented by the state represented by the Russian Science Foundation, forms a healthy competitive environment in the scientific community and, most importantly, gives young researchers the opportunity to show their potential in both fundamental and applied science. The Foundation has already provided support to a large number of truly talented scientists, seeing in the flow of applications exactly those projects, the results of which will then become a new word not only in Russian, but also in world science.

First Phase Completed

Among the grantees of the RSF is the group of gene immuno-oncotherapy of the Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry. M. M. Shemyakina and Y. A. Ovchinnikova, headed by Irina Alekseenko, Candidate of Biological Sciences. This small but incredibly hard-working team has a chance to go down in the history of science, since each of their projects is aimed at finding not just an original, but the most effective way to fight human cancer and infectious diseases.

So, the Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry has developed the first non-viral gene therapy antitumor drug in Russia. In December 2023, the first phase of his clinical trials was completed.
It is known about the development of Russian scientists that this is a two-component drug. Its first component is circular therapeutic DNA, which contains two genes, one of which is a "killer" of a cancer cell, the other is a stimulator of the immune response. The second is the carrier itself, which delivers DNA to the tumor... The mechanism of action of gene immuno-oncotherapy is as follows: once in the tumor, the drug stimulates the production of proteins in it, which destroy cancer cells and at the same time activate the cells of the immune system, attracting them to help fight the neoplasm.

The Era of Genetics

In general, according to the head of the group of gene immunooncology therapy at IBCh, modern medicine is experiencing the era of genetic technologies. Among the many areas of genetics, I. Alekseenko singles out three that can have the greatest impact on human health and life. The first is the emergence of a new generation of genomic sequencing methods. The so-called NGS sequencing makes it possible to simultaneously determine the nucleotide sequence of millions of DNA fragments, which in turn makes it possible to see the structure of the genome, genetic mutations and changes in the behavior of genes.

- Understanding the genetic basis of the disease opens up fundamentally new approaches to diagnosis and treatment. For example, NGS panels have already been created in the world, with the help of which genome-wide profiling of a specific tumor in a particular patient is carried out, and the information obtained prompts the doctor which treatment will be effective for this cancer patient," the researcher explains.

The second most important area is the CRISPR/Cas genome editing mechanism, which was awarded the Nobel Prize in 2020. And already in 2023, the first drug for the treatment of hereditary diseases, namely sickle cell anemia, was approved abroad, which was designed using CRISPR/Cas "genetic scissors". All patients who received this treatment responded well.

"This example confirms the importance of supporting those fundamental research that can very quickly turn into ready-made medical technologies that change people's lives," emphasizes Irina Alekseenko.

Finally, the third area of medical genetics of strategic importance is gene therapy itself, which is being studied by a group of researchers led by I. Alekseenko. The essence of gene therapy, quite simply, is that with the help of viral or non-viral carriers, therapeutic genes are delivered to human cells. If we are talking about the treatment of a hereditary disease, then the task of the delivered genes is to induce the synthesis of proteins that are not present in these cells. If we talk about oncological pathology, then in this case, genes induce the synthesis of proteins that can kill cancer cells from the inside.

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Nov 8, 2022

Psychophysiologist Alexander Kaplan will hold a seminar on neurointerface technologies

On March 25, Tomsk State University and a network of neurolaboratories invite everyone to an online seminar by Alexander Kaplan, a psychophysiologist and professor at Lomonosov Moscow State University. The topic of the seminar is "Neural Interface Technologies: Achievements and Prospects".

Alexander Yakovlevich Kaplan is a psychophysiologist, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor, Head of the Laboratory of Neurophysiology and Brain-Computer Interfaces of the Faculty of Biology of Lomonosov Moscow State University.

The scientist will present a classification of non-invasive brain-computer technologies developed to date of several generations, from 1.0 to 4.0, with a description of their internal structure, operating parameters, and implementation options. The seminar will also consider the possibilities of creating a new generation 5.0 neural interface technologies focused on the cooperation of the human brain and artificial intelligence.

The seminar will be held online on March 25 at 16:30 Tomsk time (12:30 Moscow time).

On March 25, the interuniversity seminar will open a series of events of the network of neurolaboratories. The goal of the consortium of laboratories is to implement joint scientific projects and discuss individual issues at events, conferences, working groups and seminars.

Among the participating universities are Neurotrend JSC, Tomsk State University, Kazan Federal University, Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, Moscow State Institute of International Relations, Lomonosov Moscow State University, and P.P. Semenov-Tyan-Shansky Lipetsk Pedagogical University. Russian Railways and the Analytical Center for the Government of the Russian Federation have joined the network, on the basis of which neurolaboratories have also been opened. Now the total coverage of the network is 17 laboratories in 10 cities of the country, and in the near future their number will increase.

Research Using Neural Equipment at TSU

The TSU Center for Cognitive Studies and Neurosciences was established in 2022 as part of the strategic project "Socio-Humanitarian Engineering: Research and Design of Man and Society", implemented at TSU with the support of the Priority 2030 federal program.

"The TSU Center for Cognitive Studies and Neurosciences uses equipment that measures a person's neuro- and psychophysiological responses. We work with equipment and software developed by Neurotrend. Cooperation with colleagues from other neurolaboratories gives us great advantages – the opportunity to implement joint projects and conduct experiments in different cities, to have access to an array of data," said Maria Tolstova, Director of the TSU Center for Cognitive Studies and Neurosciences.

As Maria Tolstova emphasized, Tomsk State University conducts its own research and participates in various interdisciplinary projects. In addition, at educational events, scientists show how neuroscience methods can be applied in various fields. So, on March 25, the school "Neurotechnologies in Education" starts at TSU, registration for which is open until March 20."

Dr. Alexander Kaplan
Brain-Machine Connector

Psychophysiologist, founder of first Russian BCI laboratory.

In 1973 graduated from the Department of Human Physiology at Faculty of Biology of Lomonosov Moscow State University. In 1976 he finished his postgraduated study at the same department and in the same year he was left at Moscow State University for research work. Since then, he emerged from research assistant to professor, head of the laboratory, the supervisor of 12 dissertations (Ph.D. projects), many national and international grants such as DAAD, RFBR, RHF, Skolkovo etc.

Ya. Kaplan is one of the leading experts in Russia and abroad in the area of the development of the brain-computer interface technologies: his first article in this area (published in 2005) was about the possibility of creating interfaces based on the unconscious part of the brain to communicate with the external environment. Progress in this area were due to including his developments in the field of human EEG analysis and it’s interpretation, as published in numerous articles in Russia and abroad. Original segmental approach to analysis of the EEG, developed by А. Ya. Kaplan, allowed him to generate a highly sensitive test system for psychopharmacology which led to the creation of new nootropic drug, appreciated as achievement in the area of science and technology in 2002 given as a prize by State Russian Federation Government.

At present, Prof. A.Ya. Kaplan works on the project of creation of the manipulators and robotic systems, controlled by EEG in his laboratories of neurocomputer interfaces at MSU and cognitive processes and interfaces in the National Science Center "Kurchatov Institute".

Lecture by Alexander Kaplan "Neural Interfaces – On the Way to Prosthetics of Brain Functions"

Dear friends, dear colleagues!

On April 10, 2014, the Strategic Public Movement "Russia 2045" will organize a free lecture-teleconference with Alexander Yakovlevich Kaplan, Head of the Laboratory of Neurophysiology and Brain-Computer Interfaces of the Faculty of Biology of Lomonosov Moscow State University.

The topic of the lecture is "Neural interfaces – on the way to prosthetics of brain functions". In the course of the lecture, A.Y. Kaplan will tell:

– how scientists in the neurophysiological laboratories of the world manage to decipher the electrical signals of the brain so much that a person is able to type texts on a computer screen by the power of intention, without touching the keyboard, control a robot at a distance, etc.;

– whether it is possible to prolong the life of a person's personality on the basis of complete prosthetics of his body and the creation of artificial channels for controlling the prostheses of the human body from his brain;

– what are the prospects of neural interfaces in the context of the creation of a new industry – cybernetic medicine, which has a high investment potential?

The lecture is organized as part of the Movement's new project – "Lecture Hall 2045" – and will take place in Moscow at the Central House of Entrepreneurs on April 10 at 19:00 at the address: Pokrovka Street, 47/24, bldg. 1, Press Center, 2nd floor.

Participation is FREE.

With the assistance of the Department of Science, Industrial Policy and Entrepreneurship of Moscow.

Information support -- Center for Innovative Development of Moscow, C-Media Holding, Foundation for the Support of Young Scientists.

Partners of the lecture: Central House of Entrepreneurs, Chamber of Commerce and Industry of the Russian Federation, St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Polytechnic Business Incubator, NeuroTech (St. Petersburg), Fab Lab Polytech (St. Petersburg), Southern Federal University (Rostov-on-Don), North Caucasus Scientific Center of Higher Education of the Southern Federal University (Rostov-on-Don), Navigator Campus Technopark (Kazan), Samara State Aerospace University named after Academician S.P. Koroleva, ANO "NBICS" (Kaliningrad), Kaliningrad Chamber of Commerce and Industry (Kaliningrad), Komus, State Budgetary Institution of Higher Education RIAC (Volgograd), Public Organization "Nadezhda" (Volgograd)."


Biologist Anastasia Simakova in the podcast "The Future Has Come"
About science with Oksana Fadeeva

Scientists from Tomsk State University plan to use Siberian species of invertebrates to produce food supplements with a high content of animal protein and essential amino acids that are useful for humans and beyond.

The trend of the times is that more and more countries are using invertebrate animals as a source of protein. The essence of the idea is to provide the human body with vital elements that we do not receive in the right amount due to our usual diet. Each person's body has its own characteristics, the need for nutrients in the population is different, so scientists intend to learn how to regulate the concentration of vitamins and trace elements in invertebrate animals.

In favor of invertebrates as a promising source of raw materials is the fact that there are no toxic substances in the biomass of animals raised for food. Only edible insects that do not produce or accumulate toxins are cultivated in industry.

Read more about this topic in the issue with the project leader, Head of the Department of Invertebrate Zoology of the TSU Institute of Biology Anastasia Simakova.

The project "3.14 The Future Has Come" was created with the support of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation.


TSU biologists have created a method for growing the bronze beetle for food supplements

Invertebrate animals, which contain large amounts of protein, are becoming an increasingly popular base for dietary supplements. For the third year in a row, biologists at Tomsk State University have been developing approaches to increase the level of micro- and macronutrients in invertebrates. Recently, researchers from the TSU Institute of Biology have created a technology for laboratory cultivation of the golden bronze beetle, the larvae of which have a large biomass. In the laboratory, the productivity of the animal has increased fivefold, which makes its cultivation highly profitable.

"Golden bronze is one of the best species for growing," explains Anastasia Simakova, Head of the Department of Invertebrate Zoology at the TSU Biological Institute. "They multiply rapidly, their larvae contain a large amount of animal protein. The uniqueness of this species is that in their cultivation, unlike many other representatives of this group, the food is not food plant waste, but waste from the pulp industry, including sawdust. At the same time, the processed wood residues are turned into a useful product - organic fertilizer.

Adult bronze beetle

In the course of the research project, which biologists are implementing on the basis of the TSU Agrobiotech Research School, a technology for growing bronze in the laboratory has been developed. At the same time, the ability to reproduce and the speed of development of the beetle increased several times. Scientists have already submitted a patent application.

"According to the data presented in the scientific literature, it was believed that a female gives a maximum of 15 eggs in one clutch, and we have proven in practice that she gives 5 clutches of 15 eggs," says Anastasia Simakova. "At the same time, it is believed that adults do not live very long in the wild, but in laboratory conditions everything is different. We see that females live for two months and continue to reproduce regularly. At the same time, the reproduction cycle from egg to egg, during which the bronze grows into an adult and begins to bear offspring, has been reduced from two years to six months. This significantly increases the profitability of growing bronze.

Bronze beetle larva

The advantages also include the fact that the insect, which lives in Siberia and is adapted to its climatic conditions, is very unpretentious, in particular, does not need high temperatures. Bronze beetles can be grown in the dark with minimal energy consumption, only adult beetles need sunlight for a short time.

It should be added that food and nutritional supplements from invertebrate animals are popular not only in Asian countries. In many European countries, there are large-scale farms that supply raw materials with a wide range of useful properties to the agricultural industry and the food industry. For example, protein-rich biomass can be used for sports nutrition. The growing popularity of invertebrates as a component of food is also growing in Russia. For example, at the Innofood 2023 International Forum, visitors were treated to cricket snacks.

It should be noted that TSU scientists have completed experiments to increase the level of nutrients in invertebrate animals due to special nutrition. In the near future, they will present the results of their work to food companies in Russia and the general public.

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Nov 8, 2022
Novosibirsk State University
Alexander Kaplan: "We live in a reconstructed reality"


On March 15, Alexander Yakovlevich Kaplan, a well-known neurophysiologist, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor, Head of Laboratory. at the Faculty of Biology of Lomonosov Moscow State University, held a lecture-discussion on the resources of the human brain and the capabilities of artificial intelligence. He arrived in Akademgorodok to conduct research at the International Tomography Center of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The meeting was organized by the Education Foundation and the Institute of Medicine and Psychology of NSU. The scientist spoke about the resources of the brain, the peculiarities of its perception of the world around it and its advantages over artificial intelligence. The audience learned why the human brain has not increased in size in the process of evolution, how the image visible to the eye gets into it, and why artificial intelligence will not defeat human intelligence in the near future.

Weight is not the main thing

At the beginning of his speech, Alexander Kaplan dispelled the myth about the dependence of an individual's intellectual level on the weight of his brain. The scientist gave an example: Ivan Turgenev's brain weighed 2 kg, Albert Einstein's weighed 1.23 kg, and Anatole France's weighed just over 1 kg. If we compare the weight of the human brain with the representatives of the animal world, it is clearly noticeable that it loses to an elephant, which has this indicator of 5 kg. It turns out that it's all about the neurons in the brain, or rather, in the connections between them, the synapses.

- The brain is the most complex, the most mysterious, and the most mysterious object in the universe. The thickness of the human cerebral cortex is only 3-4 mm, but it contains about 80 percent of its nerve cells. There are 86 billion of them in the human brain, and each of them is in contact with 10-15 thousand of their own kind. In the brains of great apes, there are 10 times fewer nerve cells. And the question arises, why is the difference between humans and apes so great? What does man possess that these animals lack?

The answer is known: it is language as a tool for communication and thinking. This evolutionary acquisition of man has seldom dislodged him from the animal environment. The 5-kilogram elephant brain contains 256 billion nerve cells, far more than a human, but it has not become smarter than a human. Why? The answer is simple – the elephant is big. This means that he has a lot of muscle mass. Muscles are made up of individual muscle fibers. They are the same size as a mouse, a human, or an elephant. Larger muscles are made up of more muscle fibers, and each needs its own nerve cell. It turns out that an elephant needs much more muscles to control than a human. Therefore, about 250 billion nerve cells are located in the cerebellum, which is responsible for coordinating movements, and there are not so many neurons left in the cortex - about 2 billion. For humans, the situation is different. Of the 76 billion nerve cells, about 22 are found in the cortex. The difference is huge! Alexander Kaplan explained.

Electronic neurons

In computer processors, transistors perform the functions of neurons. A single substrate could accommodate 20 billion of these "electronic" neurons. But, according to Alexander Kaplan, this does not mean that they have come closer to humans, although the difference in the number of living and artificial "nerve cells" is not so great, because the operational unit of the human brain is not them at all, but synapses.

- Hypocampal synapses have 26 discrete states, which means a million billion multi-position contacts. It turns out that our brain is a giant monstrous machine, and if we “switch” a synapse somewhere from the 24th state to the 15th, its new state appears. With such a variety of states, it is capable of describing the variability of the external environment with high resolution,” said Alexander Kaplan.

To realize the full functionality of the human brain, the processor must produce a billion billion operations per second. Alexander Kaplan explained that prototypes of such devices have already been created, but it has not been possible to simulate the functioning of the brain due to its insufficient knowledge. But such devices can be used for large-scale and ultra-fast calculations, where it is necessary to sort through a large number of combinations and calculate many models. However, as Alexander Kaplan clarified, such machines, although close to the human brain, are much inferior to it in terms of energy intensity. If the brain consumes 25 watts per hour, then one of the prototypes of its artificial analogue is 25 megawatts, and the other is 50. To supply such devices with energy, it would be necessary to build a nuclear power plant, while the human brain functions perfectly at much lower costs.

Modeling reality

Students were interested in the question of how an image of an object gets into the human brain through the organs of vision. Alexander Kaplan explained that the projection of the object falls on the retina, which in its sensitivity is comparable to a 126-megapixel matrix. Next, it follows the optic nerve, in which a million nerve fibers pass, scattering into impulses. It is they, and not the projection of the image, that enter the brain, which, based on a scattering of nerve impulses, previous individual experience and existing knowledge, reconstructs reality. This is precisely what can explain the fact that the verbal description of the same object by different people has both common and different characteristics.

— We live in a reconstructed reality. Our head is full of templates, and when reconstructing an object, our brain runs the projection that enters it through them. If there is a match, it expands the suitable template into a thinner row, and the search continues until the template completely matches the projection. This is how we recognize objects. If there is no suitable template, we may simply not see them. But there is another mysterious mechanism in our heads that additionally looks at this world. Someone who initially seems to already know what and how is happening in the outside world. This is a dynamic mental model of the external world built by our brain. This is why we need billions of multi-position synapses. She can fast forward and go back in time and predict future events. In this case, everything depends on how well she has modeled the existing patterns. When realizing all this, it becomes obvious that man has broken away from the animal world and represents a completely new creature on the planet. He contains the world in his head, and the model he has built contains not just pictures, but also many shades of the surrounding environment,” explained Alexander Kaplan.

Artificial intelligence is also capable of creating its own model of the world, only it is somewhat different from the “human” one. Alexander Kaplan explained how this happens using the example of chess and card games. In chess, the job of artificial intelligence is to remember the opening outcomes of games from championship games. In poker, this option is ineffective, and knowledge of opening bases is useless, but nevertheless, artificial intelligence has successfully learned to beat humans. As Alexander Kaplan said, the machines played with each other for a long time and together they compiled a table of the most winning moves with a probability of correct predictions of 57%. But whether simple memorization can be called intellectual activity is a controversial issue. However, a device has already appeared that is capable of playing chess not only without an opening base, but also without knowledge of the rules of the game. However, by teaching herself independently, by going through combinations, after 21 days she begins to defeat all chess programs. But, upon reaching the highest level, the process for some reason stops.

- I'll tell you a secret. Inside these “smart machines” a mental model of external reality is formed, but in this case it is chess compositions, and the machines begin to feel exactly the model description - they form a kind of holistic understanding of the chess game, just like human chess players. Currently, intelligent machines based on neural networks are gradually beginning to develop a model of the outside world through machine learning, but this does not mean that we should expect competitors to appear. Unlike artificial intelligence, we have human needs that require extensive communication in this world and a deep understanding of the surrounding reality, unattainable even for the smartest machines,” Alexander Kaplan said at the lecture."

Alexander Yakovlevich Kaplan / Experts

Alexander Yakovlevich

Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor, Head of the Laboratory of Neurophysiology and Neural Interfaces, Faculty of Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University

"By the time it becomes possible for the brain to be transferred to an artificial body, the robots will have already achieved perfection of form and look like a perfectly decent human body..."


The brain dies young

The unique capabilities of the human brain, how to live three hundred years and what to do in an artificial body, says Professor, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Head of the Laboratory of Neurophysiology and Neurointerfaces of the Faculty of Biology of Moscow State University. M.V. Lomonosov Alexander Yakovlevich Kaplan.

Russia 2045: Alexander Yakovlevich, what do you think about the forecasts that in the near future scientists will be able to create an artificial human body - more perfect, more durable?

Alexander Yakovlevich Kaplan: As a physiologist, I don’t see any problems in creating artificial human organs, even such complex ones as the liver or heart. The liver is complex in its biochemistry, the heart - in biomechanics. And yet, there are no fundamental obstacles to making these organs from certain materials, repeating biological patterns, processes and forms to a greater or lesser extent. But to make an artificial brain... Some brain functions can be reproduced. For example, a computer can handle computational tasks better than us. Memory can also be recreated. Perception can be made clearer, better and with greater resolution than we have. Sooner or later all this will be done. But there is one brain function that cannot be reproduced by technical devices. It is very simple in meaning, but mysterious in content. Apparently, it was for this function that the brain was formed and improved. This function is the creation of a working model of the external world, or our internal world of mental images...

Russia 2045: Do you mean imagination?

A.Y.K.: This is more than imagination - it is a whole world inside us. In fact, we live in this inner world. There is no mysticism here. Judge for yourself: the retina of the eye is the last screen where objects of the outside world are still physically reflected. This reflection then scatters along the million fibers of the optic nerve and is fanned out by nerve impulses throughout many brain structures. Where do I actually look at the objects of the external world? It turns out that the brain again, already within itself, synthesizes images of these objects, which become accessible to my consciousness. The brain, which creates a mental image of the physical world, is the most amazing invention of nature. After all, a mental image is not a photographic imprint, but a living entity. Now I close my eyes and can imagine you not as a portrait, but as a character in an unfolding play: you studied, got married, gave birth to children, etc. I can imagine flying over the ocean or finding myself in a country where I have never been...

Russia 2045: ...or come up with a new scientific theory.

A.Y.K.: Yes, exactly. A complete internal model of the world allows a person to play out options for possible reality, including hypotheses. For example, if you are about to have a conversation with your boss, then you can explore possible scenarios for this conversation in advance by simply closing your eyes. This is the advantage a person has gained by possessing a brain with the function of synthesizing mental images! No animal stands a chance against a human who has the art of viewing possible futures.

Russia 2045: How to Make a Tool That Will Create Inner Peace?

A.Y.K.: There are no leads. The brain is an extremely complex thing, with a hundred billion elements. That's a lot! The most powerful processors contain thirty million switching elements, soon there will be fifty, a hundred. And there are already a hundred billion in the brain! By the way, when we talk about 100 billion nerve cells, this is also wrong, because the operating unit of the brain is not a neuron, not a single cell. Each cell has 5,000 to 10,000 contacts with other cells. Each contact has 15 to 20 status options. Multiply a hundred billion by a hundred thousand contacts, and each contact has the same number of degrees of freedom, and you get a number that is greater than the number of atoms in the universe! Such is the combinatorics of brain states!

Yes, computers have become complex and will be much more complex and powerful. But they will always work only according to the rules that its creators invented. And no matter how sophisticated science fiction writers are when describing how computers will start plotting against people, this will not happen simply because for this computers must have their own inner world, desires, feelings, goals, i.e. everything that a person achieves in the course of his individual development, being a social being.

Russia 2045: Do psychology and neurophysiology really not have any ideas for creating an artificial brain?

A.Ya.K.: Both sciences have more than enough ideas, but each explores its own. Neurophysiologists study how information is encoded, how nerve impulses are transmitted, how they reach synapses (a synapse is the point of contact between two nerve cells. - Ed.). But neurophysiology cannot study how an image is born, because an image is an immaterial entity. How to study it? Only by asking a person: “Well, was the image born or not? If yes, what is he like, what does he look like?” This is not for neuroscientists. There are psychologists. Their task is to work with images. They study the patterns of existence of images! Perception, memory, thinking, and other operations with images—psychologists do all this, but they are also distracted from how exactly these images arise in the brain. How is an image created from neurotransmitters and nerve impulses? There's a gap here. In principle, this is the field of psychophysiology - the border between neurophysiology and psychology of science. However, psychophysiologists are still very far from understanding the mechanism of generation of mental images and how these images influence real human behavior. Indeed, what is the specific mechanism of the influence of melody on human behavior? The influence is not of sound, but of melody! What's the difficulty? The fact is that the melody is immaterial. Melody is a mental image.

Russia 2045: Thus, moving along with evolution towards increasing the degrees of freedom of our body, we will be forced to keep the brain unchanged?

A.Y.K.: This is a philosophical problem. High complexity of the brain is needed in order to create a full-fledged model of the external world. In this sense, we have had a perfect brain for many thousands of years. Another thing is that the brain can have much greater complexity and greater capabilities than those provided to it by the human body itself: only five sense organs, only two eyes, two arms, two legs, etc. After all, man actually escaped the further evolution of the body as soon as he showed that one can win at the expense of the mind. Who knows, maybe if you expand the capabilities of the body, for example, give it a couple of artificial manipulators in addition to the existing hands, then the brain will have the opportunity to master all this management?

Russia 2045: When we create an artificial body, will we still have to carry the brain with us?

A.Y.K.: The brain will need to be preserved until the last. But the fact is that the brain has properties that allow it to live much longer than the rest of the body. The brain is the only organ whose cells do not arise anew, unlike the cells of the liver, blood, and muscles. Why is this happening? The brain is an information machine; there is experience of connections between brain cells. The entire inner world is based on this neural network! What happens if some cells die and new ones take their place? They will begin to spoil everything and establish some new connections.

Russia 2045: Do you consider the “human brain-artificial body” combination a promising idea?

A.Ya.K.: If you create good systems for supporting the vital activity of nerve cells, then the brain will probably be able to live for at least two hundred years. Extending the life of the brain by a hundred years is a fundamentally new prospect for the individual! A person will understand that he lives, absorbs knowledge, and it will not be buried in the ground. This will be a storehouse that will grow and accumulate wisdom for a long time. Imagine, now students would be taught by a man who was born two hundred years ago! People don't have time to realize themselves. The brain actually dies young. Sclerosis is a problem of blood vessels, not nerve cells. Sixty years pass, a person dies, and the next one starts from scratch again. He will, of course, read books, but he has no experience of his own!

Russia 2045: I.e. are we talking about the brain as an organ that could be transplanted?

A.Ya.K.: Not to transplant, but to create conditions to ensure the vital activity of the brain. Whether to place the brain in some kind of flask or in an artificial body is a matter of technology.

Russia 2045: And if you put the brain in a flask and create a neural interface, then it can have several bodies for different cases.

A.Ya.K.: The brain-computer interface, or neural interface, is an interpreter of intentions formulated by the brain, translating them into commands for external actuators. In principle, with the help of a neural interface it is possible to give the brain peripheral devices, manipulators, sensors, a movement system, etc. Then the brain will be able to “move” and travel. Yes, some things will be inaccessible to him. But eighty-year-old people are not sad that not everything is physically accessible to them; the main thing is that they can fully use their intellect. Until they reach old age, people will live as they are used to, and then their brain can be transferred to some kind of artificial body and give them the opportunity to live another 100–200 years. The problem of death will still exist, the brain is a biological material, 200 years is a long time, but far from eternity.

By the time it becomes possible to maintain brain life in an artificial environment, biotechnological robots will have achieved perfection of form and will look like a completely decent human body. The “limbs” of such a robot will be equipped with sensitive sensors, and thus the brain will “feel” its artificial body. Moreover, the future lies not in metal mechanics, but in materials that change their rigidity depending on what impulses are sent there. If we talk about the present, then I see the creation of an artificial brush as a priority task, and this is a near future.

Russia 2045: Please tell us about neural interfaces! What successes and new directions of research are there?

A.Ya.K.: The very idea of a neural interface is really not new. It was found that a person can learn to control the electrical potentials of the brain. All that remained was to develop methods for deciphering these potentials and turning them into commands, for example, for a computer. About 15 years ago the first ideas and implementation appeared. There were great hopes that a person would learn to work well with neural interfaces. However, so far they leave much to be desired.

In our laboratory we have one of the fastest neural interface typewriters in the world, but it is still only 12–15 letters per minute - this is very slow. True, if neural interfaces are used in medicine, it will be a tool, for example, for people with damage to the motor system: they will be able to type text literally “with the power of thought.” In the same way, the neural interface can be adapted to control a wheelchair.

The second area of research is creating new brains. You can grow cultures of nerve tissue in a Petri dish and monitor their electrical activity. The problem is that cells grown in this way are simply biomass that have no vital purpose. Let's give them the meaning of life! We will record electrical activity in cells and use it as a signal to control an external device, for example, a source of nutrient solution. Then this biomass will see some meaning in its activities, will begin to learn to get more food, etc. Now scientists in Nizhny Novgorod are doing this under the guidance of Professor Viktor Borisovich Kazantsev.

Russia 2045: How realistic is it to create an artificial body like the one shown in the movie “Surrogates”? If yes, in what time frame can this be done? What technologies already exist, who is involved in such developments?

A.Ya.K.: If you do not set yourself the task of gradually replacing “faulty” human organs and focus only on creating a mobile robot with a neural interface for control from the human brain, then with appropriate support this project can be implemented in the next five years. There are already dozens of scientific laboratories in Russia and other countries that are working on this problem to one degree or another.

Russia 2045: If it were possible to create a center in which specialists from different fields of science work on creating an artificial body and neural interfaces, how should it be organized?

A.Y.K.: In my opinion, this could be a center for research and innovation, existing primarily with private money. This center should have three levels of projects. The first level is for projects that require no more than two to three years of scientific development, followed by their commercialization, for example in the field of medicine, the gaming industry, etc. The second level is fundamental tasks, the development of new principles for constructing artificial human organs, brain life support systems, neural interfaces, with a view to a longer term: 5–10 years. The third level is the level of futuristic tasks, for example, the development of fundamentally new technologies that compete with evolutionarily proven ones to ensure the vital functions of the body, the creation of network neural interfaces, etc.

Russia 2045: Do you think this is fundamentally possible?

A.Ya.K.: This will become fundamentally possible when society seriously thinks about the need to prolong not so much the life of a person as such, but the existence of his personality."


TSU biologists have increased the level of protein and vitamins in worms and snails

Scientists from the Biological Institute of Tomsk State University, as part of experimental studies supported by a grant from the Russian Science Foundation, have changed the content of protein, vitamins and minerals in invertebrate animals grown for the manufacture of food supplements. Such results were obtained for the first time in the world. In particular, it was possible to increase the content of vitamin C, B vitamins, vitamin K, iodine, zinc, iron and other useful elements. At the same time, the raw materials grown for the production of food additives are very environmentally friendly, and the heavy metals that are present in water and soil are detected in extremely low values.

– The content of nutrients (nutrients) in the biomass of invertebrate animals is uneven. It differs not only in different species, but also in individuals kept in different conditions,” explains Anastasia Simakova, project leader, head of the Department of Zoology of Invertebrate Animals of the Biological Institute of TSU. – A number of useful substances may be absent or at extremely low levels. In our study, we set ourselves the task of changing the composition of invertebrate biomass so that all the necessary elements were present in it, and, if possible, increasing the content of some nutrients.

Four species of invertebrates from insects, mollusks and earthworms, traditionally bred in the world as animal feed, preparation of gourmet dishes or disposal of organic waste, were chosen as model ones: the marbled cockroach, the house cricket, the giant Achatina and the red Californian worm.

Giant Achatina Snail

At the first stage, scientists changed the food of invertebrate animals, enriching the nutrient substrate with precursors of vitamins, minerals, macronutrients (protein, fats and carbohydrates). These substances are involved in the metabolism of invertebrates and can lead to the formation of the target nutrient in biomass.

For 30 days, each group received food enriched with precursors.

At the end of the experiment, the composition of invertebrates was examined for nutrient content and the indicators were compared with the concentration of useful elements in control groups that were grown on the same substrates, but without the addition of precursors. – The experiment established a high protein content in the raw biomass of model species: 35.0% in crickets, 20.4% in Achatina, 17.6% in worms, 8.6% in cockroaches. It should be borne in mind that in dry mass these values would almost double, says Anastasia Simakova.

– During the experiment, we were able to significantly increase the protein content in the biomass of cockroaches – more than twice, in worms – 1.2 times. Thus, the content of the main useful substance of invertebrate biomass - protein - can be adjusted and increased to the required values.

The most significant results also included an increase in the level of vitamin C in earthworms by 1.6 times, the content of B vitamins increased significantly, in particular, the level of B7 doubled and almost reached the daily norm for humans. In other invertebrates, increases in the concentrations of vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B7, B9 and B12 were noted to varying degrees. For example, the content of B6, B7 and B12 increased most significantly in crickets; the level of B2, B3, B9 increased noticeably in Achatina snails.

At the same time, during the experiment, the content of fat-soluble vitamins increased in the biomass of invertebrates, but this increase was very uneven. Thus, the greatest increase in vitamin K by 13.8 times was observed in cockroaches, vitamins A, E and D3 in worms.

The experiment showed that the accumulation of fat-soluble vitamins in invertebrate biomass is quite possible, and future experiments may show an upper limit for the accumulation of these substances.

By enriching invertebrate diets, biologists have been able to increase the content of vital minerals such as iron, selenium, zinc, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, iodine and copper. In Achatina, the content of iodine increased the most - by 4.3 times, in cockroaches the content of magnesium increased significantly - by 5.6 times, by 2.5 times - by chlorine and lead, by two times - by iodine and iron. In worms, the levels of iron, selenium, zinc, and iodine increased; in crickets, the most noticeable increase in the concentration of iron, zinc and phosphorus.

Along with this, a study of the mineral composition of invertebrate biomass showed an extremely low content of heavy metals and toxic substances in their bodies.

As Anastasia Simakova notes, the nutritional value of biomass can be further increased - first of all, through the selection and breeding of new lines of “domesticated” invertebrates capable of accumulating a higher content of protein and other nutrients.

It should be added that in 2022, TSU BI scientists were among the first in Russia to begin conducting research necessary to develop improved technologies for growing invertebrate animals. In the fall of 2023, biologists applied for a patent "Cultivation of golden bronze". This and other developments will make it possible to develop the cultivation of invertebrates in Russia for use in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

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