russia through the hidden eye 3

Lalas

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21 March 2024

ITMO Scientists Suggest Platform to Study Cell Communication and Assist Targeted Drug Delivery


Researchers from ITMO University have developed a platform that will help study extracellular cell communication. Unlike its counterparts, the new platform can identify the precise location of cells without interrupting their function – this way, it’s possible to observe cells in their natural state. This solution will facilitate rehabilitation of cell communication after injuries and help create materials for targeted drug delivery. The new platform is described in an article published in Materials & Design.
Biomimetic materials based on hydroxyapatite patterns for studying extracellular cell communication

Abstract

The study of cellular ion channels forms a basic understanding of healthy organ functioning and the body as a whole; however, the native role of signal transmission through ion channels between cells remains unclear. The success of the signal transmission investigation depends on the methods and materials used. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a new approach and system for studying detecting cell–cell communication. In this work, we suggest the system of hydroxyapatite patterns demonstrating piezoresponse in conjunction with fiber-based biosensors for detection of electrical signaling in cellular communities. Our system does not disrupt the integrity of cell membrane... This system could be perspective as an efficient platform to lab-on-a-chip study as well as fundamental understanding of cellular communication during regeneration.





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Extracellular communication is largely responsible for the smooth functioning of the human body and its organs. Cells distribute nutrients and contribute to their synthesis, while also removing toxins and protecting the body from infections. When extracellular communication is disrupted, muscle and bone regeneration takes longer; at the same time, the body can develop various conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease. In order to develop treatments for these conditions, it is important to understand the mechanism of cell communication in detail.

One way in which cell communication occurs is via currents of calcium, sodium, and potassium ions that pass through the cell membrane into the extracellular space and back into the cell. Each type of ion is responsible for a specific function: sodium cations conduct nerve impulses, potassium cations regulate membrane potential, while calcium cations help contract muscles. When we feel pain or are under stress, for example, the body releases a substance to trigger cellular response. For instance, when norepinephrine (adrenaline) activates IP3 ion channels in a cell, this causes it to release calcium ions and contract, sending a signal to its neighbor cells. Next, in a domino-like effect, cells contract one after another, eventually contracting muscles.

There are several methods for studying ion currents. One of them involves inserting a microelectrode inside a cell; however, this can trigger the emission of specific proteins that will affect the measurement of ion currents. Other systems are based on growing artificial tissue and then creating breaks between cells – here, too, there is a possibility of damaging the cell. Researchers from ITMO’s Infochemistry Scientific Center have created a biocompatible system for detecting ion currents in the extracellular fluid that helps observe cells in their natural habitat without interfering with their activities.

“Our system is based on hydroxyapatite (a mineral that forms bone tissue). The platform itself consists of several Liesegang rings – concentric circles that form as a result of precipitation of a solution. We primarily grew cells on these rings. One way that cells communicate is through ion channels. We added norepinephrine, which activates calcium channels, in order to evaluate the pattern of signal distribution within rings and between them. The system’s second component, flexible ion-selective microelectrodes, were used to change the ion currents occurring in the cell. The registered wavelike signal redistribution after the activation of ion channels serves as proof of signal transmission between cells,” says Polina Zyrianova, the paper’s first author and an engineer at ITMO’s Infochemistry Scientific Center.




According to the project’s authors, the connection between rings resembles that between cities. Even though cells settle separately on the rings, they “sense” each other from afar and can transmit signals and even grow towards each other, even though they don’t have sense organs or a consciousness. During their work on the extracellular communication platform, the researchers also noticed the most active cell growth on the third hydroxyapatite ring; they discovered that this ring has the greatest piezoelectric response. The latter plays an important role in bone tissue regeneration – it transforms mechanical pressure into electric pulses that attract stem cells. Once on site, stem cells differentiate into osteoblasts and form new bone tissue or firm up the existing one.


Liesegang rings

For example, martial arts practitioners will have firmer bones than people who do not practice such sports. This would be the result of constant mechanical pressure and the related piezoelectric response. Studying the effect of piezoelectric response on extracellular communication can help the development of functional materials for targeted drug delivery systems.

“We have created a model biomimetic system that resembles a natural bone with a piezo-response. Additional substances can be introduced into the system to stimulate cell growth or release medicine. These studies can be beneficial for the development of implants that facilitate cell regeneration. We are planning to continue our research on re-establishing disrupted cell communication with the goal of designing a material that cells will recognize as ‘kin,’” adds Svetlana Ulasevich, one of the paper’s authors and an associate professor at ITMO’s Infochemistry Scientific Center.




This research project was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (grants No. 21-13-00403 and No. 19-79-10244)."

No. 19-79-10244 - leads to 00403
grants No. 21-13-00403

CARD OF THE FUNDAMENTAL AND EXPLORATORY SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH PROJECT,
SUPPORTED BY THE RUSSIAN SCIENCE FOUNDATION


OVERVIEW

Number 21-13-00403

Title: Programmable Soft Electronics for Bionic Devices

Implementation period supported by RSF 2021 - 2023

Competition No. 55 - 2021 Competition "Conducting Fundamental Scientific Research and Exploratory Scientific Research by Individual Scientific Groups".

Keywords: flexible electronics, eutectic gallium-indium alloy, polyelectrolytes, machine learning, programmable interfaces, nanoengineering, composites, self-assembly, biosensors, laboratory robotics


Annotation
This project is aimed at both the production of flexible electronics devices for neuromorphic computing and the use of such devices in medicine and healthcare (artificial neuron, human-machine interface, etc.). A new paradigm of adaptive materials and ways of self-organization of such materials will be proposed, aimed at certain applications in soft electronics and biorecognition, which is a current strategic direction of science and technology in Russia and around the world.
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Creation of intelligent digital engineering technologies that ensure the receipt and reproduction of breakthrough subject results: for new functional materials; for a new generation of multifunctional flexible electrical devices; to identify and manage the biochemical states of living organisms. The results of this project will have a significant impact on several industries.

Thus, intelligent flexible devices that can be created using the proposed approach can be used in a wide range of areas, in particular, in the development of wearable electronics for health monitoring.

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Annotation of the results obtained in 2022
These days, the importance of soft-material electronics is growing rapidly. Due to its outstanding properties (such as flexibility and extensibility), this type of electrical components can find potential applications for creating portable and wearable electronics, biocompatible devices. Particular attention is drawn to hydrogels doped with various chemical compounds, supramolecular assemblies based on hydrogels, liquid alloys as potential electrical components, with the ability to switch between them.
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Intermittently self-assembling coacervate membranes can be further integrated into new energy storage devices and smart biocompatible membranes for bionics, soft nanorobots, biosensors, and biocomputers. The article is reviewed in the journal of the first quartile Q1.

...

Annotation of the results obtained in 2023
In today's world, the importance of electronics based on soft materials is growing rapidly...
Russian Science Foundation, October 30, 2023

Russian scientists have come closer to unraveling the processes of the origin of life on Earth


together with foreign colleagues

The research is not only able to bring science closer to understanding how the first terrestrial organisms arose, but can also find application in the creation of artificial cells and the development of technologies for targeted drug delivery.
 
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Lalas

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*Znanie = Knowledge



The Decree of the President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin dated 11.12.2015 No. 617 defines the main conditions, forms and mechanisms for creating a mass educational organization of a modern level in the country, as well as, which is fundamental, the sources and procedure for its financing and resource support.

The Russian Society "Znanie" is a public non-profit organization that carries out educational work in the regions, the formation of intellectual content, the organization and conduct of free lectures, as well as various events in the field of education, social support and social protection of students and pupils of educational institutions and the elderly. Today it is an organization that unites tens of thousands of representatives of the Russian intelligentsia.

Regional branches of the Znanie Society operate in 89 constituent entities of the Russian Federation – republics, territories and regions.

The main objectives of the Company are:

  • Popularization of science, introduction of innovations in the educational process
  • Informing citizens about achievements in science in an accessible language
  • Supporting Educators and Students
  • Contributing to the adaptation of the elderly to the modern information world
  • Financing of promising educational projects
  • Education of patriotism in the younger generation, promotion of a healthy lifestyle
  • Preservation of historical and natural monuments
  • Strengthening interethnic unity, combating pseudoscience and falsification of history

Genome Editing: A Scientific Revolution in Human Genetics and Its Future

15 October 2021

Is it possible to change your genetics? Get rid of deadly diseases? Or even create a new person? Scientists from the Kurchatov Genome Center, who are working on editing the human genome, provide a practical answer to all these fantastic questions. A scientific revolution in the world of human genetics and human life with the help of modern technologies is more than possible. In the film of the Russian Society "Znanie" we will talk to scientists about the new reality of man.

Abstract
Speakers: Maxim Patrushev, Deputy Head of the Kurchatov Complex of NBICS-Nature-Like Technologies; Dmitry Fedosov, Head of the Laboratory of the Kurchatov Genome Center; Dmitry Kwon, Head of the Center for Collective Use "Support Center for Sequencing" of the National Research Center "Kurchatov Institute"; Daria Komova, Research Assistant at the Kurchatov Genome Center; Yuri Gerbek, Senior Researcher, Laboratory of Evolutionary Genetics, Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

The film begins with the question: what is genome editing and what does it consist of? Scientists are studying human DNA to understand how genome editing can save people from deadly diseases. There are different ways to affect DNA molecules, for example, with the help of enzymes. First, defective DNA is recognized, after which the enzyme "cuts" the damaged area and inserts new elements into the DNA molecules. In this way, the damaged gene is erased or the correct DNA fragment is built.

Sequencing is the folding of DNA fragments to read it completely. This makes it possible to identify a person's innate predispositions, such as a predisposition to certain diseases, and find ways to treat them using genome editing. For example, today human genome editing is used to remove certain types of malignant tumors. So far, these are only isolated experiments, but scientists continue to develop ways to apply genome editing.

"Doctors of the future will be able to prescribe treatment taking into account the individual characteristics of the patient"

Today, experiments are already being conducted to treat some types of lymphomas by changing the structure of DNA molecules. To do this, certain genome editing methods and a set of drugs that work directly with DNA and help slow or stop the development of a malignant neoplasm are developed. Work is also underway to create oncolytic viruses that specifically penetrate tumor cells and destroy them. To do this, certain manipulations are carried out with the genome, which have 2 key tasks:

1. Direct viruses strictly to tumor cells.

2. Protect healthy cells from the effects of viruses.

Discoveries in the field of genetics can be useful not only in the treatment of cancer, but also in diagnosis. Today, in order to accurately determine a brain tumor, doctors take a piece of it for examination, for which an already weakened patient is operated on. In most cases, this is almost impossible.

Scientists from the Kurchatov Institute have put forward a hypothesis that the prevailing cancer cells should be noted not only in brain tissue, but also in the blood. This made it possible to create a way to diagnose lymphoma. To do this, DNA and RNA are obtained from the blood, then a multi-stage process of obtaining antibodies takes place, which indicate the presence or absence of cancer cells."


LED: The Lighting Revolution That Saved Millions!

09 December 2021
The world's first LED was developed by an employee of General Electric back in 1962, but the real LED revolution has been made in the last couple of decades, saving the world's population a lot of money! The author and presenter of popular science programs on the NTV channel, during his speech at the marathon, shared a list of modern technologies that have revolutionized science. The ranking includes robots, drones, which have become so popular, 3D printers and biometric technologies. You will learn the full list of popular and promising technologies of our time after watching the speaker's speech at the Educational Marathon "Science and Knowledge", organized by the Russian Society "Znanie"!

Abstract
The Bright Future of Technology: From LEDs to Artificial Intelligence with Sergey Malozemov

In today's world, where technology is developing at an unprecedented speed, it is important to be aware of its impact on our lives and the environment. In light of this, the "Miracle of Technology" program, led by Sergey Malozemov, is a phenomenal source of knowledge, combining scientific popularization with practical examples of the application of modern technologies.
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Biometrics: Security and Convenience

The introduction of biometric technology into our daily lives, from fingerprint recognition to facial recognition systems, has greatly simplified many processes, such as access to devices or cars. However, as Malozemov notes, this has also led to the emergence of new challenges, such as risks related to privacy issues.

3D Printing: From Prototyping to Construction

3D printing has demonstrated its ability to dramatically change manufacturing processes, from the creation of customized musical instruments to the construction of buildings. Malozemov highlights the potential of 3D printing for construction on the Moon and Mars, as well as its contribution to medicine, for example, in the manufacture of prosthetics.

Drones: New Shooting and Delivery Options

The use of drones has radically changed the approach to aerial photography, providing new possibilities for cinematography, as well as industrial and agricultural applications. The shows of glowing drones that Malozemov talks about demonstrate their aesthetic and entertainment potential.

Artificial Intelligence and Medical Technologies: The Limits of the Possible


At the top of Malozemov's list are artificial intelligence and medical technologies, which open up new horizons in treatment and improving the quality of life. Innovations in this area range from the introduction of chips to improve the functionality of the body to the use of AI to more effectively diagnose and treat diseases.

Sergey Malozemov and his "Miracle of Technology" program not only inform the public about the latest advances in the world of technology, but also emphasize the importance of critical reflection on these innovations. In a world where technology is constantly evolving, understanding its impact on society and the environment is key to creating a better future.


Genetic Engineering: Discoveries, Challenges and the Future

07 April 2022
Genetic engineering from A to Z. How can you "turn off" a gene? Why isn't research happening as fast as we used to believe? Where are the cell samples for experiments stored, and how do bacteria grow? A researcher at the Human Genome Editing Laboratory will answer these questions and tell the story of his path to his dream in a new film by the Russian Society "Znanie". Join the viewing, it will be interesting!

Abstract
Imagine a world of ideal people, without hereditary diseases and various abnormalities of the body. That's impossible? For now, yes. However, talented scientists in the field of genetic engineering are already working on this. And the Russian Znanie Society talked to such a scientist.

Meet Arina. She is 26 years old and works in the genome editing laboratory of the Research Center for Medical Genetics. The heroine of the film told us about the activities of the center, as well as about the tasks of geneticists, shared her thoughts on the development of this science as a whole.
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One of the directions is to increase the efficiency of gene editing, which is of great value due to the shortcomings of existing technologies that do not allow their use in humans.

For example, Arina does not work with the disease itself, but with a model cell culture, in which a certain mutation is modeled that leads to the synthesis of a defective protein. In the process, attempts are made to correct the mutation in order to ensure the synthesis of a normal functional protein, after which an analysis of the effectiveness and subsequent adjustments of the mutation are carried out using various methods, including those developed in the laboratory.

At the moment, work is being carried out with cystic fibrosis, glycogenosis, a spectrum of muscular dystrophies and other diseases.

Why do we need genetics and gene editing?
Thanks to the system, it is possible to "turn off" the unwanted gene – this is the simplest method. However, in most hereditary diseases, the gene, on the contrary, needs to be "turned on".

Unfortunately, correcting mutations is a complex task that requires a huge amount of time to find a solution. We asked Arina when this would happen, but she found it difficult to specify the timing and clarified that there are already drugs that are at the stage of clinical trials. They are likely to be released to the market in 10 years. But this will only happen if no side effects are detected.

In general, mutation editing will reach the proper level of development, maybe in 50 or 100 years.
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With the help of genetic engineering, it is possible to isolate individual sections of DNA, combine them in a new order, or transfer them to another cell of a different biological species. But what is gene editing for?

First of all, in this way, it is possible to obtain organisms with specified parameters. For example, cultivated plants that are resistant to cold, drought, various diseases or agricultural pests. In this way, fertility can be increased and the risk of crop loss can be reduced.

Secondly, medicine became interested in genetic engineering. After all, science has already proven that not only eye color is inherited, but also a predisposition to certain diseases, as well as various developmental anomalies. By cutting out a "harmful" gene from DNA, it is possible to improve human health and longevity.

In the future, with the help of genetic engineering, it is possible to clone entire organs. After all, transplantology is one of the most complex disciplines of medicine. And a serious problem with organ transplantation is not only their eternal shortage, but also the fact that the donor's organ does not take root well in the recipient, because each person has a unique set of proteins.

Thanks to genetic engineering, valuable medicines have been obtained. For example, human insulin or the antiviral drug interferon. In the future, due to genetics, it is possible to establish the production of various vaccines. However, in addition to technical obstacles, moral obstacles stand in the way of genetic engineering. There is still a heated debate about whether or not it is ethical to edit the human genome. In most countries, there is an explicit ban on human cloning. Also, many states restrict or prohibit the use of genetically modified foods, that is, they oppose genetic changes in agricultural plants and animals.


Smart City: Security and Innovation from NtechLab, a Leader in Facial Recognition and AI

December 21, 2022
What is a smart city? First of all, it is the security of citizens and their personal data. In metropolitan areas and small towns, the security system relies heavily on video surveillance and facial recognition. The company rose to fame in 2015 when it was revealed that its facial recognition technology was more effective than Google's. And in 2021, NtechLab was recognized as the world's best startup in the field of artificial intelligence! You will learn about the formation of the company, its present and future achievements and developments in the new film of the Russian Society "Znanie": "Corporations of the Future. Smart City". Join!
 
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Lalas

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Genetics and Stem Cells: Discoveries in Regenerative Medicine

Vadim Zorin
28 September 2021

A biophysicist and head of the Department of Regenerative Medicine at the Human Stem Cell Institute told the children about genetics and stem cells. Watch our film to learn more about how cells work!
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The researcher talks about how cell engineering technologies help treat serious diseases and improve people's quality of life. He shares his experience and says that he expects a breakthrough in the field of longevity soon.
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The speaker talks about breakthroughs in genetic engineering research.
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However, the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is associated with a number of problems, not only technological, but also moral. To this day, many argue about the ethics of editing the human genome. The possibility of crossing human genes with genes of other species has been proven, but all embryos of such hybrids are destroyed in the early stages of development.

Organisms with a modified genome need to be released very carefully into the environment, because sometimes it is quite difficult to predict how they will interact with ordinary organisms and what will come of it. Many scientists warn that GMOs can pose a threat not only to individual species, but also to entire ecosystems.

But even taking into account all the existing problems and controversial points, genetics does not stand still. Nowadays, one of the most promising areas is stem cell research. These are not fully formed structures from which, by influencing certain genes, almost any tissue can be grown. Doctors and cosmetologists from all over the world are interested in this technology. Already, some clinics can grow retinas and blood vessels from stem cells. But, according to biophysicist Vladimir Zorin, this is far from the limit.


Russia's DNA. The New Digital Reality: Opportunities and Risks

July 10, 2023

The New Digital Reality: Opportunities and Risks Neural networks, robots, eSports, and electronic money have already penetrated our lives, what will happen next? The film "New Digital Reality: Opportunities and Risks" will reveal all the secrets of the digital revolution and explain how it affects the economy, medicine and culture of the country. What are the advantages of digitalization? Is it possible to take only the best from it and avoid pitfalls? Watch and find out how the digital world works today and what awaits us in the near future!

Robots with emotions: exploring the capabilities and purpose of androids

Vladimir Konyshev
27 September 2021

Can you teach empathy to a robot? Not yet, but it is possible to create a robot that can show emotions. Together with the CEO of the Neurobotics Group of Companies, we understand androids and their purpose.
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The speaker says that his company creates anthropomorphic robots in Russia. They take the best engineering solutions from nature itself, based on the principles of building the human body. Neuroscientists study the mechanisms of the eyes, neurons of the brain, ears and other systems of the body. They copy their observations using a complex combination of motors, actuators, and electronic boards.
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The scientist sees prospects in social robots. According to him, the problem of loneliness is especially acute on an overpopulated planet. Artificial intelligence can be the perfect conversationalist. But to do this, he must resemble a human being in everything – in appearance, in behavior, and in response to external stimuli.
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The engineer also answers the most popular question. He does not believe that the latest robot developments are dangerous for humanity. According to him, the reality will turn out to be more prosaic than in science fiction films. Artificial intelligence will soon outstrip humans in many areas, depriving us of our usual jobs. But humans will have new tasks related to setting up and training smart machines. Therefore, the need for education will not disappear. On the contrary, it will become deeper, more practical, and more specialized.
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In 2022, companies are actively developing Russian androids using Russian artificial intelligence and knowledge in robotics. Robots can have intelligent conversations, express emotions with their faces, express feelings, play, ask questions, argue, and even have their own opinions.

Along with the development of humanoid machines, there is an active introduction of good robotic prosthetic limbs, muscles and even organs that are getting better and better. Researchers use their knowledge of the human body and its functioning (biomechanics) to study and create humanoid robots, trying to model and copy the human body to better understand its system. In addition to state-of-the-art research, humanoid robots are being developed to perform everyday tasks such as personal assistance or dangerous work. Because of their humanoid form, androids in the future could theoretically do any dangerous human job in the presence of artificial intelligence, just like in Tesla cars. But at present, the capabilities of artificial intelligence are limited, and the mobility of most machines today is insufficient and far from the capabilities of the human body. Therefore, it is too early to talk about the widespread use of new humanoid robots in everyday life in Russia and the world, as in science fiction films.


Cycle "DNA of Russia". Issue No69 «Artificial Intelligence»

November 23, 2023

Artificial intelligence is increasingly penetrating our lives: a robot vacuum cleaner, an unmanned taxi, a digital operating room. It used to be considered science fiction, but today it's the world we live in. Who invented one of the first versions of the computer? What is ChatGPT? Why were the laws of robotics created? In our new film, you will learn everything about the device of artificial intelligence and even more! Happy viewing!

March 15, 2024
Deputy Chairman of the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, Honored Lawyer of the Russian Federation Irina Yarovaya discussed with the participants of the lecture hall of the Znanie Society at the International Exhibition and Forum "Russia" the issues of the country's environmental safety and the importance of defending its sovereignty today. The meeting took place on March 15 in Pavilion No. 19 "ATOM" as part of the thematic educational week "Achievements of Russia", the general partner of which is the Russian Society "Znanie".
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The speaker also drew attention to the fact that Russia's state policy is primarily aimed at preserving human life and health. According to Irina Yarovaya, it is this policy that fundamentally distinguishes our country from the ideology of the "golden billion", which is aimed at narrowing the living space through environmental disasters, the spread of diseases and even the imposition of the childfree ideology. She cited the example of projects to create bioweapons in Ukraine, which were sponsored by the United States.

"Today, our efforts in the country are aimed at strengthening sanitary and epidemiological well-being and the development of modern technologies in order to create reliable security guarantees. These are guarantees so that everyone can plan their lives and predict their future, being sure that the system of security measures in the country reliably protects it," explained Iryna Yarovaya.


An online marathon from Rosmolodezh.Business was held in the studio of the Znanie Society
December 09, 2022


On December 8, the Rosmolodezh.Business track of the Federal Agency for Youth Affairs summed up the results of the All-Russian Program for the Development of Youth Entrepreneurship live.
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Ilya Chekh, co-founder of Motorika, in his speech as part of the Business.Generation project, told what startups need to do in order for their project to develop. Today, the robotics engineer's company has already provided more than 4 thousand patients with bionic prostheses. At the same time, the developers managed to reduce the cost of the product several times (relative to foreign analogues) due to Russian technologies. Ilya Chekh told the audience about the main stages of the company's development. In his opinion, everything always starts with an idea, then comes the stage of testing key business hypotheses, and then scaling: regional and international. At the same time, the expert pointed out, only a fully completed product with all the necessary "binding" should be scaled.


Today, Motorika conducts research with teams of neurosurgeons and specialists in the field of neural interfaces.

"The goal of this work is to create an interface through which a person can feel his or her prosthesis. These are complex invasive or implantable interfaces, and we are now focused on their development," added Ilya Chekh.


Science in faces. Andrey Brovin

Russian Society "Znanie"
December 27, 2023


Today, science is able to "turn on" and "off" individual human and animal genes by programming a new genotype. This is made possible by gene therapy. What gene therapy is, how it works, and why humanity needs it – we will discuss in the new episode of the podcast "Science in Faces"!

Revolution in Education: Digital Technologies and Future Professions

December 14, 2022

A revolution in education? Already here! Today, schoolchildren and students study very differently than they did 10 or even 5 years ago. Technology has transformed learning and made it possible for everyone to learn at any age and anywhere. What is Digital Education? What professions of the future are being taught now? How well equipped are the creative and production laboratories on Russian campuses? VR, AR, neural interfaces, game design, and new educational formats in the new Techno-Optimists series. Like if you support the idea of online learning!

How and why to study the brain?

Speaker Maxim Ostras

January 11, 2022

The brain is the least understood organ in our body. Many experts agree that it is the most complex object in the known part of the universe, and we still haven't discovered all its mysteries. What is the brain in terms of science? Why and how to research it? What do quantum sensors have to do with it? And where can this lead us? In order to understand these complex issues, the head of the spin-off of the Russian Quantum Center visited us!


It is said: "Someone else's soul is darkness." The brain is even bigger
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It is the least understood organ of the human body, and the exact knowledge of scientists about it is extremely limited. Neuroscience, in particular, neurophysiology, is called upon to shed light on dark places. This branch of physiology studies the functions and abilities of the brain and nervous system.

Unfortunately, in modern times, scientists are unlikely to come much closer to the final point of this story. However, "smart" research technologies already exist and are actively developing.

What? How does it work? And why do we need a science that studies the brain at all? We found out together with Maxim Ostras, the head of the spin-off of the Russian Quantum Center.
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What medical projects interested Maxim Ostras?
The guest mentioned the targeted delivery of medicines. In simple terms, these are nanocontainers with certain drugs needed to treat specific diseases. Such containers are directed strictly to the areas to be affected by the drug, accumulated and released under local exposure.

The development of such technology is the key to a breakthrough in many areas of medicine, especially in oncology. Watch more about research, neural interfaces, neurophysiology, its goals and objectives in the video.
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The human brain is the main organ of the nervous system, in which there is an active interaction of neurons with synaptic connections. This guarantees the formation of complex electrical impulses, through which the activity of all body systems is controlled.
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Another sensational development was the creation of a brain chip by Elon Musk. According to the developers, their "brainchild" allows a person to catch sounds that are beyond the boundaries of the usual frequencies. The main goal of the chip is to implant electronic interfaces in the brains of paralyzed people, which will allow them to communicate using computer technology and smartphones.

According to scientists from Neuralink, to achieve this goal, it is planned to use special "filaments" 4-5 μm in diameter, which ensure the transfer of information to the main processor. Such "threads" must be implanted in the brain through a robotic surgeon, avoiding blood vessels to minimize inflammatory processes. Theoretically, a "beam" with six such neurons, containing almost 200 electrodes, is capable of developing and significantly expanding human abilities, which could become a new branch of evolution.

Another new invention is nanoparticles that can penetrate brain. Thanks to their use, it will be possible to accelerate the development of technologies for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and other neurodegenerative pathologies.


Recently, scientists have stated that the technology of implanting neural interfaces in brain is already working for the benefit of humanity. This system allows you to establish interaction between the brain and the computer, which ensures a two-way exchange of information. This makes it possible to generate commands for external devices (computers, applications, robots, drones, prosthetics, exoskeletons, etc.) using brain activity. Such interfaces will allow for the study of the brain and training for brain development.

Techno-Optimists: How Technology Overcomes Limitations and Gives People Back a Fulfilling Life

December 19, 2022

Robotic arms and artificial eyes are no longer the imagination of science fiction writers, but real achievements of medicine and engineering. Who removes barriers for people with disabilities and how? Can technology bring back those who have lost their hearing and sight to a full life? What are the main misconceptions around the notorious "neural interfaces" and their advantages? Can Virtual Doctors Replace and Surpass Conventional Doctors? The heroes of "Techno-Optimists" will tell you about it!

Alexander Zharov, CEO of Gazprom-Media Holding, told young people about the relationship between cinema and neurobiology at the Russia Exhibition

March 22, 2024

Alexander Zharov, CEO of Gazprom-Media Holding, told young people what kind of characters the modern film industry needs, how knowledge in the field of neurobiology can help manage the emotions of viewers, and what trends in content production are currently relevant, Alexander Zharov, CEO of Gazprom-Media Holding, told young people at the Russia International Exhibition and Forum in Moscow. The performance took place in the Gazprom pavilion and was organized by the Russian Znanie Society, the general partner of the Exhibition's educational program.

The meeting with Alexander Zharov was held in the form of a live dialogue with the audience, everyone could share their opinion and ask a question. At the beginning of the conversation, the head of the country's largest media holding said that last year Gazprom-Media Holding launched its own neuroproduction studio to optimize work with content.

"We use new technologies, such as artificial intelligence, neural networks, and user personality profiling, to process content faster and better understand what the viewer expects from us. And we not only use content generated by artificial intelligence, in addition, neural networks help us process archival content, implement advertising special projects, and create virtual presenters," said Alexander Zharov.

The relationship between film and the basics of neuroscience has become an important topic for discussion. Alexander Zharov explained how the human brain works, the limbic system, in which emotions originate, what chemical reactions occur in the body when watching a particular genre, and how all this knowledge can be used in content creation. According to the lecturer, emotions affect all systems of the body, and in addition to changes in mood, even the physical state of a person often changes. One of the most important characteristics of emotions is their connection with cognitive processes, memory, and imagination.


March 16, 2024
State Duma deputy, journalist and TV presenter Evgeny Popov discussed the role of the media in modern society with the participants of the Znanie Society's lecture hall at the Russia International Exhibition and Forum. The audience learned how to search for the truth in the era of information wars and what role education plays in this. The meeting took place on March 16 in Pavilion No. 19 "ATOM" as part of the thematic educational week "Achievements of Russia", which was included in the educational program of the Exhibition. The general partner of the educational program is the Russian Znanie Society.
..

"With the help of words, with the help of information, the entire world system, all politics moves. Information is a beautiful phenomenon that gives us additional opportunities. But when people who want from you what you don't want are infiltrated into your choice, it turns into elements of information warfare," the lecturer said.

The results and development plans of the Russian Znanie Society were discussed in Volgograd

March 19, 2024

..
The reboot of the Russian Znanie Society took place in 2021 by decree of the President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin. Now the Znanie Society is an organization that is engaged in educational activities, instills patriotism in the younger generation, proves to young people that there are opportunities for self-realization in Russia, and conducts free lectures. Regional branches of the Znanie Society already exist in 89 regions of Russia, including the Volgograd Region."

***
 
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Moscow State University Lomonosov

FACULTY OF COMPUTATIONAL MATHEMATICS AND CYBERNETICS

DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTING SYSTEMS AND AUTOMATION



**
(*krugozor = horizon)

Krugozor Lecture Hall

We can't predict
As our word will resonate,
And sympathy is given to us,

How grace is given to us.


F.I. Tyutchev



The lecture hall "Krugozor" is organized by the Department of ASVK in order to expand the worldview of students, show achievements, horizons, topical problems of philosophy, science, religion and art.

Goals:


To expand the range of knowledge and ideas of students in various areas of human activity related to the sciences of the surrounding animate and inanimate nature, society and man.

To show the achievements of humanity in the scientific, technological, industrial and spiritual fields.

To show the interconnection of the scientific and the spiritual in different areas of human activity.





March 25, 2024

On March 14, 2024, as part of the Krugozor lecture hall, ALEXANDER YAKOVLEVICH KAPLAN will give a lecture on the topic "Non-invasive technologies "BRAIN-COMPUTER": theoretical foundations and experiments, achievements and prospects"

ALEXANDER KAPLAN – Professor, Head of the Laboratory of Neurophysiology, Faculty of Biology, Moscow State University

Venue – auditorium. P-8a, 2nd academic building, 28.03.2024 at 18:00





Ufa University of Science and Technology
February 6, 2024

At the Center for Molecular Medicine of Ufa University, you can get a genetic passport

In 2024, a laboratory of molecular bioinformatics and a bioinformatics center were opened in Bashkiria thanks to a megagrant of 90 million rubles from the Ministry of Education and Science. Also, the republic now has a laboratory of functional structural genomics, which is engaged in the molecular genetic study of oncological diseases.

And around. The director of the Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics of UFIC RAS, head of the Department of Genetics and Fundamental Medicine of the Ufim University of Science and Technology Elsa Husnutdinova said at a press conference in the Bashinform agency that scientists are researching oncological diseases such as breast cancer, ovarian cancer, stomach cancer, prostate cancer, kidney cancer and lung cancer. Over the past three years, genes responsible for their development have been identified. Residents of Bashkiria who have had patients in their family or pedigree can undergo diagnostics and obtain a genetic passport at the Center for Medical Genetics or at the Center for Molecular Medicine at the University of Science and Technology in Ufa. There the determination of mutations in genes for hereditary diseases is carried out.


February 27, 2024

The team of the management company of the Eurasian REC was presented with the technological innovations of the UUN&T


The team of the Management Company of the world-class Eurasian Research and Education Center visited the Ufa University of Science and Technology.

UUNiT is the youngest university in the country, but it has a rich history, long-term traditions, leading scientific schools and world-renowned scientists, as the greatest value of the two strongest universities - Bashkir State University and Ufa State Aviation Technical University.

Natalia Latypova, Director of the Management Company of the REC of the Republic of Bashkortostan, noted the key role of the university in the development of science and education in the republic:

"Ufa University of Science and Technology is the largest center of education and science in Bashkortostan, where young people who have chosen the path of scientific development and creative search study. Scientists work on innovative projects with applied perspectives, achieve success in prestigious scientific competitions, and become the owners of grants to continue their frontier research. The university is expanding the range of scientific areas, there are opportunities for additional education within the framework of the Priority 2030 and Advanced Engineering Schools programs," said Natalia Latypova, Director of the Management Company of the REC of the Republic of Bashkortostan.

Georgy Ageev, Vice-Rector for Innovation Activities, introduced the guests to the structural divisions of the university: faculties and institutes, laboratories and a multifunctional student office.

Georgy Ageev paid special attention to the projects implemented within the perimeter of the world-class Eurasian REC.

As part of technological projects, university scientists conduct research in the field of digital production technologies for aerospace technology, develop key parts for new generation electrical and thermal machines for aviation, technologies and components of integrated radio photonics, advanced implantable devices for restorative and regenerative medicine, digital predictive analytics systems for personalized medicine.

At the meeting with Vadim Zakharov, Rector of the Ufa University of Science and Technology, new vectors for the development of additional education programs, scientific and technological research conducted at the university, campus policy and interuniversity cooperation in the field of innovation, as well as new options for supporting young scientists were discussed.

As a result of the meeting, ways were found to introduce innovative developments of the Ufa University of Science and Technology into real production.

Reference:

Already now in the UUNiT –

• 45,000 Russian and 2,000 international students
• 2500 teachers, 1500 of them are doctors and candidates of sciences
• 6 branches
• 150 Bachelor's, Master's and Specialist's programs
• 700 educational programs in the humanities, natural sciences and engineering
• 2 campuses and 16 dormitories


Priority 2030


Strategic project "Design of Functional Materials"

Center for Design of Functional Materials

Purpose of the Center:
The new university should become a recognized center in the Eurasian space for the development of science and technology in the field of modeling, creation and standardization of functional materials and coatings for biomedicine, biosensorics, organic nanoelectronics, photonics, aircraft and mechanical engineering

Objectives of the Center:
1. To develop research in the field of digital modeling of materials in non-equilibrium states and extreme operating conditions, the creation of functional nanostructured metals and alloys, wear-resistant, corrosion-resistant and biocompatible coatings, biodegradable metal and polymer materials, materials and semiconductor structures for photonics, biosensorics and organic electronics


..
7 RSF grants were won, including 4 under the Presidential Research Grants Program, as well as 9 grants from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research to support postgraduate students and 1 grant from the Head of the Republic of Bashkortostan to support young scientists.


Priority - 2030. UUN&T Development Program
..
Strategic projects aimed at achieving the target model

Design of functional materials


Purpose of the strategic project
..
Expected Results of Strategic Projects


The university will be among the top 10 world centers that form the scientific agenda in the field of functional materials and coatings for biomedicine, biosensorics, organic nanoelectronics, photonics, aircraft and mechanical engineering. Increase in the share of domestic products in the Russian market of implantable devices from 15% to 30%. 5 locking technologies for the production of functional materials and coatings of a new generation in the interests of leading Russian enterprises in the aircraft industry, mechanical engineering, instrumentation, and medicine. Center for Prototyping of Materials and Semiconductor Structures Providing Generation, Transmission and Conversion of Electromagnetic Fields of the Light Range for the Production of Photonic Integrated Circuits in the Republic of Bashkortostan.7 new educational programs for bachelor's, master's and postgraduate students, including 3 programs in English in cooperation with leading scientists from Europe and Asia, 4 network programs and 10 CPE courses in the field of functional materials and coatings, Within the framework of which up to 2500 students and listeners are trained annually.

..
Description of the strategic project


The strategic project responds to the global challenge of Advanced Materials (according to the World Economic Forum). The subject of the project corresponds to the great challenges of SNTD 15a, 15b, and contributes to the development of priority areas of SNTD 20a, 20c, corresponds to the SSED of the Republic of Bashkortostan until 2030 in terms of improving the education system, ensuring sustainable economic growth through the creation of enterprises in the fields of biotechnology, new medicine, nanotechnology.


..
Thematic areas of the project: modeling of physical and chemical behavior of metals and alloys under extreme impact based on digital supercomputer technologies; simulation of phase transitions and critical phenomena in magnetoelectric superlattices; multiscale digital design of nanostructured materials and coatings; biocompatible and bioresorbable nanostructured metals and medical alloys; bioactive coatings for implants; materials for chromatographic and voltammetric determination of enantiomers; organic materials sensitive to chemical markers to create the element base of organic nanoelectronics; multilayer semiconductor structures for the creation of the element base of photonics; nanostructured conductive materials; titanium and heat-resistant alloys with a regulated structure; functional-gradient vacuum ion-plasma coatings.
..


Priority 2030

Strategic project "Healthy Longevity"

The purpose of the strategic project. Creation of the Eurasian-level Center for fundamental and applied biomedical research for the development and development of new personalized approaches for the treatment of socially significant diseases and the preservation of active longevity.

Objectives of the strategic project:

• Development of fundamental and applied research in the field of molecular genetics of multifactorial and hereditary human diseases, population genetic studies of the peoples of Eurasia;

• Development and implementation of technologies in the field of genomic research for predictive medicine, modern technologies for priority genetic research (genetic editing, mass genotyping);

• Development of new educational programs for master's, postgraduate, continuing professional education, with the involvement of students in project activities; integration of educational and research activities in the field of genetic and bioinformatics technologies;

• Creation of new world-class laboratories in the field of genetic research and bioinformatics data processing with a developed research infrastructure;


• Development of genetic test systems and intelligent tools for analyzing genetic data using artificial intelligence to predict the risk of developing socially significant diseases.

Opening of the Clinic of Personalized Medicine for the timely diagnosis, prevention and treatment of hereditary and multifactorial human diseases.

Priority 2030

Healthy Longevity

Purpose of the strategic project

Establishment of the Eurasian-level Center for Fundamental and Applied Biomedical Research for the Development and Development of New Personalized Approaches for the Treatment of Socially Significant Diseases and the Preservation of Active Longevity

Objectives of the strategic project
Development of fundamental research in the field of molecular genetics of multifactorial and hereditary diseases and identification of significant prognostic biomarkers, population genetic studies of the peoples of Eurasia, study of the mechanisms of manifestation of biological activity and ensuring the biocompatibility of implantable devices for traumatology and orthopedics, molecular mechanisms for the development of human cognitive potential.

Development and implementation of technologies in the field of genomic research for predictive medicine, modern technologies for priority genetic research (genetic editing, mass genotyping). Development of new educational programs for master's, postgraduate studies, additional professional education, with the involvement of students in project activities; integration of educational and research activities in the field of genetic and bioinformatics technologies.

Creation of new world-class laboratories in the field of genetic research and bioinformatics data processing with a developed research infrastructure (Genome Center), a center for biological screening of new products for regenerative medicine. Development of genetic test systems and intelligent tools for analyzing genetic data using artificial intelligence to predict the risk of developing socially significant diseases. Opening of the Clinic of Personalized Medicine for the timely diagnosis, prevention and treatment of hereditary and multifactorial human diseases.


Expected Results of Strategic Projects

The results of research on socially significant diseases, the creation of genetic technologies, bioinformatics approaches, DNA diagnostics, implantology will be the basis for the development of personalized medicine and the provision of high-tech medical care in the Republic of Bashkortostan with further scaling to Russia and the Eurasian space.

5 test systems to predict the individual risk of developing cancer, infectious and allergic diseases; information system for selecting effective drug therapy depending on the patient's genetic profile; intelligent systems for diagnosing diseases; online content "My Genetics"; prototypes of biodegradable implants with adjustable strength and biodissolution rate; prototypes of orthopedic implants with a bioactive antibacterial surface.

6 new educational programs for Master's and PhD students, including 2 programs in English in cooperation with leading European scientists, as well as 4 network programs and 7 continuing professional education, which will train more than 1500 specialists in the field of genomic personalized medicine, bioinformatics, restorative and reconstructive medicine. The Clinic for Personalized Medicine is a package of services for DNA diagnostics of diseases, determination of ethnic origin and comprehensive bioinformatics support services for genetic research.


Description of the strategic project

The strategic project responds to the global challenge of Precision Medicine (according to the World Economic Forum). The theme of the project corresponds to the big challenges of SNTD 15a, 15b and contributes to the development of priority areas of SNTD 20a, 20c, FNTP for the development of genetic technologies for 2019-2027.


Over the past 5 years, the research topics of the project's research team have been included in the top 1% of the world's top topics according to the SciVal system, more than 40% of the works were carried out in collaboration with leading foreign authors. The authors of the project have a reserve in the field of creating devices for regenerative medicine, the use of machine learning and artificial intelligence technologies in medicine, as well as the development of problems of legal regulation of DNA diagnostics of human diseases and the protection of the rights of a citizen of the Russian Federation when using genetic information.

Thematic areas of development of the strategic project:
genetic and epigenetic factors of socially significant diseases; molecular markers of aging, active longevity and resistance to age-related diseases; molecular markers of the development of human cognitive functions and socially significant neuropsychiatric diseases; population genetic studies of the peoples of Eurasia; analysis of the Ancient DNA sequence from the territory of the Volga-Ural region; new approaches to the treatment of hereditary and oncological diseases using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology, etc.;

bioresorbable implants for traumatology; implants for orthopaedics with a bioactive antibacterial surface, including for patients with hereditary and hereditary bone metabolism disorders; development of methods for predicting the individual risk of development and ethno-specific test systems for diagnosing socially significant diseases; development of new intelligent tools for the analysis of genetic data; the use of artificial intelligence tools in predicting the development of socially significant diseases; analysis of current legislation and development of legal norms and requirements for genetic research and the use of gene technologies in modern personalized medicine.

The target consumers of products and services obtained as a result of the implementation of the strategic project will be state institutions (B2G) - the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Bashkortostan, the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation, the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Bashkortostan; commercial organizations (B2B) – Genotek LLC, Republican Medical Genetics Center of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Primebiomed LLC, NS Technology LLC; Individuals (B2C) - the sale of genetic tests to the end consumer.

In 2020, the international Precision Medicine market was valued at USD 58,450 million and is expected to reach USD 98,550 million by 2026. The Russian market of genetic services amounted to 150 million US dollars, its multiple growth is projected by 2030, and by now the market is mainly divided among such companies as Genotek, Atlas, MyGenetics, Genomed. The implementation of the strategic project will allow industrial partners in cooperation with the University to increase their share in the Russian market.

The project envisages the creation of new world-class laboratories in the field of genetic research and bioinformatics data processing with a developed research infrastructure (Genome Center), a biological screening center for new implantable devices for restorative medicine and the opening of a multifunctional clinic of personalized medicine for the timely diagnosis, prevention and treatment of hereditary and multifactorial human diseases.
 
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Vladimir Putin took part in the plenary session of the Second Forum of Future Technologies "Modern Medical Technologies. The Challenges of Tomorrow – Ahead of Their Time." Main



15.02.2024

Health Care and Personalized Medicine: The Main Trends of Our Time

The Forum of Future Technologies was held in Moscow. The Forum demonstrates domestic scientific developments, the latest achievements and best practices in various industries. In 2024, the focus is on the development of modern medicine, the creation of new medicines, and the use of innovations in the treatment of diseases.

Recall that the key areas of the Eurasian REC include such a priority area of development as: biomedicine and genetics.

REC scientists develop personalized medicine, genomic technologies, and innovations in the field of healthcare.

"On the basis of advanced technological base, we will develop all levels of domestic healthcare, from primary care to large federal centers. And the key priority here is to build a system of medical care around a person, a specific patient. This will increase the efficiency of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of dangerous diseases, and therefore the quality and duration of life of people," Russian President Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin said in a welcome letter to the forum participants.

The President of the country noted that Russia has significant achievements:
«... But we certainly need to move on, continue this work at a qualitatively new level, build up self-sufficiency, become global leaders in key areas of medical technology development and be ready for any challenges, including the threat of outbreaks of new global epidemics. To do this, we must have a powerful sovereign scientific and technological base and infrastructure, the entire line of substances, equipment, components... We must have the 'technological keys' to all the solutions that are necessary to preserve health and increase human life expectancy."

Vladimir Putin called fundamental and practical science the basis for fulfilling the tasks at hand:

"Maintaining continuity, research teams today work at the intersection of medicine, genetics, biology, chemistry, mathematics, and achieve success in the most advanced areas, such as neurosciences, biomedical technologies and exoprosthetics, cell technologies, and regeneration technologies."

Russian President Vladimir Putin drew attention to the need to:

- increasing the amount of budget funds allocated annually for the development of innovative medical technologies and products;

- expansion of the network of national medical research centers, and strengthening their interaction with other research institutes;

- the need to update the material and technical base of federal medical and scientific medical institutions that provide high-tech care for citizens of the whole country (cardiology, cardiovascular surgery, oncology, orthopedics);

- To solve priority tasks, it is necessary to participate representatives of various fields of science, sectors of the economy, industry, such as chemistry and microelectronics;

- maximum involvement of business in scientific activities in various fields.

Most importantly, by the end of this year, Vladimir Putin proposed to form and ensure the launch of another national project to ensure technological sovereignty and the development of modern technologies for preserving health. It is imperative to determine the sources of funding and the necessary amounts of funds for its implementation.


The team of the Management Company of the world-class Eurasian Scientific and Educational Center visited the Bashkir State Medical University

16.02.2024

Natalia Latypova, Director of the Management Company of the REC of the Republic of Bashkortostan, noted the need to promote the scientific and educational potential of the medical university:

"Our medical university has unique educational, research, human and infrastructural resources. The university conducts fundamental and applied scientific research, experimental developments in priority areas of medical and pharmaceutical science development. The task of the Eurasian REC is to promote the introduction of new medical developments that make it possible to change approaches to treatment, making it more effective," said Natalia Latypova, Director of the Management Company of the REC of the Republic of Bashkortostan.

The rector of the university Valentin Pavlov introduced the guests to new pharmaceutical and biotechnological products, unique equipment and products of medical origin, which were developed by scientists of the medical university.

The Institute of Eye Diseases of BSMU is proud of the unique equipment of its own production for ultraviolet cross-linking of the cornea, as well as corneal protectors. Now the device is supplied to all regions of Russia. The university is actively developing new generation ceramic and allogeneic biomedical implants that have improved biocompatibility and durability, developing additive technology projects, and relying on regenerative medicine.

The university has leading scientific schools in various fields and leading world-renowned scientists. New laboratories are being created, including mega-grant ones. The university has unique infrastructural capabilities.

Students can apply their knowledge in practice in their own BSMU Clinic with more than 600 beds. The clinic with unique capabilities serves not only patients from Bashkiria, but also patients from all over Russia seek highly qualified care.

The first and only robotic surgery center in the Volga Federal District operates on the basis of the Clinic. In 2022, the center was replenished with the latest generation Da Vinci Xi robotic system. For 6 years of work, more than 3100 operations have been performed with the help of high-tech equipment.

The BSMU Clinic has a unique Center for Morphology, the data of which are used by all scientists of Bashkiria for better research of various levels. In the Laboratory of Molecular Genetics and Immunology, scientists are working on the search for markers that detect cancer in the early stages, as well as analyzing mutations in the genes of patients with suspected and identified cases of cancer. The interaction of practitioners and researchers will help to determine the diagnosis more accurately and prevent the disease.

It should be noted that it is not the first year that young scientists of the laboratory have had the opportunity to undergo scientific and educational internships, including foreign ones, organized by the world-class Eurasian REC - and the result of such training events was close cooperation of our scientists with scientists from Iran and the UAE. Based on the results of joint scientific work, two scientific articles have already been written and joint grants are being implemented.

Molecular biology and genetics are the basis for understanding the pathogenesis of many diseases. Scientists are focused on the study of rare and hereditary disorders, as well as neurobiology and preclinical drug research. Therefore, the Clinic has the most modern equipment. For example, the sequencer is the first such device in the republic. It analyzes the entire human genome, gene expression, and studies DNA methylation. This is necessary both to identify new types of cells and study their interactions, as well as to identify new biomarkers. All of the research that is being conducted is a potential target for drugs.

Another pride of the institute is the biobank, where patients' biological materials are stored for further study. For example, there is a sample of the Wuhan strain of coronavirus infection. Live tumor and stem cells are frozen in special refrigerators at a temperature of -80 to -196 degrees.

Representatives of BSMU noted that there are many plans ahead in terms of innovative development and active joint work within the perimeter of the projects of the Eurasian Research and Education Center.


A young scientist from Ufa University creates biosoluble "implants of the future"



Today, the whole world is looking for the perfect material for implants. Scientific developments are carried out both in Russia and abroad.

In cooperation with the Institute of Physics of Advanced Materials of the Ufa University of Science and Technology, the Youth Laboratory of the Eurasian Research and Education Center "Metals and Alloys under Extreme Impacts" is conducting the country's first scientific research on the creation of new biosoluble metal materials for medicine based on zinc alloys.

The team of young scientists is headed by Elvira Khafizova, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Laboratory Researcher. Together with her colleagues, she studies the functional properties and microstructure of new materials, selects their optimal composition, which can be used for the manufacture of implants, namely, for stents and orthopedic plates.

Elvira creates "implants of the future" by developing a new biomaterial that can surpass and replace current analogues with imports. Previously, most clinics used imported implants, most often produced in Germany.

In the production of implants made of biodegradable materials, there is no need for repeated surgery and anesthesia, which are indicated with the use of conventional metal spokes and screws. Over time, the implants will dissolve and be absorbed by the body without harm to health.

"When we put a plate made of magnesium or zinc, it gradually dissolves and gives up its ions, which react with the bone. So in the damaged area, these ions will also serve as a medicine at the same time. Today, doctors tell us that magnesium and zinc are deficient, but it turns out that during dissolution, ions of these metals will go exactly where they are most needed," Elvira explains.

Everything seems to be fine, you put yourself a plate of magnesium or zinc and let it "work". But it's not that simple, it is necessary to control the rate of corrosion, as well as increase the strength of the materials, since pure zinc and pure magnesium are very fragile and brittle materials.

Elvira Khafizova spoke about how to solve this problem in the podcast "Phew, Brains", which is released weekly by Ufa University as part of the Decade of Science and Technology:

"We solve this problem by alloying, that is, we add to the base material, in my case I deal with zinc alloys, other elements to change the physical or chemical properties of the material. In addition, the method of conventional or intensive plastic deformation can be used. Deformation is a change in the size and shape of a body under the influence of applied forces - tension, compression, bending and torsion, and intensive plastic deformation is a technology of metal forming that allows you to obtain three-dimensional materials with unique properties through strong grinding of the structure, as a result of which the material begins to show properties that it did not have before. For example, the strength of pure zinc is only 70 MPa, which is very low. If we add other elements to it by doping, it will increase to 160 MPa. And if we also apply intensive plastic deformation, we will increase it to 350 MPa. Such a material can replace a titanium plate," the young scientist notes.

It should be noted that the research of young scientists is carried out in close cooperation with doctors - the Laboratory of Cell Cultures and the Department of Traumatology and Orthopedics of the Bashkir State Medical University. It is there that prototypes of materials are now being tested on rats.





Advanced Implantable Restorative and Regenerative Medicine Devices

A two-stage technology for obtaining biomimetic coatings that imitates the structure and properties of bone on implants made of VT-6 titanium and nanotitanium:

- formation of a porous inorganic coating by plasma-electrolytic oxidation, coating thickness 15-20 μm, porosity 10-15%, composition - titanium oxides, hydroxyapatite, perovskite.

- Application of organic molecules into the pores of inorganic coating (Ufa Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences)

An increase in biocompatibility by 20-30% and antibacterial properties by 30-40% in vitro was achieved compared to uncoated implants (BSMU, ICVS Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences)

A semi-industrial unit has been created and a technology for obtaining a PEO coating on products for orthopedics and dentistry has been developed, providing uniform coverage on complex implant areas, including threads.





**


 
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Peoples' Friendship University of Russia named after Patrice Lumumba
Brief information about the educational organization:
The Peoples' Friendship University was founded on February 5, 1960 by the decree of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR.

On February 22, 1961, the University was named after Patrice Lumumba, one of the symbols of the struggle of the peoples of Africa for independence. Students and scholars were free to study and engage in scientific research outside of a political context, firmly adhering to the great principles of friendship and mutual support.

On February 5, 1992, by the decision of the Government of Russia, the University was renamed into the Peoples' Friendship University of Russia.

On March 23, 2023, by order of the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia No. 313, RUDN University was renamed into the Patrice Lumumba Peoples' Friendship University of Russia.


A Huge Pizza and a Jug of Water – Why Do You Need to Slice 5G Networks? The winners of the RUDN University scientific competition tell

SCIENCE MARCH 21, 2024

RUDN University summed up the results of the scientific competition "Project Start: Work of the Scientific Circle". Students of the Faculty of Physics, Mathematics, and Natural Sciences have created a project for a controlled queuing system using a neural network to redistribute resources between 5G segments. How to increase flexibility, make the network fast and inexpensive, and reach more users, talk to Gebrial Ibram Esam Zekri (Fundamental Informatics and Information Technologies, Master's program, second year) and Ksenia Leontyeva (Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Master's program, I course).

Why are we already lacking 3G and 4G?

The number of devices that use mobile communication for work is growing every year. There is also an increase in the size of files that require faster transfer speeds. And mobile service providers need to provide them at affordable prices.

What is the advantage of 5G networks?

In their speed. Up to 20 times faster download speeds than previous generations of networks. The delay between sending a request and receiving a response in 5G is 2 times less than, for example, in 4G.

Networks of this generation also have a feature - Network Slicing technology. Thanks to it, we can divide one physical infrastructure into several virtual segments, each of which has its own dedicated resources.
..
We have found that the choice of the initial distribution, which is based on one of the principles, plays an important role, and the correct choice of it leads to a solution that is in the minimum number of iterations, i.e. the repetition of attempts at some action. In our project, we also used a single-layer neural network to optimize resource management in 5G networks.

The scientific supervisor of the project is Irina Kochetkova, PhD in Physics and Mathematics, Deputy Director of the Institute of Computer Science and Telecommunications of the Faculty of Physics, Mathematics, and Natural Sciences, Associate Professor at the Department of Probability Theory and Cybersecurity.



The locomotive of economic development: RUDN economist Elena Popkova has been in the top 2% of the world's most cited scientists for the third year in a row

Science, 8 March 2024


The heroine of the interview is one of only two economists among all Russian scientists who were included in the ranking of the most cited in 2023. She is the editor of 55 scientific books and the organizer of 25 scientific and practical conferences. Why is it important to "rejuvenate" science, how to start the path of a young researcher, and why does the economy need AI? Elena Popkova, Professor, Doctor of Economics and lecturer at RUDN University, told us.



How many scientists are in the top 2%?

The top 2% of the most cited researchers* included 204,643 scientists. Of these, 906 are Russian. Of this number, only two economists are in the ranking. The citation of scientific publications shows their value. If a work is cited, it means that it stands out from other sources. The number of publications reflects the productivity of science, citation — significance and novelty in the scientific world.

*Ranking of the most cited scientists according to Scopus for 2023 (at the end of 2022), published by the scientific publishing house Elsevier.

How many publications and citations do you have?

The Scopus database contains 293 of my scientific papers. The total number of citations is 4,915. In Russia, the most authoritative platform is the e-library. Throughout my scientific career, I have published 477 papers in it. The total number of citations is 7,323. In science, there is a concept called the "Hirsch index". Mine is 38. This means that among my publications there are 38 papers, each of which has been cited at least 38 times.

I not only write articles, but also work on the creation of textbooks and monographs. Under my editorship, more than 55 scientific books have been published in English, indexed in the international databases Scopus and Web of Science.

What topics do you work on?
I am an editor of scientific journals, including international ones. Recently, we created the Journal of Trends and Challenges in Artificial Intelligence. I became editor-in-chief because I devoted a lot of work to the economics of artificial intelligence.

I am an editor of the section "Economics of Climate Change" of the international scientific journal "Frontiers in Environmental Economics". A large part of my research is devoted to the fight against climate change in the economy.

Under my leadership, a grant project of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, "Industry 4.0 Concept in the Context of the Transition of the Russian Economy to a Digital Format" (2018-2020), was implemented. A significant number of my publications are devoted to the topic of the digital economy and Industry 4.0.

What emotions did you feel when you found out that you were back in the top 2%?
Scientific recognition motivates you to keep working. The successes I have achieved are a reason not to relax, but to think about what else I can do for Russian science.

I actively share my experience with Russian scientists. I conduct master classes at universities, reveal to my colleagues the secrets of successful scientific publications. One of these secrets is participation in international scientific research and working with authors from different countries.

Global academic recognition helps to develop international scholarly communication. I often speak at universities in friendly countries. A place in the Scopus ranking helps to attract the attention of foreign colleagues and invite them to international scientific projects with the participation of Russian scientists.
..
What important economic "discoveries" have taken place over the past year?
I will highlight three key areas of research:

Sustainable development of the Russian economy. In 2023, there was a turning point in domestic economic science. The Western European and American model of sustainable development with a focus on environmental protection has finally been pushed aside. It has given way to a new, Russian model of sustainable economic development, which focuses on sanctions sustainability.

Decarbonization. Economists have published many progressive studies in support of the "Strategy for the Socio-Economic Development of the Russian Federation with Low Greenhouse Gas Emissions until 2050." Russian scientists have done a lot of work to unlock the potential of the "green" economy of the BRICS countries through the fight against climate change.

Economics of Artificial Intelligence. This term came into scientific circulation in 2023. First, we recognized that the modern digital economy relies on AI technologies. Secondly, scientists have made the transition from theory to practice. They have developed strategies according to which AI will be involved in the domestic economic system.


Lyricists and physicists are now on an equal footing: the first humanitarian laboratory has opened at RUDN University

SCIENCE MARCH 21


What is your first association with the word laboratory? Flasks and beakers? Microscopes and centrifuges? Yes, many of us would answer the same way.

For many, the first association with a laboratory is "physical," "chemical," or "medical." Colleagues have opened a humanities research laboratory, where neurolinguistic and cognitive research will be conducted.
Oleg Yastrebov
Rector of RUDN University

There are several stereotypes about simultaneous interpreters: "the life of a simultaneous interpreter is a continuous ringing noise in the ears", "only men can translate", "simultaneous interpreters are accepted only with a certain mentality". The team of the Laboratory for Neurolinguistic and Cognitive Research will debunk these myths.

Last year, we, the Faculty of Philology and the Research Institute of Brain Development and Higher Achievements of the Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, won a mega-grant and purchased equipment. This will allow us to conduct high-tech research in the field of language, neurolinguistics and cognitive research. And all of them will be interdisciplinary.
Yulia Ebzeeva
First Vice-Rector – Vice-Rector for Educational Activities of RUDN University

The staff will conduct research in the field of neurolinguistics, neuropsychology, cognitive sciences, psycholinguistics, psychology, cognitive linguistics, neuromarketing, intercultural and mass communication, imagology, linguopragmatics, discourse analysis and other areas. The equipment of the laboratory will make it possible to determine the degree of expertise of specialists, the relationship between the motor rhythm and the type of nervous system.

For example, with the help of emoradar, you can analyze a video and recognize microfacial expressions and micromovements of various muscles of a person's face. Then, interpret them by identifying the stressors and emotions that the person is experiencing.

The eye tracking device will allow you to assess the movement of your eyes in the process of reading the text. This will help determine the degree of expertise of a professional, analyze how a person views videos, images, and works of art. The device records and analyzes both conscious and unconscious movements. The whole brain is involved in these movements, so the system will be able to scan its structure and identify diseases, tendencies, characteristics, strengths and weaknesses. For example, in schizophrenia, a person fixes attention not on objects, but on the background. From the point of view of neuromarketing, it will help to assess how users view the page of the site, where exactly they look, what they dwell on.

The egoscope will allow you to conduct cognitive psychophysiological tests. They can be used to assess psychomotor and neurodynamic properties, such as coordination and nervous system endurance.

The goal of the laboratory is to integrate scientific work into the educational process. This will not only allow students to learn more easily and successfully, but also to do so with minimal stress. The most promising research of the laboratory is the synergy of the research bases of bilingualism and simultaneous translation. There are no such things in the world yet. The results can be applied in any field: from marketing to linguistics. They will help to determine the characteristics of the psyche, strengths and weaknesses of candidates when hiring.




















 
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Steven Seagal's video message to Vladimir Putin.

16.05.2011
World-famous Hollywood actor and martial arts master Steven Seagal wrote an open letter to Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin with a proposal to meet and discuss possible cooperation with the public movement "Russia 2045", which promises to significantly improve the quality of life of people with the help of high technologies and make them almost immortal by 2045.

:eek::D

(I only post this joker because I messed up my comment and had to delete it. So that there is no empty space left.
 
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The Ministry of Health registered the drug for covid MIR 19

According to the press service of the FMBA, "preclinical and clinical studies of the drug have demonstrated its high efficacy and safety"

MOSCOW, March 27, 2024. The Federal Medical and Biological Agency (FMBA) of Russia has received a permanent registration certificate for the drug against covid MIR 19, the press service of the FMBA told reporters.

"Preclinical and clinical studies of the drug have demonstrated its high efficacy and safety. At the end of 2023, Phase III of clinical trials of the drug MIR 19 was completed, according to the results of which the Ministry of Health of Russia issued a permanent registration certificate for the drug for medical use," the report says.

MIR 19 was developed by scientists of the Institute of Immunology of the Federal Medical and Biological Agency of Russia. The mechanism of action of the drug is based on the inhibition of viral replication inside the cell. "The drug selectively suppresses the activity of vital genes of the virus without affecting the human genome. The main components of the drug are synthetic small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules, which target the genome of the pathogen inside the infected cell of the body and contribute to its degradation," the press service noted, adding that the drug is administered by inhalation using medical nebulizers.

In December 2021, the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation registered MIR 19 as a means of specific antiviral therapy for COVID-19. In March 2023, the drug was approved for use in outpatient practice.


Putin gave instructions for the production of game consoles and consoles in Russia

MOSCOW, March 27, 2024. Russian President Vladimir Putin instructed the government to consider the issue of organizing the production of game consoles and consoles in Russia. This was reported on the website of the Kremlin.

"To consider the issue of organizing the production of stationary and portable game consoles and game consoles, as well as the creation of an operating system and a cloud system for delivering games and programs to users," the list of instructions following Putin's meeting on the socio-economic development of the Kaliningrad region in January says.

The deadline for the execution of the instruction is set until June 15, 2024.

In February, it was reported that the Organization for the Development of the Video Game Industry (RVI) will present to the government a plan for the development of video games in Russia for a five-year period. The roadmap was drawn up, among other things, taking into account proposals from executive authorities, state organizations and the professional gaming community. The plan consists of 83 points, including educational, export, and technological.

So, this year RVI plans to restore relations with foundations and organizations of the gaming industry with Russian roots, next year - to develop permanent measures to support the development of video games, and for 2026-2027 it is planned to have a full-fledged game console.


Musk revealed that the man with the Neuralink chip wrote the first post in X with the help of a thought

In his message, patient Nolan Arbo joked that he was a "bot"

NEW YORK, March 23. /TASS/. Patient Nolan Arbo with a brain implant implanted by Elon Musk's neurotech company Neuralink wrote his first post on X (formerly Twitter) with the help of a thought. Musk announced this in X.

"The first post in history made simply by thought, using [the company's] Neuralink's Telepathy implant," Musk commented on the repost of this publication.

"Twitter banned me because they thought I was a bot, but X and Elon Musk reinstated me because I am," Arbo said in a statement.

Nolan Arbo, 29, said he was paralyzed in an accident about eight years ago, leaving him unable to feel anything below his shoulders. Now the man can move the cursor on the chessboard on his laptop screen with the power of his mind, rearranging the pieces. According to Arbo, he plays computer games with breaks to recharge the device.

At the end of January, Musk announced the successful implantation of a Neuralink implant in the human brain on January 28. According to him, the performance of the device looks promising.

The Neuralink startup was created by Musk in July 2016 and is developing chips that in the future can be implanted in the human brain. The businessman believes that such neural interfaces will allow a person to become a cyborg capable of resisting artificial intelligence, and will also help people learn to directly control a computer using the power of thought. On May 25, 2023, the company announced that it had received approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to conduct clinical trials on humans.


 
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Round table. Neuronet.



Dear friends! As Buknet was replaced by the Internet, so it is rapidly being replaced by Neuronet. Moreover, if it took hundreds of years for books to be distributed, and tens for html protocols, then the noosphere of the universal mind will become available to our mind within the next few years!

Russia's task now is to become the leader of Neuronet, create protocols for it and start deploying a neural network of intelligence around the world! And that its rules should be controlled not by the American ICAAN, but by the Russian INININ. In the information infrastructure of innovation, there will be a supply and demand for the exchange of project-oriented "thought-data", and when intelligent ideas begin to quickly manifest themselves in the form of material goods, this will be the main driver of the creation of the Neuronet. To do this, we now have all three main components:

1. SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. The Faculty of Biology of Moscow State University is currently designing the latest neural interfaces that will allow our unique "living processors" to exchange information. Based on the results of the work of the laboratory of a world-renowned scientist - Professor Alexander Kaplan

2. COMMUNITY OF EXPERTS. The Russian group of Neuronet has gathered really strong experts - Anatoly Levenchuk, Pavel Luksha, Timur Shchukin, Sergey Skalba, Igor Berkhin and other scientists and specialists who are able to develop protocols for uniting us into a super-productive "living supercomputer" - the united mind of humanity!

3. ACTIVE PEOPLE. The spirit of enthusiasm in us has not disappeared! And the blood of glorious ancestors flows in our veins! Do you remember the heyday of innovation in the Soviet Union? Of course, there were reasons for this then, and now there will be others, but that's not the point. The point is that we need to seize the right moment! And then we will not run after investors, but investors will start running after us. In fact, the most resourceful people in the world have the best investor you could wish for – the government of the most resource-rich country in the world! In addition, our cooperation has already had the first pancake - innovations with the prefix "nano" were handed down to us from above and therefore did not take root. So, without a doubt, the next pancake is that innovations with the prefix "neuro" will succeed well, since this initiative rises from below.

The situation now is really unique - the authorities themselves will gladly support our initiatives. The time has come! We all fully understand and support our president in his bold decision to take up the challenge posed by the revolutionaries of color who are fueling the blood dollar with wars. Equally well aware that after the arrival of the Neuronet, the system of power itself will no longer be the same as before. That's about to change! And our authorities are not fools at all, they are clearly aware that progress cannot be stopped. Everything that bends will be broken... In addition, supporting the popular wave of initiatives that can remove the risks of lower oil prices, giving the country a neurocurrency to support citizens' innovations is the direct responsibility of the authorities, who want their country to become an innovative leader of civilization! So let's say thank you to the West and the suffering fraternal Ukrainian people, the situation now is such that it is impossible not to accept the challenge to battle, and its consequences will change the landscape of the battlefield beyond recognition. This is what Akela said to Mowgli before the battle with the brown dogs: "This will be a glorious hunt! Although for many it will be the last..."

So... We begin to be active, keeping in mind the interest of the authorities. In fact, we are creating a system in which you can see "what the people want", and this is exactly what they need to maintain their electoral interest. What is the first thing you need to do in the Neuronet you are creating? It is necessary to adopt general rules for the use of neurocurrency for rating and capital formation of neuroeconomic startups, launching neuroaccelerators for this purpose, and then, when the state is interested in our activities (and it will certainly be interested in it when we promote the topic well), we need to include projects in state programs to support innovation and transfer these functions of the state de facto to the state de jure. Or the state RVC Fund. There are people in it who see trends. For example, Evgeny Kuznetsov. In any case, we do not make money on infrastructure, only on its derivatives - innovations.

That is why it is important for us that there are not dozens, but millions of successful innovative projects in the country! And for this, it is necessary that our state has the most effective information infrastructure of innovations, which allows each innovative project not to be "weeded out" at competitions, but to "cultivate" through support and integration into a single developing and growing innovation system. So, instead of needlessly trying to copy the low-performing Western model, whose "case studies" also inexplicably do not include a printing press of currency to finance them, we need our own system for investing in innovation. Where projects rated in neurorubles will make it possible to form the neurocapital of startups for the b2c market with its initiators using it to enter the neurocapital of the related b2b startups they need. And to create our holistic ecosystem of innovations, we now need the feat of arms of real heroes! Because, if earlier victory was forged by those who forged steel, now it is forged by those who forge the code!

Uniting our efforts and time dedicated to serving the Motherland will lead us to victory! Which will be the same for all! Not only the citizens of Russia, but all Earthlings! We will liberate the American people and the peoples of the world from the slavery of the owners of the money machine. It's simple... When each person becomes not only a part, but also a security value of the issue of a distributed neurocurrency system, the system itself will begin to take care of the life and health of each person.

To discuss Neuronet and its components - neuroeconomics, neurocurrency and neuroaccelerators, we have created the InInIn club, where every Thursday at 7 p.m. at 10 Bolshaya Sadovaya Street we hold round tables. We already have more than a hundred friends with us - the crowns of creation, who are fond of creativity in technology and art. And we have very interesting guests. So welcome! Creating the future... It's so exciting! And together - more fun)))

Author: Zamir Akimov

October 18, 2014"


~~
:D
The boy was in a bit of a hurry. These things don't happen like that. You have to go through a few crises first, a little plandemics, a little special wars, a little bit of climate stuff, a little bit of social modeling, a little synchronized pioneer brain chippings, Tucker interviews and Future Technology Forums, that sort of thing. To wait a little, to implement the smart infrastructure without an alternative, the youngest generation to grow up and the next generation to be born in this world... And then when it's ready...
(It's all a scam, of course. Zamir just, as part of the starting team cheerleaders for cheating to attract young and distracted souls to the transhumanist hole, tells some tale, film, that has nothing to do with dirty reality. But the youngest generations (and not only they) and even more so the future ones, will like the fairy tales.)
~~

BEST SPEAKERS
The most complete list of speakers

Dozhdikov Anton

Posted: 28.04.2023

Anton Dozhdikov — I analyze the situation, build a model, determine the goal and scenario of development. I translate from "bird" and "pack" into 20 words for the presentation of "human".

Topics:
Global Forecasts
Scenarios for the development of societies, political systems, and commercial enterprises
Analytics and Investments in Cinematography
Efficiency and quality of education systems
Sectoral and national markets and sectors of the economy (after studying the course)
Artificial Intelligence, Neural Networks, Machine Learning and Their Impact on Society and the Economy

Speaking experience:
20 years: lectures, presentations, reports, acceptance of projects for state commissions, online media appearances, recorded interviews, scientific publications, articles in mass and industry media

Expert in:
Science and education
Political Science, Futurology and Geopolitics
Forecasting, History, Analytics
Cinematography and Creative Industries
Data Science, Machine Learning, Neural Networks

Experience:
100 completed projects, R&D, grants and contracts
40 scientific publications
50 publications in industry journals and mass media
10 developed normative legal acts

Education:
Master of History (UNN)
PhD in Political Science (UNN)
Data Analyst (ITMO)




In Search of Inspiration: The Znanie Society Held a Series of Creative Meetings with Poets and Actors at the Russia Exhibition

March 15, 2024

The Russian Society "Znanie" held a Day of Creative Meetings at the International Exhibition and Forum "Russia". It was held on March 15 and became a bright final chord of the literary festival "The Most Reading". On this day, the guests were able to attend a lecture by the most famous polymath of the country, a creative meeting with the author of the hit "Russian Lighthouses" and even a master class in acting.

The program in Pavilion No. 57 "Russia is My History" opened with a concert by the pop jazz band MAGI VOXA. The participants of the show "Come on, together, in chorus" gave the audience a bright musical performance. Then, Anton Dozhdikov, Master of History and Data Analyst, PhD in Political Science, delivered a lecture on how to predict the results of film distribution using modern information technologies.


The formula for a financially successful project is, first of all, the right choice of genre and compliance with your competencies: if you work well in the comedy genre, work in it, if you feel confident in a musical, do it. Next, the correct format: that is, the length of the film, the age rating, and other parameters. Then, find the right target audience. And, of course, marketing and connections are of great importance in modern film distribution: look for access to film festivals, film platforms, production companies, funds and private investors," the speaker said.

February 28, 2024

NEURONOMICS: ARE THE CYBORGS COMING?!

Elon Musk announced the successful implantation of a Neuralink neurochip into a human volunteer: what consequences will this lead to for the economy and finances? This question is asked by our regular author, PhD in Political Science, futurologist and data analyst Anton Dozhdikov.



So, on January 30, 2024, the era of cyberpunk officially began, predicted by such "new wave" science fiction writers as Phillip K. Dick and Roger Zelazny, and developed in the 1980s in the novels "Neuromancer" by William Gibson, the science fiction films "Tron" and "Blade Runner", the manga "Akira" by Katsuhiro Otomo, and other works. The twenties of the 21st century are the "new axial time" that will determine the economy, finances and social structure of the future for the coming decades.


Anton

According to Elon Musk, the primary goal of chip technology is to "eliminate the consequences of brain and spinal cord injuries and return lost abilities to patients." The goal is noble, especially given the need to restore health and adapt to the lives of people affected by terrorist attacks, hostilities and conflicts. However, it is far from final, as you can guess from a viral video of a monkey playing computer games through a brain-computer neural interface.

According to the businessman's plan, the implant should allow a person to control a smartphone or computer, and then any other device, with the "power of thought". At first, the technology will be made available only to users who have lost the ability to control their own limbs. But what happens next? "Imagine if Stephen Hawking could communicate faster than a typesetter or auction host. That's our goal," Musk explains.

A radical upgrade of the human body and capabilities – up to the achievement of "digital immortality" – is the true goal of Elon Musk's work. And on closer inspection, this goal fits perfectly with the driving forces of the modern economy.

Imagine an office clerk who fears that artificial intelligence will take away his job and he won't be able to pay his mortgage, and the debt will be passed on to his children. Caring parents who dream that their child will pass the Unified State Exam with 100 points, win the Olympiad and enter, for example, MGIMO or the Higher School of Economics. A glamorous Insta-diva in search of new followers with the idea of broadcasting her emotions live to the audience both in social networks banned in Russia and in permitted ones. An army general interested in controlled FPV drones and encrypted transmission of commands directly "from his brain" to subordinates on the battlefield. A slick marketer who is concerned about sales growth. Political strategist in the elections. A "social engineer" who wants access not only to your accounts and biometric data, but also to your mind. Finally, a European-educated African dictator who wants to know what his subjects are thinking and "program" their behavior. All of these characters, as well as many others, are potential customers of technologies, products and services from Neuralink and the future cyber technology giants of the digital industry.

From now on, it is the technologies of neural implants and cyber prosthetics that will provide military and political advantages to states, a more advantageous market position for commercial firms, and higher opportunities in individual competition for employees.



The Apostle of the Cybernetic World Order, According to [the Russian] the Kandinsky Neural Network

How will the economic and financial sectors change?

Cybernetic implants are an extremely expensive (at first) product, the individual purchase of which for most consumers is possible only on credit. Whether it will be a "digital mortgage" or a classic "consumer loan" or another banking service, we do not yet know. However, after the purchase, there is a need for maintenance, software updates (subscription services or other monetization methods). A bank or other financial and credit organization will issue loans "for upgrade" to already "chipped" people with more confidence, since they already have a "credit history" and are more motivated to make payments on time so as not to part with the newly acquired functionality.

As a result, social segregation into conditionally well-to-do and sought-after "cyborgs" and "straights" despised in the society of prestigious consumption will radically increase. It's kind of like in modern informal consumer communities, where you can't be a full member without the latest iPhone.

As part of "prestige consumption", the purchase and installation of implants will become a trend, a social fashion, even if the functionality of the purchased equipment will be used only by 10%.

As a result, there will be a whole branch of "neuronomics" that will cover almost all spheres of human life, from planning, conception and genome editing, birth and installation of basic implants – a certain social minimum, up to the very death of the biological part of the body and digital burial – archiving on a soul storage server (or transition to a new body?) and other elements of the future, perfectly described in the films and TV series "The Matrix". "Altered Carbon", "Ghost in the Shell" and other examples of the corresponding genre. The effect of self-fulfilling "prophecies" is quite possible in the development of civilization, taking into account the fact that some science fiction writers of the past have made predictions come true much more often than half of the time.

What effects and impacts on the economy can we assume right now, without a "long-term perspective"? How will cyberprosthetics and human digital upgrades affect the world of financial technology and the economy in the coming years?

First of all, these are digital services, digital mortgages and digital lending, including car loans and consumer lending on implants. A person will keep the credit history "to himself" – a bank employee can get access to the characteristics of the implants installed and use machine learning to calculate not only the solvency of the client, but also his ability to attract new borrowers, the time of economically active life and the need for additional insurance and payments.

The economic sanctions of the future will include a ban on the transfer and commercial use of cyber technologies. And if now you can be turned off from the remote start of the car from another country, then in the same way they can turn off X-ray vision, additional computing power or the ability to use a cyberprosthetic arm, not to mention the work of internal organs.

Fintech platforms for paying for new firmware and fintech services for cyborgization and upgrades will become commonplace, as will the allocation of computing resources in the cloud for the operation of your implants if you are a financial analyst, research scientist or digital systems engineer. And the power of your implants, combined with professional experience and personal competencies, makes you much more advanced and competitive in the job market than "naked" artificial intelligence.

New user experience and ways to accumulate it. Having gone all the way through cyber implantation, regularly interacting with objects of the outside world, you will be able to directly broadcast your user experience and even make money on it. Because you're "labeling data" – and in the world of machine learning, nothing is more valuable than data that's ready to be trained on machine learning models and neural networks. A huge prospect for a new generation of bloggers and influencers!

Remote identification is a guarantee of freedom to choose products and services, but now this "guarantor" is your second body – a unique set and profile of cybernetic implants, as well as software features and settings, which are difficult to fake, but theoretically can be copied or cloned.



Family mortgage "for upgrade" in the view of the [Russian] Kandinsky neural network

The metaverse is the next iteration of the development of the Internet. Most communication processes and operations involving humans, including meetings, voting or decision-making procedures, can be conducted in artificial or augmented reality. Inevitably, there will be a new segment of digital design services and a whole layer of developers who provide a better "picture" and connect neural implants to the flow of digital data.

The effects of the introduction of speech technologies in the bank's front office may be replaced by the possibility of a "mental" dialogue with banking systems based on images and meanings, rather than text messages. Speech technologies based on machine learning for the creation of voice assistants, automation of call centers of financial institutions, service quality control and other tasks may become irrelevant in the near future and need to be replaced, taking into account new communication formats.

Imagine a situation: you've just been thinking about a vacation or new clothes, and you have a "social" implant that shares data with "public services" – and now you get ads for budget resorts or a new model of clothing printer in real time. Moreover, you can also make a payment as soon as you mentally decide to make a purchase. With "social" implants, it will be impossible, alas, to give up intrusive advertising in your head. You will need a paid subscription or equipment installed by a "gray" non-certified dealer with the risk of getting a digitally transmitted viral disease.

The cryptocurrency industry could get a new impetus as early as 2024. Imagine that now the human body itself is a crypto wallet or a key to access to cloud storage, which is always with you.

Blockchain systems and teamwork in the mode of pairing or directly connecting implants from a few units to tens and hundreds of thousands will greatly increase the productivity of production processes, but at the same time cause an increase in the degree of exploitation of workers. Those deprived of the opportunity to "upgrade" will not be able to integrate into a new world with richer communications and requirements for individual mental productivity. Unfortunately, the ideas of a "reservation" and a "zoo" for such individuals can be embodied in a society of victorious transhumanism.

The Internet of Things (IoT) and the management of home, office, transport and business processes in the enterprise will become an everyday reality. There will be new opportunities for remote work, when a highly qualified specialist will be able to control a robotic arm on the other hemisphere of the planet or in near space.

At the same time, there will be new opportunities for self-employed and individual entrepreneurs to earn money, for example, renting out the computing capabilities of their cyber implants and developed models of machine learning and neural networks. With the help of cyber implants, it becomes possible to combine social networks and finance on the blockchain, and a model for monetizing the social influence of users is being implemented in practice.



"Neuronomics", according to the [Russian] Kandinsky neural network

At the same time, the efficiency of public administration will increase: from tax collection to interim actions taken by a cyber court decision and executed "instantly". The law will become predominantly precedential – hybrid human-machine legal systems will learn from the experience of the past and make sufficiently accurate and objective decisions in typical cases. Numerous "reinforcement learning" models will be used to build a precedent base. It will no longer be possible to pity or bribe the judge.

The prospects for the use of non-fungible token (NFT) technology in the near to medium term increase when combined with cyber implants. And here we are talking not only about uniqueness, inimitability, but also about a specific set of software settings and settings that will make you more advanced, in demand and competitive in the market. The presence of unique and inaccessible advantages significantly increases competitiveness.

Naturally, there will be an increase in the number of scams related to NFTs and the possible hacking of cyber implants or the compromise of data uploaded with them to cloud storage. More sophisticated systems of testing, restriction, and access logging will be required. Cybersecurity will only have more work to do, because not only your bank account, but also your body can be hacked in order to commit certain and, as a rule, illegal actions without your knowledge. Who will be at fault if a computer virus in your implant breaks into an ATM (cash will be in high demand among "straight people") or steals a car due to a delay in updating your software and security tools? The legal system does not know such incidents, and that is why the conditional "hacking without intent" or "theft by negligence", as well as facilitating them, can become one of the points of criminal accusation for negligent "cyborgs" who neglect the sense of social responsibility towards others and forget to update paid security firmware...

P.S. Accurate forecasts are a rather thankless task. From a prototype to the commercial implementation of neural implants, it can take several months or several years. Do not forget about the traditional human bureaucracy and permits. However, it is impossible not to take into account the general trends of the modern economy, the dependencies associated with human behavior in the face of the emergence of new opportunities, new risks and threats. Bureaucratic obstacles are overcome by willpower during periods of military conflicts and geopolitical aggravations. Stubborn disregard of disturbing information and new trends can play a bad joke on both individuals and entire societies if, in response to the offer: "Come with me if you want to live" (a quote from the movie "Terminator"), they prefer to remain in salutary ignorance of the present with the inevitable subsequent crisis, losses and relegation to the sidelines of history.



"Prestige Consumption" and "Envious Imitation" in the Representation of the [Russian] Kandinsky Neural Network
 
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In this regard, again
 

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Russia found substitute for imported Pfizer and Moderna vaccines

March 29, 2024



Russia found substitute for imported Pfizer and Moderna vaccines. This was reported to Izvestia by the press service of the Russian Technological University (RTU) - MIREA on March 29.

"RTU MIREA continues to implement a unique project aimed at developing lipid delivery systems for the creation of domestic mRNA vaccines. In the future, this will not only significantly improve the quality of preventing the spread of infectious diseases in Russia, but also apply these technologies to create drugs for the treatment of cancer," the university said.

They noted that the development is carried out within the framework of the strategic project "Innovative Medicines and Health Engineering" of the "Priority-2030" development program of RTU MIREA for 2021-2030. The work is carried out in cooperation with the Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, and the Smorodintsev Research Institute of Influenza of the Ministry of Health of Russia.

RTU MIREA noted that the success of the development was largely facilitated by a huge fundamental groundwork: since the 2000s, the university has been working on the design and synthesis of components of delivery systems and the search for the most effective carriers that can transfer therapeutic nucleic acids into the cell. In the 2010s, scientists managed to synthesize molecules that were used to transport various nucleic acids into cells in the presence of serum: this is the simplest imitation of the conditions of delivery to the human body. Subsequently, animal studies were carried out, which showed the effectiveness and safety of such systems.


"The coronavirus pandemic and the introduction of foreign mRNA vaccines to the pharmaceutical market, in which the RNA molecule is encased in a lipid shell (Pfizer and Moderna), have stimulated Russian scientists to use existing developments to create domestic mRNA vaccines. We have developed several types of liposomes, which are currently being tested," RTU MIREA added.

It is noted that at present, scientists are focused on the manufacturability of the production of the developed delivery systems and the creation of commercial samples, after which the necessary technical documentation will be prepared and a trademark will be registered. After the transfer of technologies to the production of a joint team of biologists, chemists, technologists and doctors, Russian mRNA vaccines will appear on the drug market.

"The work of our scientists has acquired special importance in connection with the actions of unfriendly countries against Russia: domestic developments of mRNA vaccines are of strategic importance for strengthening technological sovereignty, including in the field of healthcare," Stanislav Kudzh, rector of RTU MIREA, told Izvestia.

Earlier, on February 29, it was reported that the Russian Ministry of Health registered the Sputnik V coronavirus vaccine with an updated composition. According to Alexander Gintsburg, Director of the Gamaleya Research Center of Epidemiology and Microbiology, the registration allowed specialists to start testing the updated drug on adolescents, since the updated Sputnik Light was not registered for them."

**
MIREA - Russian Technological University


RTU MIREA Scientists Design Electronics for Stimulators for Neural Implants

24.06.2023

RTU MIREA contributes to science!

RTU MIREA scientists are designing the electronics of stimulators for neural implants.

The implantable module, ELVIS V, is designed to control signals from the visual area of the brain; The cochlear module, ELVIS C, controls the signals of the auditory nerve.

This achievement of RTU MIREA was presented at SPIEF 2023.

We follow the development of our university!


Representatives of the Council of Young Scientists and Specialists took part in the XIX World Festival of Youth and Students in Sochi



26.10.2017
From 14 to 22 October, the XIX World Festival of Youth and Students was held in Sochi. In the field of "The Future of Science and Global Education", our university was represented by the Chairman of the Council of Young Scientists and Specialists, a lecturer at the Department of MOSIT of the Institute of IT, Anton Nikolaevich Mironov.

Over the past 7 days of the forum, an exchange of scientific and professional experience was held with representatives of various universities and scientific organizations from around the world.

Based on the results of the festival, we can say that the world is now entering a completely new era, in which education, science and technology will be inextricably linked throughout human life. And if earlier the education received at the university gave the opportunity to work all life, then with new technologies this is not the case. The man of the future will be forced to learn constantly, changing himself and changing the world around him. According to forecasts, by 2030, a large number of existing professions will be irrelevant, as human labor will be replaced by machine labor. However, the digital revolution and the transition to a new technological order and digital economy will create a huge number of new professions and jobs in the next decade.

At the moment, the following areas of research have the greatest potential:


  • Materials with fundamentally new characteristics.
  • Telecommunication systems and communication systems of the new generation.
  • Robotics.
  • Unmanned vehicles.
  • Artificial intelligence.
  • Neural interfaces.
  • Virtual and augmented reality.
  • Computer and information security.
  • Internet of Things.
  • Organization of urban agglomerations of the XXI century.

New technologies pose a challenge to the entire society: specialists will be needed to design, create and implement them, assess economic efficiency and social acceptability, and solve ethical issues of applicability. And, of course, the daily life of a person of the future will be inextricably linked with a large number of technologies, and with some of them it is already connected.

It is very pleasant to realize that the university is at the forefront of progress
, teaching students the latest and sometimes non-existent technologies, working ahead of the curve and creating them within the walls of its own laboratories by its research teams, confirming the motto: "Optimus inter pares — par inter optimos!" (The best among equals - the equal among the best!).




Laboratories of the Institute of Information Technologies update their equipment

22.05.2020

In accordance with the plan for updating the material and technical base of the laboratories of the Institute of Information Technologies, on May 19, the following equipment was received for the scientific and design activities of the employees and research teams of the Institute:

· MagicLeapOne Mixed Reality Glasses – 2 pieces

· 14-channel neural interface EMOTIVEPOC – 2 pcs
· 32-channel neural interface EMOTIVEPOC – 1 piece


The applied application of neural interfaces for the tasks of controlling software and hardware complexes and equipment, software, robots and drones "with the power of thought" forms a new direction of research both in the activities of the Institute of Information Technologies and the entire RTU MIREA.







RTU MIREA presented its developments at the RoboArmy festival

31.08.2021


From August 22 to 28, during the International Military-Technical Forum "ARMY-2021", young scientists of RTU MIREA presented their developments as part of the special program of the NAUKA 0+ "RoboArmy" Festival.

Artem Vladislavovich Budantsev, a lecturer at the Department of Applied Mathematics of the Institute of Information Technologies, presented developments in the field of using a neural interface to control various technical systems and a mobile robot (a project of students). Thanks to the development, the possibilities of reading, processing and applying signals of brain activity (electroencephalogram) in real time in order to control various technical systems "with the power of thought" are demonstrated.








A student of the Institute of Information Technologies received a diploma for the best project at the AIRI Summer School on Artificial Intelligence

28.07.2022
..
The training program included lectures from leading domestic and foreign researchers from AIRI, MIPT, HSE, Skoltech, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Mila Quebec AI Institute, Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Russian Academy of Sciences and other authoritative research organizations and universities.

Students applied their knowledge in team projects in the following areas: behavior planning, reinforcement learning, neural network methods of natural language analysis, computer vision, explainable methods in artificial intelligence, brain activity analysis, etc.

Based on the results of the project work "Decoding of Ideomotor States of the Brain Based on ECG – Ideomotor Neural Interface", the development of A.V. Korchemny was included in the eleven best projects, and its author was awarded a diploma for the best project in the educational program "Summer with AIRI" under the programs of the Summer School of the Russian Association of Artificial Intelligence and the Russian Neural Network Association.

We wish you further success in your research and design activities!


Young teachers of RTU MIREA took part in the field school of students and postgraduates as speakers

20.12.2023

From 15 to 17 December, a field school was held for 200 undergraduate and graduate students as part of the project "Formation of a Community of Young Scientists of the City of Moscow", organized by the Moscow Government represented by the Department of Education and Science of the City of Moscow in order to implement the tasks of the Decade of Science and Technology.

Within the framework of the school, the participants immersed themselves in various scientific areas, which were discussed in their lectures by leading Russian scientists. Among them were representatives of RTU MIREA: Andrey Konstantinovich Rybnikov, a lecturer at the Institute of Information Technologies, and Alexander Andreevich Morozov, a senior lecturer at the Institute of Artificial Intelligence.

Andrey Konstantinovich gave two lectures. In the first one, he talked about what science is: its characteristic features, the concept of scientific revolutions, what the scientific method is, and how science differs from "science pop". He also analyzed where pseudosciences come from and explained why people believe in them. In the second lecture, he spoke about neural interfaces: where they came from, and what were the prerequisites for their creation. And also about what latest technologies exist at the moment all over the world and in Russia in particular.


Specialized Educational and Scientific Laboratory of Multimedia Technologies

The laboratory was established in 2018 in order to implement the possibilities of free access for students of the institute to a wide range of modern and advanced technological IT solutions in order to fully develop professional development and involve them in project and research activities.

The laboratory includes locations ("engineering zones") available for free visits by students, adapted to individual and collective project activities, equipped with stationary workplaces and equipped with specialized computing and computer devices issued upon request (against the pledge of a student card), as well as peripheral devices.

The material, technical and software of the laboratory allows students to carry out research and creative projects, deepen training within the framework of selected and related educational programs, independently develop in all areas of modern information and communication technologies.

Examples of computing devices available in the lab include:

Microsoft HoloLens mixed reality headset (10 pieces)
Epson Moverio BT-300 augmented reality headset (10 pieces);
Emotiv EPOC neural interface (14-channel – 2 pieces, 32-channel – 1 piece);
HTC VIVE virtual reality headset (10 pieces);
OculusRift virtual reality headset (10 pieces);
HTC VIVE PRO virtual reality headset (3 pieces);
Odin virtual reality headset (3 pieces);
Insta 360 Pro panoramic camera (360-degree photos and videos);
FutuRift virtual reality simulator, etc.




Institute of Artificial Intelligence

The Institute of Artificial Intelligence is a structural subdivision of MIREA, the Russian Technological University, which, as part of its Specialist's, Bachelor's and Master's programs, trains specialists in research, development and implementation of artificial intelligence technologies in the field of modeling, management, processing and protection of information, including in such scientific areas as computer science, applied mathematics, computer engineering, and automation Technological Processes and Production, Mechatronics and Robotics, Control in Technical Systems, System Analysis and Control, Information and Computer Security, Biotechnical Systems and Technologies, Medical Physics.

The graduates' activities are related to the development of a new generation of mechatronic and robotic systems and complexes, aviation, rocket and space, measuring and medical equipment, the introduction of systems engineering methods in the development of complex technical objects, the creation of large databases, the provision of information security of information processing and transmission tools in state authorities and law enforcement agencies, state enterprises, institutions and organizations, joint-stock companies, commercial firms. Also, the activities of graduates are related to the development and implementation of artificial intelligence technologies, including machine learning, data analysis, predictive technologies, machine vision and decision support technologies.
..

In-house developments

Every year, the Institute carries out high-tech developments in the interests of enterprises of the real sector of the economy and the federal customer. Not only scientific and pedagogical workers are involved in the implementation of developments, but also students of bachelor's and master's degrees, specialist and postgraduate studies Students are not lagging behind the success of researchers: they develop software for intelligent autonomous mobile and collaborative robots, assemble assembly centers based on manipulation robots with visual sensibility, develop and manufacture control systems for industrial CNC machines, they develop software for intelligent bionic prostheses and develop artificial intelligence services in the field of medicine.

In close cooperation with industrial enterprises and research institutions, the Institute of Artificial Intelligence contributes to the development of the aviation and rocket and space industries, biocybernetics technologies, artificial intelligence and information security.
The Industry 4.0: Digital Robotic Manufacturing Training Center has opened up new opportunities for training highly qualified specialists for the implementation of the Digital Economy of the Russian Federation State Program.
..
Professions of the Future

All areas of training and specialties of the Institute of Artificial Intelligence are related to solving the problems of digitalization of the economy. At the institute, you can get a profession that will certainly be in demand due to the rapid development of technologies for the Internet of Things, mechatronics and robotics, information control systems and complexes, automated process control systems, life cycle support systems for complex engineering products, biocybernetics, and information security, Artificial Intelligence in Medicine and Data Analysis. Students receive a good mathematical training that allows them to create mathematical models and algorithms for controlling complex dynamic objects, have knowledge and skills in the field of programming for their implementation on computing facilities, can carry out a comprehensive, coordinated use of systemic, architectural and design approaches in solving problems of digital production development, develop software for intelligent bionic prostheses, develop artificial intelligence services in the field of medicine.
 
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Lalas

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Federal State Autonomous Educational Institution of Higher Education 'Moscow State Institute of International Relations (University) of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation (MGIMO)

For more than seven decades, MGIMO has become one of the leading Russian universities, training specialists in 18 areas: international relations, foreign regional studies, economics, law, journalism, political science, advertising and public relations, sociology, management, commerce, ecology and environmental management, state and municipal administration, finance and credit, linguistics, pedagogical education, psychology, personnel management, and business informatics.

The date of establishment of MGIMO is considered to be October 14, 1944


MGIMO implements 112 programs in 18 areas: International Relations, Foreign Regional Studies, Political Science, Law, Economics, Journalism, Advertising and Public Relations, Management, State and Municipal Administration, Business Informatics, Commerce, Tourism, Pedagogy, Psychology, Sociology, Linguistics, Finance and Credit, Ecology and Environmental Management.
..
MGIMO teaches 53 foreign languages (Guinness World Record).
..
MGIMO is a flagship university for dialogues with France, Austria, and the Czech Republic; Japan, South Korea; for the ASEAN Centre.

In 2020, MGIMO became a member of the World-Class Research Center.

Over the past 10 years, publications in Scopus have increased 22 times (from 21 to 466), the share of publications in the 1st and 2nd quartiles has increased from 10% to 43%. MGIMO publishes and supports 11 scientific journals.
..
MGIMO is ranked 345th in the QS international ranking and 37th in the QS subject ranking "Political Sciences", is among the top 200 universities in the world in the categories "Modern Languages", "Law" and "Linguistics", and is also in the top 300 in such subject categories as "History", "Economics and Econometrics", "Social Sciences and Management", "Humanities". In the national ranking of the influence of Russian universities RAEX, MGIMO ranks third among the leaders in the formation of the Russian elite and in terms of authority among young people.

MGIMO Business School (accredited by AMBA) is ranked 41st among European programs in the QS ranking (Executive MBA program) and 61st in the European QS Global MBA ranking.


November 23, 2023
Priority 2030


Lecture by A.Y. Kaplan "Human Brain, Artificial Intelligence and Neural Interface Technologies"

November 23 at 16:00 in the auditorium. 443 will be a lecture by the Head of the Laboratory of Neurophysiology and Brain-Computer Interfaces (NNCI) of the Faculty of Biology of Lomonosov Moscow State University, laureate of the Russian Government Prize, Professor A.Y. Kaplan "The Human Brain, Artificial Intelligence and Neurointerface Technologies".

The event will be held as part of a series of lectures preceding the opening of the interdisciplinary interfaculty master's program "Cognitive Studies and Neurotechnologies in International Relations" at MGIMO in cooperation with the Faculty of Global Processes and the Faculty of Psychology of Lomonosov Moscow State University.

The lecture-discussion will touch upon questions about the current resources and capabilities of the human brain, about how these resources meet the needs of the modern world of high information loads. Alexander Yakovlevich will pay special attention to the comparison of the capabilities of the human brain and artificial intelligence, the discussion of the need and prospects for "cooperation" between the brain and elements of artificial intelligence. The participants of the meeting will discuss the achievements and prospects of the so-called brain-computer interface technologies, which make it possible to transmit human commands directly from the brain to the computer.

Everyone is welcome to attend.


November 24, 2023

Lecture by A.Y. Kaplan "Human Brain, Artificial Intelligence and Neural Interface Technologies"

On November 23, MGIMO hosted the second in a series of public lectures designed to popularize cognitive research in international relations.

In 2024, MGIMO will open a Master's program in Cognitive Research and Neurotechnologies in International Relations in cooperation with the Faculty of Global Processes and the Faculty of Psychology of Lomonosov Moscow State University.
..
Alexander Yakovlevich told the audience about how technological development affects the work of the human brain, what Industry 5.0 will be like, and how the brain adapts to the oversaturation of the information field. In addition, he compared the computing power of modern neural networks and the human brain. The lecturer noted that neural connections play a key role in thinking, while they quantitatively and qualitatively surpass the indicators of artificially created computer neural networks. A.Y. Kaplan described the capabilities of modern neural interfaces that make it possible to implement brain-computer interaction. At the end of the presentation, the guest shared his experience in the medical application of neuroresearch in the work of the Laboratory of Neurophysiology and Brain-Computer Interfaces of Moscow State University.

The lecture aroused genuine interest among the audience, after which an open discussion and exchange of views took place.

Center for International Information Security and S&T Policy



**


Alexander Kaplan. Contact with the Brain: Neural Interfaces and Artificial Intelligence. Part 1

Branch Union NeuroNet



21.08.2018

On August 14, as part of a special project of the NeuroNet Industry Union NeuroAcademy, a meeting was held with Alexander Kaplan, Head of the Laboratory of Neurophysiology and Neurocomputer Interfaces at the Faculty of Biology of Lomonosov Moscow State University. The topic of the meeting was contact with the brain: neural interfaces and artificial intelligence.



Russian Science Foundation
November 30, 2015

Just think about it... The brain knows how to help an immobilized person

In an exoskeleton (simulator), a lever connected to a miniature motor is attached to each finger. It makes the finger take different positions. According to doctors involved in the rehabilitation of stroke patients, the hand and finger motor skills are the most difficult to restore. Therefore, the Laboratory of Neurophysiology and Brain-Computer Interfaces of the Faculty of Biology of Moscow State University, headed by A. Kaplan, took up this problem. Now the big question is: how does this extraordinary design work? Someone has to turn it on, right?
..

- But a prosaic question arises. Your technology requires a lot of investment, staff training and much more, and only applies to a certain category of patients. Will the state help you?

- It's already helping. The Ministry of Health has adopted a program to create neurocommunication and neurosimulator systems based on brain-computer interfaces. Funding for several working groups, including our laboratory, has begun. We are supported by Moscow State University, which has provided laboratories with new premises in which undergraduate and graduate students work. The Ministry of Industry and Trade, which has invested in the development of its own exoskeletal design, helps. And recently, having won a difficult competition, we won a fairly significant grant from the Russian Science Foundation. With the help of the grant, I organized a laboratory at Nizhny Novgorod State University. Now, they are also developing neurocomputer technologies with a strong medical bias. The attention of the RSF is very important to us, because today it is this fund that provides large grants to support not only technologies entering the market, but also those that have yet to undergo clinical trials.

We have signed an agreement on joint work on neurointerface topics with Samara State Medical University. We help him to form a team of energetic research doctors for the implementation of neural interfaces. In this way, we involve fresh forces in our work, create conditions for new breakthrough solutions. There is no other way: developers abroad are about to bring simulators based on the "interface-brain-computer" technology to the market of medical equipment. And we will find ourselves in a situation where it will be easier to buy "over the hill" than to make it ourselves.


- Since the work is being carried out all over the world, who is ahead of whom, who is catching up with whom?

- In fundamental research, we are almost on an equal footing with our foreign colleagues: in some ways we are stronger, in others they are stronger. But here's the important thing: in our country, only 4-6 laboratories are conducting these developments, while in America there are 30-40, in Germany 10-12, and in China there are several dozen. These are powerful, well-funded teams immersed in a well-developed infrastructure of inter-laboratory communications. And we are quite integrated into world science: we participate in international conferences, visit foreign laboratories, and our foreign colleagues visit ours.

This summer, I spent a lot of time in Richard Andersen's lab at the California Institute of Technology in Los Angeles. To record the electrical activity of the brain, the Americans act directly: electrodes are not placed on the head, but implanted directly into the brain - this is a reliable and promising way to receive commands from the brain for neural interfaces, but requires a neurosurgical operation.

We agreed that we would try to master this technology in Russia. At our invitation, Charles Liu, a leading neurosurgeon at the University of Southern California Los Angeles School of Medicine, recently visited his colleagues in Moscow, and they discussed the possibilities of working together. According to our neurosurgeons, the equipment of domestic operating rooms, proven technologies and the skills of doctors make it easy to perform operations to implant electrodes. But there is a doubt: should we master invasive neural interface technologies? In my opinion, it is necessary to tackle this. By implanting electrodes in the patient's brain, we open a window and see a detailed picture of neural relationships. This helps both patients and scientists to improve non-invasive approaches. Perhaps in this way it will be possible not only to type letters and move a wheelchair, but also to control a mechanical arm, which to a large extent replaces the function of a paralyzed arm. We can develop practical neural interfaces together.

Let's also take into account the important circumstance that invasive neural interface technologies cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. At the same time, with joint developments, much cheaper options may appear, and our neurocommunicator, for example, which allows a person who has lost speech to type text on a monitor, in an industrial version today can cost no more than $400. However, the exoskeleton will cost more - about $1000. But this is a simulator, the patient can use it for months. Perhaps it will be possible to create centers for the collective use of neurosimulators in hospitals and rent them out.


- Is it possible to use your unique neural interface technology not only in medicine?

-Yes. Attempts are being made to develop, for example, methods of neural interface control of robots or manipulators when they work in areas that are dangerous for humans. It is good if at the right moment the operator can correct the actions of the robot with one mental effort. It's the same in surgery. It happens that the surgeon simply does not have enough hands, and then a direct command from the brain to the executive instrument will make his life much easier. So far, the "interface-brain-computer" technology, I would say, is "running ahead of the locomotive", ahead of the actual market demands. But in the very near future, "rails" will appear - wide opportunities for application will open up. The National Technology Initiative, recently announced by the President in one of its main projects - CoBrain - is ready to transform our fundamental developments in the field of neurointerface technologies into marketable products. I hope that our joint neurocommunicators with neurosimulators for rehabilitation medicine will take a worthy place among them.

Round table. Neuronet.

October 18, 2014


Dear friends! As Buknet was replaced by the Internet, so it is rapidly being replaced by Neuronet. Moreover, if it took hundreds of years for books to be distributed, and tens for html protocols, then the noosphere of the universal mind will become available to our mind within the next few years!
..
The situation now is really unique - the authorities themselves will gladly support our initiatives. The time has come! We all fully understand and support our president in his bold decision to take up the challenge posed by the revolutionaries of color who are fueling the blood dollar with wars..
..
Russia's task now is to become the leader of Neuronet, create protocols for it and start deploying a neural network of intelligence around the world! And that its rules should be controlled not by the American ICAAN, but by the Russian INININ. In the information infrastructure of innovation, there will be a supply and demand for the exchange of project-oriented "thought-data", and when intelligent ideas begin to quickly manifest themselves in the form of material goods, this will be the main driver of the creation of the Neuronet. To do this, we now have all three main components:

1. SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. The Faculty of Biology of Moscow State University is currently designing the latest neural interfaces that will allow our unique "living processors" to exchange information. The results of the work of the laboratory of the world-famous scientist - Professor Alexander Kaplan can be viewed here:


Laboratory for Neurophysiology and Neuro-Computer Interfaces
M.V.Lomonosov Moscow State University
Faculty of Biology

Brain-Computer Interface (BCI)


Theoretical and experimental development of the IMC problem is the basic project of the Laboratory of Neurophysiology and Neuro-Computer Interfaces (former Human Brain Study Group) at the Department of Human and Animal Physiology of the Faculty of Biology of Lomonosov Moscow State University.

The head of the laboratory and the head of the BCI projects at Moscow State University is Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor Alexander Yakovlevich Kaplan.

The work was supported by grant #1110034 of the Skolkovo Foundation.

Brain-Computer Interface (BMI)* is a technology for controlling the "power of thought". With the help of this technology, the human brain is able to form commands for the computer directly, without the use of muscles, based on its own electrical activity (EEG).

* Synonyms: "brain-computer interface", "neuro-computer interface"; "neural interface" (a more general concept); English: Brain-Computer Interface (BCI), Brain-Machine Interface (BMI).

For more details, see A.Y. Kaplan. Neurocomputer Symbiosis: Movement by the Power of Thought. - Science First Hand, No. 6 (48) 2012, pp. 26-39.

Algorithms and approaches
to the creation of positional and dynamic BCIs,
developed by NNCI:

Moscow IMC for Dynamic Applications (Direct Control of Moving Objects)
It was based on the ideas of A.Y. Kaplan about the EEG as a set of quasi-stationary segments and the data obtained within the framework of a number of experimental paradigms and approaches by Kaplan et al. on the functional significance of the diversity of EEG patterns (see Publications). On the basis of these studies, working models of the IMC were developed, which allow a person to control moving physical objects, for example, a toy car, only "with the power of thought", i.e. without muscular effort (see the press in the column on the right, including the program "Progress" and the article by Nikita Maksimov).

Positional BCIs
At the Festival of Science in Moscow in September 2009, for the first time in the world, the work of the game positional IMC was demonstrated. Everyone could learn to control the elements of the puzzle with the power of thought, assembling complete pictures from them (see the video below).

It took only 2 minutes of EEG recording to tune the computer to the peculiarities of the player's brain, and 8 seconds to choose each of the 16 puzzle pieces. This is significantly better than the performance achieved in similar BCI demonstrations in the world, where much longer setups were required, and quick selection was only possible from a small number (usually only 2) options. The achieved characteristics of the BCI allow you to effectively immerse yourself in the game, and as a result, the vast majority of the 37 players were able to complete the puzzle, despite the presence of a large number of spectators and frequent interference from photo flashes and TV cameras.

The development was based on the results of experimental research conducted by students Ilya Ganin and Ivan Basyul under the guidance of S.L. Shishkin (for more details, see below 4. Positional IMC).

Intelligent BCIs
At present, the laboratory of the NNCI is working on the creation of a new generation of intelligent BCIs capable of self-adjusting to the individual features of the electrical activity of the human brain and automatically adapt their structure to the real capabilities of a particular person, facilitating and accelerating his training in mastering the art of "mental" control of external objects.




DEPARTMENT OF HUMAN AND ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY

Faculty of Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University


Department of Human and Animal Physiology at the XXIV Congress of the I.P. Pavlov Physiological Society (September 11-15, 2023)
22 September 2024
The Congress of the Pavlov Physiological Society is an event that brings together physiologists from all over the country. This year's Congress can be called a long-awaited celebration of physiological sciences, because the previous time it was held before the COVID-19 epidemic, in 2017. The Congress was attended by more than 1200 participants from 72 cities of Russia and neighboring countries.

The Department of Human and Animal Physiology sent a large delegation of staff, graduate students and students to the Congress. In total, they made 19 oral presentations and 16 poster presentations. Representatives of other scientific and educational organizations noted the high level of research, especially the work of young scientists of the department.

The staff of the department organized 3 symposia, which were included in the main program of the Congress: "Evolutionary Electrophysiology of the Heart of Vertebrate Animals" (Doctor of Biological Sciences D.V. Abramochkin, Doctor of Biological Sciences V.S. Kuzmin), "Regulation of Blood Circulation: Systemic and Molecular Mechanisms" (Doctor of Biological Sciences O.S. Tarasova), "Neurointerface Technologies: Fundamental Foundations and Practical Implementation in Medicine" (Doctor of Biological Sciences A.Y. Kaplan). The congress confirmed the leading positions that the Department of Human and Animal Physiology occupies in a number of physiological disciplines.


See all photos from the congress [one of them]:



"Bio/mol/text"-2023/2024
September 5, 2023
Dear colleagues,

Biomolecule is holding another competition for the best popular science paper on modern biology.
The main topics of the 2023/2024 competition are molecular biology, synthetic biology, biomedicine, bio- and nanotechnology, immunology, virology, microbiology and related sciences.

Full information about the competition is available on the Biomolecules website

The Biomolecule is back again – for the thirteenth happy time! — holds a competition for the best popular science work on modern biology. We invite beginners and established popularizers of science to tell an interesting story, beautifully draw or creatively shoot something on their favorite topic. This year's special nomination is Synthetic Biology, which will be judged by Vsevolod Belousov*, Head of the Department of Metabolism and Redox Biology at the Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry and Director of the Federal Center for Brain and Neurotechnology.* In addition, the general partner of this year's competition, the biotechnology company BIOCAD, is reviving the Academy & Business nomination. In addition, we will award two special prizes: "Fire Debut" and Honoris Causa.

~~
*A brief digression, for a reminder:
"On February 14, Moscow hosted the central event of the Future Technologies Forum — the plenary session "Modern Medical Technologies. Challenges of Tomorrow: Ahead of Time" with the participation of Russian President Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin. The unique large-scale session was moderated by Academician Grigory Trubnikov, Director of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research.
...
Vsevolod Belousov, Director General of the Federal Center for Brain and Neurotechnology of the Federal Medical and Biological Agency of Russia, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, spoke about how neurotechnologies help to overcome the consequences of strokes and Parkinson's disease.
The bionic prostheses already being created by scientists are just the beginning: there are plans for implants that patients will be able to feel as if they were alive!

"We have set ourselves an ambitious goal to make bionic prostheses with feedback and integrate them directly with the nervous system"

said V.V. Belousov.
..
Plenary session of the Future Technologies Forum

Vladimir Putin took part in the plenary session of the second Future Technologies Forum titled “Modern Medical Technologies. The Challenge of Tomorrow: Getting the Jump on Time”.

February 14, 2024

Vsevolod Belousov:
..
What is neurotechnology in general and what do we associate it with? Everyone probably knows the word "cyborg" – it is a cybernetic organism. It's usually found in science fiction and has a negative connotation: we imagine a robot that is controlled by a human brain, or a person who is controlled by some kind of code. But is it true?
..
We have set ourselves an ambitious goal – to make bionic prostheses with feedback and integrate them directly with the nervous system, so that the patient will feel this prosthesis literally as a part of his body and use it just as freely. To do this, we combine the resources of several leading scientific clinical centers and high-tech companies, so that soon the word "cyborg" acquires a positive connotation.
..

Vladimir Putin: Curious. And, of course, it's fantastic that the feedback is that a person begins to feel a bionic prosthesis. It's just incredible, I can't even believe it.
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Indeed, it all looks fantastic – what Vsevolod Vadimovich [Belousov] told us, and our unique Brain and Neurotechnology Centre...


Vladimir Putin: Unbelievable."

~~

On December 1, we completed the acceptance of works for the "Bio/Mol/Text" contest! This year, we received as many as 174 articles in all announced nominations. Editors are already working with applications, all approved articles will be published by March 2024. And we will find out the winner at the award ceremony in April 2024.

* * *
Join the creation of high-quality Russian-language science pop! One of the main missions of Biomolecule and our competition is to open this way for new authors, and to provide established popularizers with new ways of self-development. We help each participant who has passed the initial selection to finalize the article before publication, and we invite the most talented authors to join the Biomolecules team. Everyone can participate in our competition, regardless of profession, age or citizenship.

* * *
The main topics of the competition are molecular biology, synthetic biology, biomedicine, bio- and nanotechnology, immunology, virology, microbiology and related sciences.

01 July 2023 - 01 December 2023 (competition ended)
Contest Articles

[one of them (7 pages articles)]
MARCH 21, 2024
Gene therapy with hematopoietic stem cells
..
What can we expect from the future?
As we have noticed, there are many challenges, from the creation of gene editing technologies to their application in the clinic. To overcome them, it is important to develop and combine delivery vehicles and gene-editing molecules that will allow for efficient and accurate gene editing. Also, these procedures must be feasible in the conditions of large-scale production and, of course, must not be toxic.




[back to DEPARTMENT OF HUMAN AND ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY, Faculty of Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University]

Competition from the AMKSB. R&D Contest – Hurry Up to Submit Your Article!
August 31, 2023
There are 20 seats left.


Acceptance of applications for the first competition of scientific papers held by the Association of Specialists in the Field of Molecular, Cellular and Synthetic Biology (AMKSB) is coming to an end.

The competition accepts articles published in scientific periodicals during 2022 in scientific areas related to molecular, cellular and synthetic biology. The deadline for applications is September 15, 2023.

1st place – 300 thousand rubles
The winners of the competition will be announced at a solemn ceremony as part of the BIO Priorities Conference on October 16, 2023.

Details on the page.

We wish you success!




Laboratory of Neurophysiology and Brain-Computer Interfaces


Head of Laboratory
Kaplan Aleksandr Yakovlevich
Head of the Laboratory, Professor, Doctor of Biological Sciences
Laureate of the Prize of the Government of the Russian Federation in the field of science and technology in 2002
publications:



Lomonosov Prize
By the decision of the Academic Council of Moscow State University, the 2020 Lomonosov Prize for scientific work was awarded to the Head of the Laboratory of Neurophysiology and Brain-Computer Interfaces of the Faculty of Biology, Alexander Yakovlevich KAPLAN, for the series of works "Neurointerface Technologies: Theory, Experiment, Implementation".

Scope of work
The Laboratory of Neurophysiology and Brain-Computer Interfaces comes from the Human Brain Research Group, which was created by A.Y. Kaplan at the Department in 1986.

For a long time, the main topic of the laboratory was: "Diagnostics and correction of functional states of the human brain". Within the framework of this topic, the author's approaches have been formed, as well as priority methods and approaches for studying the human brain directly against the background of his mental activity. In these studies, computed electroencephalography (EEG) has become the leading method for studying brain activity, although depending on the specific task of the study, the recording of muscle activity, cardiogram and photoplethysmogram, and galvanic skin currents is also used. In the last decade, these methods have been supplemented by infrared recording methods, transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional neuromuscular stimulation.

The main focus of the laboratory's research is currently the study of the brain mechanisms of the mental components of brain activity, such as directed attention and imagination, and their mapping to EEG patterns. Such a composition of methods and approaches to the study of the brain makes it possible not only to study the mechanisms of the brain more deeply, but also to turn the results of these studies into a practical channel.

In particular, on the basis of the EEG study of the signs of a person's directed attention to specific icons on a computer screen, it was possible to identify specific components of evoked potentials in the EEG, which with a high probability betrayed a person's interest in a particular icon or symbol, letter. Based on this principle, the communication technology of brain-computer interfaces was developed, which allows a person to activate screen icons and type texts by mental focus alone. When completed, this technology is called "NeuroChat", and in the amount of 500 copies it is already working in hospitals to help post-stroke patients with severe speech and movement disorders communicate.

The study of the mechanisms of imagination has also come in handy for practical implementation in rehabilitation medicine. It was known that repeated representation of a coordinated movement in athletes then leads to a more successful mastering of this skill in reality, and in patients with paralysis to a more effective restoration of motor function. But a person is not able to assess how well he represents movement if it has to be done repeatedly. It turned out that the mental representation of the movement of one's own hand by changing the amplitude of the EEG in certain frequency bands and in specific channels. In this way, on the line with the computer, it became possible to display his every mental effort with the imagination of movement on the screen in the form of signs telling the patient about the quality of his efforts. This is the way to create simulators for restoring movements.

Finally, of particular interest in the laboratory is the study of the very nature of the processes of imagination, because it is in this that the creative potential of a person is manifested. EEG testing uses a person's imagination of individual words, mirror images of the hand, as well as deep levels of meditative states.





March 12, 2013
..
We, scientists, public figures and business leaders from Russia, the USA, the UK, and Canada as well as participants of the Second International Global Future 2045 Congress (15-16 June 2013, New York) would like to bring to your attention a number of serious issues.

The world stands on the threshold of global change. Ecological, political, anthropological, economic and other crises are intensifying. Wars are waged, resources wasted senselessly, and the planet is being polluted. ...
..
Humanity essentially faces this choice: slide into the abyss of global degradation, or find and realize a new model of development, a model capable of changing human consciousness and giving new meaning to life.
..
The key components of these studies are:

1. The construction of anthropomorphic avatar robots—artificial bodies.

2. The creation of telepresence robotic systems for long-distance control of avatars.

3. The development of brain–computer interfaces for direct mental control of an avatar.
Applications:

– rehabilitation of the disabled;

– replacement of people working in hazardous conditions, or those tasked with cleaning up during peacekeeping missions, etc.;

– telepresence technologies for personal and business communications, as well as tourism.

The successful further development of the above three studies is expected to lead to further breakthroughs, including:

4. Development of life-extension technologies involving life-support systems for the human brain integrated with an artificial Avatar body.

(Note: Per the Global Trends 2030 forecast of the US National Intelligence Council, using replacement limb technology advances, people may choose to enhance their physical selves as they do with cosmetic surgery today.)

[.. etc. ..]
To carry out this important mission, your support is key for us. We invite you to take part in the congress personally, or send a recorded or written appeal to the participants.

We believe that in the near future, the UN General Assembly will gather not to regulate military conflicts, but to recommend that heads of state and leaders of national and transnational organizations take it upon themselves to realize the strategy for the transition to neo-humanity.

Signed by:

..
Dr. Alexander Kaplan — Psychophysiologist, founder of the first Russian Brain-Computer Interface laboratory.
~~
 
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GF2045 / Roundtable on Life-extension of the Brain in a Full-body Prosthesis

2045 Initiative


7.03.2015

Global Future 2045 Congress: Towards a New Strategy for Human Evolution / New York City, 2013 http://gf2045.com/

Roundtable on Life-extension of the Brain in a Full-body Prosthesis with Biological Blood Substitutes and Brain-Computer Interfaces with Optional Neuroprostheses

Dr. Alexander Kaplan

Dr. Mikhail Lebedev
Dr. Theodore Berger
Dmitry Itskov

More http://www.gf2045.com/program/


The human brain is the last organ in the body to die. This happens because the organs—heart, kidneys, liver etc.—which enable the activity of the living brain malfunction. From this arises a purely medical situation where the life of the brain must be supported without the natural organs which carry out this function. Scientists have not yet determined the possible life expectancy of the brain under the condition where its biochemistry, nutrition and energy are supported at the optimum level by artificial systems using the latest technologies. However, the science and technology to solve this problem are ready today. Nerve cells have unique features compared with all the other cells of the human body: 10 times more genes are activated in them; they do not accumulate copying mistakes when multiplying; they live by close interaction with each other; and are capable of rearranging intercellular connections when damaged. All of this would allow them to live for a very long time, were it not for malfunctions in the working of other bodily organs.

Modern technologies already make it possible to replace any organ in the human body other than the brain, without adversely affecting its functions, and thus giving the brain itself the possibility of living for a long time. There are no serious fundamental restrictions to stop the nerve cells from existing in an artificial environment, for example for 5 to 10 times longer than they live, on average, in the human body. Modern achievements in neural science show that in terms of longevity, nerve cells can even overcome the species barrier, for example when they are transplanted from the brain of an animal of one species into the brain of an animal of another species which has a longer lifespan. The goal of the Russian project is to extend the lifespan of the brain by many times, and at the same time create highly advanced technologies for supporting the full existence of the brain and of the human personality beyond the lifespan of the biological organs of the human body, by means of a full-body prosthesis.

Key technologies in this project include: improving surgical equipment, creating biological blood substitutes with the necessary hormonal-biochemical and energetic substrate; development of multi-channel brain computer interfaces with two-way information exchange; and development of neural prostheses to repair structures of the brain itself that have malfunctioned.

This project is to be realized in collaboration with several US neuroscience laboratories, which have been highly successful in creating multi-channel systems to interface with the brain, and in the development of neural prostheses.
 
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OCTOBER 01, 2005 | SEP - OCT 2005 ISSUE

Neurobiologist Miguel Nicolelis and his colleagues astounded the world in 2003 with the report that they had induced monkeys to manipulate a robotic arm with brain signals. One major question remained: What exactly was going on in the monkeys' brain circuits during this adaptation?

Nicolelis, Mikhail Lebedev, and colleagues have analyzed the data from those earlier experiments in detail and report in a May issue of the journal Neuron that the animals' brains are adapting to treat the arm as if it were their own appendage. "Basically, we were able to show clearly that a large percentage of the neurons become more 'entrained'--that is, their firing becomes more correlated to the operation of the robot arm than to the animal's own arm," says Nicolelis.

While the monkeys were still able to use their own arms, some brain cells formerly used for that control shifted to control of the robotic arm, says Nicolelis. In fact, the researchers found that the animals could flip back and forth between using the natural and artificial appendage. The findings have important philosophical, as well as practical, implications. "This finding," he says, "supports our theory that the brain has extraordinary abilities to adapt to incorporate artificial tools, whether directly controlled by the brain or through the appendages.

"The experiments we have conducted not only represent a proof of concept that such an external device can be directly controlled in a clinical setting; this latest analysis shows that the device is incorporated very intimately as a natural extension of the brain. This is a fundamentally important property if brain-machine interface technology is to have any clinical future."


Published May 10, 2005 | Updated January 20, 2016
..
The finding has profound implications both for understanding the extraordinary adaptability of the primate brain and for the potential clinical success of brain-operated devices to give the handicapped the ability to control their environment, said the researchers.

Led by neurobiologist Miguel Nicolelis of Duke's Center for Neuroengineering, the researchers published their findings in the May 11, 2005, issue of the Journal of Neuroscience. Lead author on the paper was Mikhail Lebedev in Nicolelis's laboratory. Other coauthors were Jose Carmena, Joseph O'Doherty, Miriam Zacksenhouse, Craig Henriquez and Jose Principe. The work was supported by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the James S. McDonnel Foundation, the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation and the Christopher Reeve Paralysis Foundation.

In the study, Lebedev performed detailed analysis of the mass of neural data that emerged from experiments reported in 2003, in which the researchers discovered for the first time that monkeys were able to control a robot arm with only their brain signals.

In those experiments, the researchers first implanted an array of microelectrodes -- each thinner than a human hair -- into the frontal and parietal lobes of the brains of two female rhesus macaque monkeys. The faint signals from the electrode arrays were detected and analyzed by the computer system the researchers developed to recognize patterns of signals that represented particular movements by an animal's arm.

..


Cortical Ensemble Adaptation to Represent Velocity of an Artificial Actuator Controlled by a Brain-Machine Interface

Mikhail A. Lebedev, Jose M. Carmena, Joseph E. O'Doherty, Miriam Zacksenhouse, Craig S. Henriquez, Jose C. Principe and Miguel A. L. Nicolelis
Journal of Neuroscience 11 May 2005, 25


Abstract
Monkeys can learn to directly control the movements of an artificial actuator by using a brain-machine interface (BMI) driven by the activity of a sample of cortical neurons. Eventually, they can do so without moving their limbs. Neuronal adaptations underlying the transition from control of the limb to control of the actuator are poorly understood. Here, we show that rapid modifications in neuronal representation of velocity of the hand and actuator occur in multiple cortical areas during the operation of a BMI. Initially, monkeys controlled the actuator by moving a hand-held pole. During this period, the BMI was trained to predict the actuator velocity. As the monkeys started using their cortical activity to control the actuator, the activity of individual neurons and neuronal populations became less representative of the animal's hand movements while representing the movements of the actuator. As a result of this adaptation, the animals could eventually stop moving their hands yet continue to control the actuator. These results show that, during BMI control, cortical ensembles represent behaviorally significant motor parameters, even if these are not associated with movements of the animal's own limb.

 
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Mission Statement
The Lifeboat Foundation is a nonprofit nongovernmental organization dedicated to encouraging scientific advancements while helping humanity survive existential risks and possible misuse of increasingly powerful technologies, including genetic engineering, nanotechnology, and robotics/AI, as we move towards the Singularity.

Lifeboat Foundation is pursuing a variety of options, including helping to accelerate the development of technologies to defend humanity such as new methods to combat viruses, effective nanotechnological defensive strategies, and even self-sustaining space colonies in case the other defensive strategies fail.

We believe that, in some situations, it might be feasible to relinquish technological capacity in the public interest (for example, we are against the U.S. government posting the recipe for the 1918 flu virus on the internet). We have some of the best minds on the planet working on programs to enable our survival. We invite you to join our cause!

The Lifeboat Foundation is working on a prototype Friendly AI and also has launched the world’s first bitcoin endowment fund."


:eek:

Advisory Board


Mikhail A. Lebedev, Ph.D. is the Senior Research Scientist at Duke University Medical Center and Scientific Head and Chief Research Scientist at the Center for Bioelectric Interfaces in the Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience from National Research University Higher School of Economics in Moscow, Russia.

He specializes in Brain-Machine Interfaces (BMI) and has conducted research in this field all over the world. He is immersed in the use of BMIs to enhance and augment human potential. He agrees that we have already made some great advances in BMI research.

“The most successful BMI system currently in use is the cochlear implant where stimulatory electrodes are implanted within the auditory nerve. These have been really successful, so people who couldn’t hear, now have the ability to do so. I think that this type of sensory BMI will continue to develop,” he says.

He also predicts that before too long, we will see a major breakthrough in BMI systems, which will lead to new developments in visual prosthetic devices, which will enable blind people to see. He also foresees rapid advancement in BMI systems designed to restore motor movements and cure paralysis. We have already seen great advancements in neuroprosthetics, such as bionic arms and exoskeletons for restoration of locomotion. According to Mikhail, as development in this area continues, such prosthetics will become more sophisticated and more streamlined.

Mikhail was born in Moscow in 1963. He earned his Master’s Degree of Science in Physics and Technology from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT) in 1986 where he became interested in the physics of living systems. Driven by this interest, he joined the laboratory of Victor Gurfinkel at the Institute for the Problems of Information Transmission as a trainee. Mikhail investigated the role of vision (e.g., peripheral versus central visual field) in human postural control.

After his graduation from MIPT, he joined Gurfinkel’s laboratory as Junior Research Scientist at the Institute for Problems of Information Transmission for 5 years, between 1986 and 1991. During this period, he conducted a number of studies on the control of posture and movements in humans. In particular, he studied tonic muscular contractions evoked by vibratory stimulation of muscle receptors, post-contraction postural effects (Kohnstamm’s phenomenon), neck reflexes, and electromyographic patterns. He also conducted a study of motor unit suppression by limb ischemia.

In 1991, after the Soviet “iron curtain” was lifted and opportunities for international scientific collaboration emerged, Mikhail moved to the United States, to the laboratory of Randall Nelson at the Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology of the University of Tennessee (UT), Memphis. Here he learned neurophysiological methods for recordings from brain neurons in awake, behaving monkeys.

Mikhail underwent his Ph.D. training between 1991 and 1995 and earned his Ph.D. in Neurobiology and Anatomy at the Health Science Center from the University of Tennessee, Memphis in 1995. His Ph.D. thesis was an investigation of rhythmically firing (spontaneously or driven by vibrotactile stimulation) neurons in the primary somatosensory cortex. Additionally, he conducted research on the basal ganglia involvement in motor control, attention, and motivation.

Between 1995 and 1997, Mikhail conducted postdoctoral research at the laboratory of Mathew Diamond at La Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (SISSA) in Trieste, Italy. He employed multielectrode recordings to study experience-dependent cortical plasticity in the rat barrel cortex.

In 1997, Mikhail became researcher in the laboratory of Steven Wise at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), Bethesda, Maryland. For the next 5 years he conducted, among others, a series of neurophysiological studies in awake, behaving monkeys, where he elucidated cortical mechanisms of motor control, spatial attention, working memory, and perceptions.

In 2002, Mikhail moved to Duke University to work with Miguel Nicolelis. Here Mikhail supervises the primate laboratory. The major focus of this research is brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) that enable direct cortical control of assistive devices that reproduce limb movements. These are BMIs for reaching and grasping, BMIs that reproduce bipedal locomotion patterns, as well as sensorized BMIs that both extract motor commands from the brain and deliver feedback information using intracortical microstimulation of the somatosensory cortex.

Mikhail most cited research includes:

Watch Mikhail A. Lebedev, PhD / Neuroengineering, Brain–computer interfaces and Avatar Project.


Listen to The Wild Future of Brain-Machine Interface – with Duke’s Dr. Mikhail Lebedev and read Trends in Brain-Machine Interface: An Interview with Mikhail Lebedev.
Research in the field of brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) dates back to the 1950s when National Institute of Health researcher John Lilly implanted a series of between 25 to 610 electrodes in the cortex of rhesus monkeys...During the 1970s, the National Science Foundation funded BMI research at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA); this was backed up with a contract from DARPA.
..
Mikhail Lebedev is senior research scientist at Duke University, North Carolina. He specializes in BMI and has conducted research in this field all over the world.
..
An interesting point of consideration is where BMI systems may one day intersect with people in everyday life to enhance human existence in general. According to Lebedev, what humans may do in the future is enhance themselves with BMI parts, “maybe a human being of the future will not just be a human being but part human and additional parts.”

On a day-to-day level, BMIs could one day become as much a part of our lives as cell phones and tablets are today. Some of the first BMI systems could possibly be used to enhance vision and hearing, and increase the power of our memory.
..
“What I think is going to happen over the next five to 10 years is we will see new breakthroughs in this research. New systems will be developed and then BMIs will expand in clinical situations, as well as in everyday life. I can imagine, for example, someone connecting an external memory to the brain, to enhance certain brain capabilities,” says Lebedev.

He adds that in the more distant future we may see people gradually replacing their limbs and body parts with neuroprosthetics, as this could be a possibility as long as the brain is intact. However sophisticated BMI systems become, it is certain that their applications will one day intersect with every aspect of our lives – from communication to manipulation of our environment. Perhaps one day we will not even have to use speech to communicate, but instead we will be able to communicate with each other directly from brain to brain.

November 29, 2018




February 26, 2022 — The Lifeboat Foundation has raised our GETAS alert level from Guarded to Elevated.

Reason: “NATO members Turkey and Estonia are said to be blocking Russian military movements due to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. This could lead to conflict between NATO and Russia, leading to billions of deaths in a World War.”

The next escalation in this conflict could be either: 1) more NATO members block Russian troop movements or 2) NATO countries send either volunteers or actual troops into Ukraine to defend against the invasion. (It would be surprising if no NATO member has sent special forces into Ukraine.)

The Lifeboat Foundation hopes this conflict doesn’t end in a nuclear World War.

The last change in GETAS level before today was January 19, 2015 — over 7 years ago.

February 27, 2022 update: NATO members Belgium, Bulgaria, Czechia, Denmark, Germany, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, and the United Kingdom are now also blocking Russian troops."


:eek:o_O

January 1, 2023 — The Lifeboat Foundation Guardian Award is annually bestowed upon a respected scientist or public figure who has warned of a future fraught with dangers and encouraged measures to prevent them.

For the first time since 2006, we have two joint recipients of the Lifeboat Foundation Guardian Award. This year’s recipients are Jerome C. Glenn and Volodymyr Zelenskyy, who are defending against world existential risks and country existential risks, respectively.



Jerome C. Glenn cofounded and directs the Millennium Project, the leading global participatory think tank supported by international organizations, governments, corporations, and NGOs which produces the internationally recognized State of the Future reports. He was the Washington, DC representative for the United Nations University as executive director of the American Council for the UNU 1988–2007.

Jerry is working to protect the human race from extinction. For example, his The Millennium Project is calling for a new UN office to coordinate global research to prevent human extinction in an open letter to the UN Secretary-General, working with 200 leaders.

The Millennium Project also submitted a proposal to give us Friendly AI instead of having AI being developed by organizations like Google who dropped Don’t be evil from their slogan.

They proposed:
AGI leaders together with governments and UN systems create agreements on the governance of initial conditions for the development of AGI in the interest of humanity. IEEE and ISO define the standards and metrics for AGI audits. Interpol is automatically notified whenever an AGI fails an audit, and freezes the AGI until it passes the audit.
Jerry says:

If we don’t get the initial conditions “right” for Artificial General Intelligence (AGI), Artificial Super Intelligence (ASI) could evolve without our awareness and not to our benefit.

Jerry has over 50 years of Futures Research experience working for governments, international organizations, and private industry in Science & Technology Policy, Environmental Security, Economics, Education, Defense, Space, Futures Research Methodology, International Telecommunications, and Decision Support Systems with the Committee for the Future, Hudson Institute, Future Options Room, and the Millennium Project. He has addressed or keynoted conferences for over 300 government departments, universities, NGOs, UN organizations, and/or corporations around the world on a variety of future-oriented topics.




Major wars are becoming less common due to large alliances that include countries with nuclear weapons. For example, in Europe, we have NATO with 30 member countries. Unfortunately for Ukraine, they were not part of NATO because they believed Russia when Russia said that them joining NATO would be a provocation.

The opposite was true, and by not joining NATO, Ukraine became a juicy target as were other recent Russian targets of Georgia, Chechnya, and Moldova. Those targets joined a long list of other targets last century including Japan, Poland, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Germany, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia.

When Russia’s giant military invaded Ukraine with its quite small military, many predicted that it would fall in a matter of days. Accordingly, the U.S. offered to evacuate their president Volodymyr Zelenskyy after the U.S. had already run for it and had evacuated its embassy in Ukraine.

Volodymyr replied, “The fight is here; I need ammunition, not a ride.” Russian forces came within minutes of catching him, so the danger to him was real and which is why his many visits to the front since then don’t seem very high risk to him after his very perilous day on the first day on the invasion.

Besides the option of fleeing the country, Volodymyr had the option to flee to a bunker outside Kyiv but in Ukraine that the president could have gone to, which was secure and could withstand a long siege. However, he refused to leave Kyiv, instead taking to the streets despite nearby fighting to record video addresses to the Ukrainian people.

Courage runs in his family. Volodymyr is Jewish and his great-grandfather and his grandfather’s three brothers all fought against the Nazis but only his grandfather survived to return home.

Volodymyr’s courageous fight is helping to continue to move us towards a world with big alliances that will no longer allow the strong to dominate the weak. By stopping the Russian assault on his capital despite having no modern ships, planes, or tanks, Volodymyr bought time for a growing alliance to start to send him more and more support.

About 75 countries (almost 40% of all countries!) have provided support of some type to Ukraine so far, with East European countries such as Estonia, Latvia, Poland, and Lithuania providing the most support per GDP while the United States, with its massive economy and the world’s largest military, making a big difference in this world-wide effort to protect the weak from the strong.

Lifeboat predicts that the war in Ukraine will end with not only Ukraine getting all its territory back but its neighbor Moldova will do so as well. (Unfortunately, it seems Japan will not be getting any of its territory back from Russia in the foreseeable future.)

Finally, Finland and Sweden were awoken by the invasion of Ukraine and are now in the process of joining NATO. This means 15 million more people have chosen to no longer be threatened by larger, stronger neighbors. One more step towards a peaceful future!



About Lifeboat Foundation
The Lifeboat Foundation is a nonprofit nongovernmental organization dedicated to encouraging scientific advancements while helping humanity survive existential risks and possible misuse of increasingly powerful technologies, including genetic engineering, nanotechnology, and robotics/AI, as we move towards the Singularity."


:D

The Human Brain/Cloud Interface Research Paper has been Published!

The research paper Human Brain/Cloud Interface has been published by our Amara D. Angelica, Frank J. Boehm, Krishnan Chakravarthy, Robert A. Freitas Jr., Steven A. Garan, Tad Hogg, Mikhail A. Lebedev, Nuno R. B. Martins, Jeffrey V. Rosenfeld, Yuriy Svidinenko, and Melanie Swan.


Artistic representation of neurons (with blue processes) and glial (white) cells. [Image credit: Yuriy Svidinenko, Nanobotmodels Company].

February 22, 2020Our Amara D. Angelica, Frank J. Boehm, Krishnan Chakravarthy, Robert A. Freitas Jr., Steven A. Garan, Tad Hogg, Mikhail A. Lebedev, Nuno R. B. Martins, Jeffrey V. Rosenfeld, Yuriy Svidinenko, and Melanie Swan have published the popular scientific paper the Human Brain/Cloud Interface in the journal Frontiers in Neuroscience.

This paper describes how neuralnanorobotics may enable a B/CI with controlled connectivity between neural activity and external data storage and processing, via the direct monitoring of the brain’s ~86 × 109 neurons and ~2 × 1014 synapses.

This paper is now in the top 30 most viewed papers on Frontiers of Neuroscience and is the 2nd most read paper on Neural Engineering with over 55,000 views, and is expected to soon be the most read paper there.

The Journal Frontiers in Neuroscience is the world’s most-cited journal in the Neurosciences field with more citations than Nature Neuroscience or the Journal Neuron.

The research paper Human Brain/Cloud Interface has attracted not only the attention of the scientific community, but also the attention of the worldwide media. This paper was featured in some of the world's most prestigious journals and TV channels including The Irish Times, the New York Post, the UK’s Daily Mail and The Tribune of India.


Thu Apr 18 2019

“I know Kung Fu.” The iconic moment in The Matrix when protagonist Neo downloads expert martial arts skills in seconds may not be as far-fetched as it seems. Experts in neuroscience predict that future breakthroughs in AI and nanotechnology will lead to the development of a “Human Brain/Cloud Interface” or B/CI that connects our brains to huge cloud computing networks or synthetic neocortices in the cloud.

This real-time connection between the brain and the cloud would include neural nanobots that monitor and control the neural connections, making it possible to connect to vast data networks and other humans simply by thinking about it. And knowledge could be acquired by downloading directly to the brain.
...



In a new paper published in the Frontiers in Neuroscience, researchers embarked on an international collaboration that predicts groundbreaking developments in the world of 'Human Brain/Cloud Interface's' within the next few decades.

Using a combination of nanotechnology, artificial intelligence, and other more traditional computing, researchers say humans will be able to seamlessly connect their brains to a cloud of computers to glean information from the internet in real-time.
..
The interfaces wouldn't just stop at linking humans and computers, say researchers. A network of brains could also help form what they call a 'global superbrain' that would allow for collective thought.
..
In recent experiments, researchers have already demonstrated the capability to conjoin human brains in collective tasks in what they call BrainNet.
..
Though functional, networks like BrainNet are are still rudimentary compared to what researchers say will likely exist in the future.
..
'A detailed analysis of the biodistribution and biocompatibility of nanoparticles is required before they can be considered for human development,' said Martins.

'Nevertheless, with these and other promising technologies for [brain-computer interface] developing at an ever-increasing rate, an 'internet of thoughts' could become a reality before the turn of the century.'



A new study suggests that human brains could be merged with technology significantly sooner than many expect, perhaps “within decades.”

Known as the “Human Brain/Cloud Interface” (B/CI), researchers at the Institute for Molecular Manufacturing in California have suggested that nanorobots could be implanted into the human body and connect to a network in real time.
..
“While not yet particularly sophisticated, an experimental human ‘BrainNet’ system has already been tested, enabling thought-driven information exchange via the cloud between individual brains,” Martins explained. “It used electrical signals recorded through the skull of ‘senders’ and magnetic stimulation through the skull of ‘receivers,’ allowing for performing cooperative tasks.”
..
Martins added that thanks to the advancement of neuralnanorobotics, there could be a ‘superbrain’ created that could revolutionize democracy, enhance empathy and ultimately unite culturally diverse groups into a truly global society.”

Merging man and machine

The idea of merging humanity and machine is not new, as others, including the aforementioned Kurzweil, have discussed it at length. In 2018, futurist Ian Pearson published a blog theorizing that humans could eventually become immortal, not with their bodies, but by merging their brains with androids.
..
In a November 2018 interview, Musk alluded to the fact that Neuralink wants to “redefine what future humans will be.” Its goal is to help humanity “achieve a symbiosis with artificial intelligence and to achieve a democratization of intelligence such that it’s not monopolistically held by governments and large corporations.”
..



Front. Neurosci., 29 March 2019

Nuno R. B. Martins (1, 2), Amara Angelica (3), Krishnan Chakravarthy (4,5), Yuriy Svidinenko (6), Frank J. Boehm (7), Ioan Opris (8,9), Mikhail A. Lebedev (10, 11, 12), Melanie Swan (13), Steven A. Garan (1,2) , Jeffrey V. Rosenfeld (14, 15, 15, 17), Tad Hogg (18), Robert A. Freitas Jr. (18)

  • 1 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, United States
  • 2 Center for Research and Education on Aging (CREA), University of California, Berkeley and LBNL, Berkeley, CA, United States
  • 3 Kurzweil Technologies, Newton, MA, United States
  • 4 UC San Diego Health Science, San Diego, CA, United States
  • 5 VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, CA, United States
  • 6 Nanobot Medical Animation Studio, San Diego, CA, United States
  • 7 NanoApps Medical, Inc., Vancouver, BC, Canada
  • 8 Miami Project to Cure Paralysis, University of Miami, Miami, FL, United States
  • 9 Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, United States
  • 10 Center for Neuroengineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States
  • 11 Center for Bioelectric Interfaces of the Institute for Cognitive Neuroscience of the National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia
  • 12 Department of Information and Internet Technologies of Digital Health Institute, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia
  • 13 Department of Philosophy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, United States
  • 14 Monash Institute of Medical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, Australia
  • 15 Department of Neurosurgery, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, VIC, Australia
  • 16 Department of Surgery, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, Australia
  • 17 Department of Surgery, F. Edward Hébert School of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, United States
  • 18 Institute for Molecular Manufacturing, Palo Alto, CA, United States


Funding
ML’s work was supported by the Center for Bioelectric Interfaces of the Institute for Cognitive Neuroscience of the National Research University Higher School of Economics [Moscow], RF [Russian Federation] government grant, ag. no. 14.641.31.0003.


..
Interfacing the human brain with the cloud via neuralnanorobotic technologies may be beneficial for humanity by assisting in the mitigation of the serious existential risks posed by the emergence of artificial general intelligence. One such mitigation might involve the merging human brains with computers to prevent the dangers of unbridled artificial general intelligence.
..
The UN has recently condemned Internet access disruption as a human rights violation (United Nations Human Rights Council, 2016). Similarly, a neuralnanorobotics-based brain cloud interface might also, in the future, be considered a human right, given its profound relationship with the promotion, protection, and enjoyment of human rights on the Internet.
..

One key future technological advance in reducing latency will be 5G mobile telecommunication, expected in the year 2020 (AT&T Business, 2018). 5G promises to ensure a new way for mobile users to experience VR and AR, for example, via the cloud without latency artifacts.
..

Artistic representations of wireless nanoscale transmitter

A particularly intriguing application of BTBI technologies, termed “Brainets,” involve the interfacing and processing of neuronal signals recorded from multiple brains, to enable information exchange between interconnected brains in order to perform cooperative tasks..

Experiments have tested three different control systems using 2–3 implanted monkeys that shared BMI-mediated control of a virtual arm..

A four-brain Brainet system was dubbed an “organic computer” for mimicking simple computer-like operations, such as information-input retention, in a memory-like buffer composed of four serially connected rat brains. This experimental Brainet system always outperformed single-brain computation performance, particularly for discrimination tasks, in which the four brains “voted” to generate the response. This comprised an interesting advance toward the potential eventual emergence of very complex operations in systems with massive numbers of Brainet participants.

A three-human BTBI system, called “BrainNet,” has been recently developed, which allowed three human subjects to collaboratively solve a task using non-invasive, direct brain-to-brain communication..
..


Figure 2. Brain-to-brain interface (BTBI) for information transfer between human subjects..

..
The Internet comprises a decentralized global system that serves humanity’s collective effort to generate, process, and store data, most of which is handled by the rapidly expanding cloud. A stable, secure, real-time system may allow for interfacing the cloud with the human brain. One promising strategy for enabling such a system, denoted here as a “human brain/cloud interface” (“B/CI”), would be based on technologies referred to here as “neuralnanorobotics.”

Future neuralnanorobotics technologies are anticipated to facilitate accurate diagnoses and eventual cures for the ∼400 conditions that affect the human brain. Neuralnanorobotics may also enable a B/CI with controlled connectivity between neural activity and external data storage and processing, via the direct monitoring of the brain’s ∼86 × 109 neurons and ∼2 × 1014 synapses. Subsequent to navigating the human vasculature, three species of neuralnanorobots (endoneurobots, gliabots, and synaptobots) could traverse the blood–brain barrier (BBB), enter the brain parenchyma, ingress into individual human brain cells, and autoposition themselves at the axon initial segments of neurons (endoneurobots), within glial cells (gliabots), and in intimate proximity to synapses (synaptobots). They would then wirelessly transmit up to ∼6 × 1016 bits per second of synaptically processed and encoded human–brain electrical information via auxiliary nanorobotic fiber optics (30 cm3) with the capacity to handle up to 1018 bits/sec and provide rapid data transfer to a cloud based supercomputer for real-time brain-state monitoring and data extraction.

A neuralnanorobotically enabled human B/CI might serve as a personalized conduit, allowing persons to obtain direct, instantaneous access to virtually any facet of cumulative human knowledge. Other anticipated applications include myriad opportunities to improve education, intelligence, entertainment, traveling, and other interactive experiences. A specialized application might be the capacity to engage in fully immersive experiential/sensory experiences, including what is referred to here as “transparent shadowing” (TS). Through TS, individuals might experience episodic segments of the lives of other willing participants (locally or remote) to, hopefully, encourage and inspire improved understanding and tolerance among all members of the human family.


Introduction
“We’ll have nanobots that… connect our neocortex to a synthetic neocortex in the cloud… Our thinking will be a…. biological and non-biological hybrid.”
— Ray Kurzweil, TED 2014


There is an incessant drive in medicine toward the development of smaller, more capable, efficacious, and cost-effective devices and systems. The primary driver of this quest relates to the cellular and sub-cellular genesis of human disease, at which scale, nanodevices can directly interact and potentially positively influence disease outcomes or prevent them altogether, particularly in regard to brain disorders. The pursuit of ever smaller tools to treat patients is approaching a pivotal juncture in medical history as advanced nanomedicine — specifically, medical nanorobotics — is expected to serve as a dynamic tool toward addressing most human brain disorders...
..
The application of nanorobots to the human brain is denoted here as “neuralnanorobotics.” This technology may allow for the monitoring, recording, and even manipulation of many types of brain-related information at cellular and organellar levels. Medical neuralnanorobots are expected to have the capacity for real-time, non-destructive monitoring of single-neuron and single-synapse neuroelectric activity, local neuropeptide traffic, and other relevant functional data, while also allowing the acquisition of fundamental structural information from neuron surfaces, to enhance the connectome map of a living human brain..
..
Neuralnanorobots are also expected to empower many non-medical paradigm-shifting applications, including significant human cognitive enhancement, by providing a platform for direct access to supercomputing storage and processing capabilities and interfacing with artificial intelligence systems. Since information-based technologies are consistently improving their price-performance ratios and functional design at an exponential rate, it is likely that once they enter clinical practice or non-medical applications, neuralnanorobotic technologies may work in parallel with powerful artificial intelligence systems, supercomputing, and advanced molecular manufacturing.

Furthermore, autonomous nanomedical devices are expected to be biocompatible, primarily due to their structural materials, which would enable extended residency within the human body. Medical neuralnanorobots might also be fabricated in sufficient therapeutic quantities to treat individual patients, using diamondoid materials, as these materials may provide the greatest strength, resilience, and reliability in vivo
..
It is conceivable that within the next 20–30 years, neuralnanorobotics may be developed to enable a safe, secure, instantaneous, real-time interface between the human brain and biological and non-biological computing systems, empowering brain-to-brain interfaces (BTBI), brain-computer interfaces (BCI), and, in particular, sophisticated brain/cloud interfaces (B/CI). Such human B/CI systems may dramatically alter human/machine communications, carrying the promise of significant human cognitive enhancement (Kurzweil, 2014; Swan, 2016).
..
The first reported direct transmission of information between two human brains without intervention of motor or peripheral sensory systems occurred in 2014, using a brain-to-brain communication technique referred to as “hyperinteraction” (Grau et al., 2014).

The most promising long-term future technology for non-destructive, real-time human–brain–computer interfaces and brain-to-brain communications may be neuralnanorobotics (Martins et al., 2016). Neuralnanorobotics, which is the application of medical nanorobots to the human brain, was first envisaged by Freitas, who proposed the use of nanorobots for direct real-time monitoring of neural traffic from in vivo neurons, as well as the translation of messages to neurons (Freitas, 1999b, 2003).
..
The Internet consists of a decentralized global system, based on von-Neumann-architecture-based computers and supercomputers, used for data transfer across processing and storage units. The global storage capacity of Internet data centers in 2018 was 1450 exabytes (Statistica, 2018). Van den Bosch et al. (2016) estimate that the storage capacity of the World Wide Web doubles every 3 years, with its computational capacity doubling every 1.5 years.

However, once brain data is interfaced with supercomputers in near real-time, the connection to supercomputers in the cloud will be the ultimate bottleneck between the cloud and the human brain (Knapp, 2013). This challenge includes, in particular, the bottleneck of the bandwidth required to transmit data worldwide. According to one study, “Global Internet traffic in 2021 will be equivalent to 127 times the volume of the entire global Internet in 2005. Globally, Internet traffic will reach 30 GB per capita by 2021, up from 10 GB per capita in 2016” (Cisco, 2017).

This speed is forcing innovation to deal with bandwidth constraints. Conventional fiber-optic cables transfer trillions of bits/sec between massive data centers. As of October 2018, the average Internet peak connection speed was 189.33 Mbps in Singapore and 100.07 Mbps in the United States (Kemp, 2018). Several commercial efforts to increase Internet speeds are presently underway, including the recently built $300 million fiber-optic cable between Oregon, Japan, and Taiwan. In 2016, much of the world’s Internet traffic was transmitted via undersea fiber-optic cables; the 6,600 km-long MAREA Facebook/Microsoft-owned cable was estimated to carry 160 Tb/sec of data across the Atlantic Ocean (Hecht, 2016). Current commercial 4G networks provide broadband speeds of up to 100 Mbits/sec. However, United States carriers have stated that they plan to deploy 5G technology in 2020 that will eventually “bring speeds of around 10 gigabits per second to your phone. That’s more than 600 times faster than typical 4G speeds of today’s mobile phones, and 10 times faster than Google Fiber’s standard home broadband service” (Finley, 2018).


Potential of Current Technologies Toward a Brain/Cloud Interface

Nanoparticles, Nanotubes, and Nanodots


One promising near-term technology that may enable an interface with brain-based neural networks is magnetoelectric nanoparticles, which may be employed to enhance coupling between external magnetic fields and localized electric fields that emanate from neural networks (Yue et al., 2012; Guduru et al., 2015). Magnetoelectric nanoparticles might also induce nanoparticles to traverse the blood–brain barrier (BBB) by applying a direct-current magnetic field gradient to the cranial vault. Magnetoelectric nanoparticles have already been utilized to control intrinsic fields deep within the mouse brain and have permitted the coupling of external magnetic fields to neuronal electric fields. A strategy developed for the delivery of nanoparticles to the perineuronal environment is expected to provide a means to access and eventually stimulate selected populations of neurons (Freitas, 1999b).

The delivery of nanoparticles into the human brain will indeed pose a formidable challenge. For intravenous injection, at least 90% of nanoparticles have been observed to be sequestered within tissues and organs prior to reaching the brain (Calvo et al., 2001), so intra-arterial injections might be more reliable. Steering nanoparticles to selected brain regions may also be achieved using external magnetic fields (Li et al., 2018). Since it has been shown that certain customized nanoparticles may damage dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems, a further detailed analysis of the biodistribution and metabolism of nanoparticles will be required. Further, the risk of infection, inflammatory reactions, potential immunogenicity, cytotoxicity, and tumorigenicity must be effectively addressed prior to the in vivo application of nanoparticles in humans (Cupaioli et al., 2014).

The use of carbon-nanotube-based electrical stimulation of targets deep within the brain has been proposed as a novel treatment modality for patients with Parkinson’s disease and other CNS disorders (Srikanth and Kessler, 2012). This strategy utilizes unidirectional electrical stimulation, which is more precise and avoids the surgical risks associated with deep macroelectrode insertion, used with current methods of deep brain stimulation (Mayberg et al., 2005; Taghva et al., 2013) that employ long stereotactically placed quadripolar macroelectrodes through the skull. When intended for use as a component of a B/CI system, carbon-nanotube-based electrical stimulation would also require a two-way information pathway at single-neuron resolution for neuronal electrochemical information recording.

Fluorescing carbon nanodots (synthesized using D-glucose and L-aspartic acid) with uniform diameters of 2.28 ± 0.42 nm have been employed to target and image C6 glioma cells in mouse brains. Excellent biocompatibility, tunable full-color emission, and the capacity to freely penetrate the BBB might make fluorescing carbon nanodots viable candidates as tagging agents to facilitate the implementation of nanomedical B/CI technologies (Zheng et al., 2015). However, fluorescing carbon nanodots might be problematic, since crossing the BBB is a challenging process for ∼98% of all small molecules (Pardridge, 2005; Grabrucker et al., 2016). This is primarily due to the BBB forming a dynamic, blood-and-brain-regulated, strict physical, transport, metabolic, and immunologic barrier while it is permeable to O2 and CO2 and other gaseous molecules, as well as water and other lipid soluble substances (Serlin et al., 2015), the barrier is very restrictive to large molecules. However, small peptides may cross the BBB by either non-specific fluid-phase endocytosis or receptor-mediated transcytosis (RMT) mechanisms.

Optically based nanotechnologies, including optical imaging methods, have demonstrated valuable applications at the cellular level. For example, quantum dot fullerenes have been employed for in vitro and in vivo cellular membrane potential measurements (Nag et al., 2017).


Injectable “Neural Lace”
A recently proposed technology for the potential integration of brain neural networks and computing systems at the microscale is referred to as “neural lace.” This would introduce minimally invasive three-dimensional mesh nanoelectronics, via syringe-injection, into living brain tissue to allow for continuous monitoring and stimulation of individual neurons and neuronal networks. This concept is based on ultraflexible mesh nanoelectronics that permit interfaces with non-planar topographies. Experimental results have been reported using the injection and unfolding of sub-micrometer-thick, centimeter-scale macroporous mesh nanoelectronics through needles with diameters as small as 100 μm, which were injected into cavities with a >90% device yield (Liu et al., 2015). One of the other potential applications of syringe-injectable mesh nanoelectronics is in vivo multiplexed neural network recording.


Plug-and-play input/output neural interfacing has also been achieved using platinum electrodes and silicon nanowire field-effect transistors, which exhibited a low interface contact resistance of ∼3 Ω (Schuhmann et al., 2017). Dai et al. (2018) also demonstrated “stable integration of mesh nanoelectronics within brain tissue on at least 1 year scales without evidence of chronic immune response or the glial scarring characteristic of conventional implants.” This group also showed that the activities of individual neurons and localized neural circuits could be monitored and stimulated over timelines of eight months or more, for applications such as recording of alterations in the activities of specific neurons as the brain ages (Dai et al., 2018).

Neural Dust
Future human B/CI technologies may preferably require long-term, self-implanting in vivo neural interface systems, a characteristic that is absent from most current BMI technologies. This means that the system design should balance the size, power, and bandwidth parameters of neural recording systems. A recent proposal capable of bidirectional communication explored the use of low-power CMOS circuitry coupled with ultrasonic delivery of power and backscatter communications to monitor localized groups of neurons....
...
 
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12.03.2020
President Donald Trump on Wednesday is expected to address the nation from the oval office on the U.S. response to the deadly coronavirus outbreak, hours after the World Health Organization declared it a pandemic.

15.05.2020

President Trump announces 'Operation Warp Speed'

11.08.2020
Vladimir Putin is claiming that Russia is the first country in the world to develop an approved coronavirus vaccine and that one of his daughters has already been inoculated.

After less than two months of human testing, Mr Putin said on Tuesday that Russia's Covid-19 vaccine underwent the necessary tests and it offers a lasting immunity from the virus.

The Russian President stressed during a government meeting that the vaccine was proven safe to use.

Speaking at a government meeting, Mr Putin emphasised that the vaccine has undergone proper testing and proven safe to use.



12.12.2020

Donald Trump announces coronavirus vaccine begins 'in less than 24 hours'


The Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine for coronavirus has been approved for use in the United States, health authorities in the country have confirmed.

Describing the jab as a "medical miracle", President Donald Trump said in a video address: "We have delivered a safe and effective vaccine in just nine months.



28.01.2021

Russian President Vladimir Putin said during a virtual address to the World Economic Forum on Wednesday, that the world’s focus should be on mass COVID-19 vaccinations of not just wealthy countries, but impoverished countries as well.


Putin said the novel coronavirus pandemic “will drag on,” adding that inequalities in vaccine distribution will be a “global menace.”

January 27, 2021

The main focus of the forum is the discussion of the new global situation arising from the novel coronavirus pandemic.

* * *
World Economic Forum Founder and Executive Chairman Klaus Schwab:
Mr President, welcome to the Davos Agenda Week.

Russia is an important global power, and there’s a long-standing tradition of Russia’s participation in the World Economic Forum. At this moment in history, where the world has a unique and short window of opportunity to move from an age of confrontation to an age of cooperation, the ability to hear your voice, the voice of the President of the Russian Federation, is essential. Even and especially in times characterised by differences, disputes and protests, constructive and honest dialogue to address our common challenges is better than isolation and polarisation.
..
COVID-19, Mr President, has shown our global vulnerability and interconnectivity, and, like any other country, Russia will certainly also be affected, and your economic development and prospects for international cooperation, of course, are of interest to all of us.

Mr President, we are keen to hear from your perspective and from that of Russia, how you see the situation developing in the third decade of the 21st century and what should be done to ensure that people everywhere find peace and prosperity.

Mr President, the world is waiting to hear from you.

President of Russia Vladimir Putin:

Mr Schwab, dear Klaus,

Colleagues,

I have been to Davos many times, attending the events organised by Mr Schwab, even back in the 1990s. Klaus [Schwab] just recalled that we met in 1992. Indeed, during my time in St Petersburg, I visited this important forum many times. I would like to thank you for this opportunity today to convey my point of view to the expert community that gathers at this world-renowned platform thanks to the efforts of Mr Schwab.

First of all, ladies and gentlemen, I would like to greet all the World Economic Forum participants.
..
Indeed, it is difficult to overlook the fundamental changes in the global economy, politics, social life and technology. The coronavirus pandemic, which Klaus just mentioned, which became a serious challenge for humankind, only spurred and accelerated the structural changes, the conditions for which had been created long ago. The pandemic has exacerbated the problems and imbalances that built up in the world before. There is every reason to believe that differences are likely to grow stronger. These trends may appear practically in all areas.

...
Hopes that it will be possible to reboot the old growth model are connected with rapid technological development. Indeed, during the past 20 years we have created a foundation for the so-called Fourth Industrial Revolution based on the wide use of AI and automation and robotics. The coronavirus pandemic has greatly accelerated such projects and their implementation.
...


Special Address by Vladimir Putin, President of the Russian Federation | DAVOS AGENDA 2021

World Economic Forum

27.01.2021 #VladimirPutin #WorldEconomicForum #DavosAgenda2021

Special Address by Vladimir Putin, President of the Russian Federation.

Speakers: Vladimir Putin, Klaus Schwab

The World Economic Forum is the International Organization for Public-Private Cooperation. The Forum engages the foremost political, business, cultural and other leaders of society to shape global, regional and industry agendas. We believe that progress happens by bringing together people from all walks of life who have the drive and the influence to make positive change.




 
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"...
On October 16, 2014 at the office of the Russian Venture Company (RVC), an expert seminar “The Neuronet Roadmap” was held with the participation of Stephen Dunn, director of Starlab Neuroscience Research; Karen Casey, creator of the Global Mind Project; Randal A. Kuhne [Koene], CEO of the Science Foundation Carboncopies.org and the founder of NeuraLink Co.; Mikhail Lebedev, Senior Researcher An employee at the Neuroengineering Center of the Department of Neurobiology at Duke University Medical Center (M. Nicolelis Laboratory); Evgeny Kuznetsov, Deputy General Director of RVC. The seminar was conducted by the co-founders of the Russian Neuronet Group Pavel Luksha and Timur Shchukin, as well as the head of the RVC Innovation Ecosystem Development Service Georgy Gogolev.

In the RVC office hosted an expert seminar “Neuronet Roadmap”, at which the world’s leading experts in the field of neuroscience and members of the Russian Neuronet group discussed neuroscience and neurotechnology – one of the most relevant areas of research.
...
The seminar participants said that applied solutions in this area are developing at an accelerated pace. With the help of implanted electrodes, the monkey can already control two independent moving targets. New neural interfaces are just around the corner: scientists turn neurons on and off using light signals and can read information from them and transmit signals to them, introducing neural dust into the brain – the smallest crystals, no larger than 5 microns. All these achievements promise breakthroughs in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, in the development of auditory and visual prostheses.

Neurotechnologies affect the sphere of entertainment, the education system, approaches to the management of industry and trade. But the most important result of a scientific and technological breakthrough in the field of neuroscience is the achievement of a new quality in communications. The modern Internet transmits information and even semantics, but is powerless in transmitting emotions and the unconscious. The Neuronet is the next generation of the Internet, which will use neural interfaces to create new types of communication between people and machines. By linking hundreds or, in the future, even billions of intelligences into a neurocomputer network, it will be possible to achieve a synergistic effect in their joint work, since the brain has the property of plasticity. Perhaps, in the era of the Neuronet, people will finally agree on solving the world’s problems, because an environment will appear that will help overcome the usual human distortions of thinking and perception. New opportunities will open up in teamwork and improving the effectiveness of educational programs.

The roadmap for the development of the Neuronet for the period from 2014 to 2040 is shown



...
When Biometrinet becomes commonplace, the “Neuronet Offensive” will begin (2025-2035), during which communication protocols based on digital models of mental processes will be developed and approaches to organizing a “collective consciousness” capable of “brainstorming” and solving tasks that require the concerted efforts of many people will be found."

..
“The Neuronet Roadmap was approved by Protocol No. 1 of 02/28/2022 by absentee voting of the members of the Presidium of the Government Commission for Economic Modernization and Innovative Development of Russia."

«Дорожная карта» «Нейронет» одобрена протоколом №1 от 28.02.22 г. заочного голосования членов президиума Правительственной комиссии по модернизации экономики и инновационному развитию России.
....
COMPOSITION OF THE WORKING GROUP
The composition of the working group for the development and implementation of the NeuroNet roadmap of the National Technology Initiative was approved by Protocol No. 1 of the Interdepartmental Working Group for the Development and Implementation of the National Technology Initiative under the Government Commission for Economic Modernization and Innovative Development of Russia dated January 21, 2021.
..
Members of the working group
..

Kaplan A.Y.
Head of the Laboratory of Neurophysiology and Brain-Computer Interfaces, Faculty of Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University

**
Dr. Randal A. Koene
Neuroengineering Pioneer
Computational Neuroscien- tist, science curator in the whole brain emulation field, pioneering development of substrate-independent minds.
Dr. Koene has been focusing on the functional reconstruction of neural tissue since 1994. He introduced the multi-disciplinary field of whole brain emulation and is lead curator of the scientific roadmap with which its technological development is promoted.

Working with the VU University Amsterdam, Dr. Koene led the creation of NETMORPH, a computational framework for the simulated morphological development of large-scale high-resolution neuroanatomically realistic neuronal circuitry.

Dr. Koene is CEO and Founder of the science foundation Carboncopies.org and neural interfaces company NeuraLink Co. He is Science Director of the 2045 Initiative and advises several neurotechnology companies and organizations.

In previous roles, Dr. Koene was Director of Analysis at Silicon Valley nanotechnology company Halcyon Molecular (2010-12) and Director of the Department of Neuroengineering at Tecnalia, the third largest private research organization in Europe (2008-10). Dr. Koene was a research professor at Boston University's Center for Memory and Brain.

He earned his Ph.D. studying memory mechanisms at McGill University, after obtaining an M.Sc. in Electrical Engineering with a specialization in Information Theory at Delft University of Technology.

Dr. Koene’s publications, presentations and interviews are available at http://randalkoene.com.


 
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7.03.2015
Global Future 2045 Congress: Towards a New Strategy for Human Evolution / New York City, 2013

Roundtable on Life-extension of the Brain in a Full-body Prosthesis with Biological Blood Substitutes and Brain-Computer Interfaces with Optional Neuroprostheses

Dr. Alexander Kaplan
Dr. Mikhail Lebedev

Dr. Theodore Berger
Dmitry Itskov


speakers
..
Dr. Ben Goertzel

Artificial General Intelligence researcher

Founder, OpenCog Foundation. Chairman, Biomind LLC.

Dr. Goertzel's research work encompasses Artificial General Intelligence, natural language processing, cognitive science, computational neuroscience, data mining, machine learning, computational finance, bioinformatics, virtual worlds and gaming and other areas.

He has published a dozen scientific books, 100+ technical papers, and numerous journalistic articles, and has edited several journal special issues, including the first-ever journal issues on Artificial Brains and Mind Uploading.

Before entering the software industry he served as a university faculty in several departments of mathematics, computer science and cognitive science, in the US, Australia and New Zealand.

He has three children and too many pets, and in his spare time enjoys creating avant-garde fiction and music, and exploring the outdoors.

Chief Scientist of financial prediction firm Aidyia Holdings; Chairman of AI software company Novamente LLC and bioinformatics company Biomind LLC; Chairman of the Artificial General Intelligence Society and the OpenCog Foundation; Vice Chairman of futurist nonprofit Humanity+; Scientific Advisor of biopharma firm Genescient Corp.; Advisor to the Singularity University and Singularity Institute; Research Professor in the Fujian Key Lab for Brain-Like Intelligent Systems at Xiamen University, China; and general Chair of the Artificial General Intelligence conference series.



speakers
..

Dr. George Church
Genomics Pioneer
Molecular geneticist, pioneer in personal genomics and synthetic biology.
1984 Harvard PhD introduced first methods for direct genome sequencing, molecular multiplexing & barcoding. These lead in 1994 to the first commercial genome sequence of the Helicobacter pylori pathogen.

His innovations in next generation genome sequencing and synthesis & cell/tissue engineering resulted in 12 companies in medical genomics (Knome, Alacris, AbVitro, GoodStart, Pathogenica), synthetic biology (LS9, Joule, Gen9, Warp Drive) as well asnew privacy, biosafety & biosecurity policies. Director of the NIH Center for Excellence in Genomic Science.

Honors include election to NAS & NAE and Franklin Laureate for Achievement in Science. Currently Harvard Medical School Genetics Prof. Also provides the world's only open-access information on human Genomic, Environmental & Trait (GET) data through PersonalGenomes.org as its director.

Bio sketch at
http://arep.med.harvard.edu/gmc/



Dr. George Church — the BRAIN Project I/O & Human Genome Engineering

27.01.2015
Global Future 2045: Towards a New Strategy for Human Evolution /
New York City, 2013 http://gf2045.com/

Dr. George ChurchGenomics Pioneer. Molecular geneticist, pioneer in personal genomics and synthetic biology.

We have developed a variety of CRISPR devices—protein-RNA-DNA complexes— enabling human genome—and epigenome—engineering with 20-fold higher efficiency and 100-fold easier programming than previous methods. To test these devices, PersonalGenomes.org provides the world's only biobank of human cell lines consented for fully open access sharing — and already outfitted as a sophisticated human synthetic biology chassis. We have designed and tested the first nanorobots made from hybrid materials—DNA, proteins and inorganic—which have sensors, logic & actuators capable of distinguishing subtle differences among various cancer, normal and immune cell types. We are exploring the use of similar hybrid nanostructures for manufacture of ultra-fast and complex electronic, optical and quantum computing and have demonstrated bionano storage a billion times more compact and with lower copying energy than conventional digital media. Such nanodevices offer significant advances in our ability to perform highly parallel input and output in animal and human neural systems."




Scientist George Church talks about accepting donations from Jeffrey Epstein
9.12.2019


THE SOLUTIONS WILL COME FROM SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
The tools to restore health will require advanced software, hardware and wetware which empower better understanding of the underlying causes of disease. Treatment tools might involve advanced nanotechnology, biotechnology, 3D printing, and artificial intelligence, implemented with automated robotic systems guided by advanced brain Imaging solutions.

WE LIVE IN THE MOST AMAZING TIMES OF HUMAN HISTORY. IT IS OUR DUTY TO CREATE A BETTER TOMORROW.
Advanced neuroscience technologies will likely empower humanity to finally reverse engineer the human brain systems and subsystems, which will likely permit modelling brain disease processes and find proper treatment therapies which would save our almost bankrupted healthcare system.

Combinations of emerging exponential technologies will empower the understanding of the mechanisms of brain development and ultimately the understanding of the neural correlates of consciousness.

Emerging technologies combined with advances in neuroscience will likely permit connecting brains with computers. This will finally permit having robotics and artificial intelligence taking care of the dangerous and boring jobs.

Our company is committed to establish and follow the most strict Ethical, Social & Legal guidelines to ensure that Humanity’s interests are the north-star of all our efforts. These principles form the backbone of our belief system: to make the world a better place for the benefit of humanity.




Founded by Dr. Nuno Martins, the company is advised by the world-renowned scientist and serial entrepreneur Dr. George Church and supported by some of the most recognised names in the world of science and industry. Every single team member, investor, advisor, or partner, involved with our company share the same vision of creating an abundant future for all.

Connecting Brains & Computers
In the realm of connecting brains and computers, the potential applications are boundless. From the early identification of illnesses to the precise orchestration of advanced robots and machines, and even navigating immersive digital landscapes, the impact is transformative. The integration of human brains with computers and artificial intelligence algorithms holds the promise of amalgamating decision-making capabilities with the vast data processing power of computers. This symbiosis is poised to usher in a new era of collaborative intelligence, enhancing researchers’ ability to uncover solutions for diseases that still elude medical control.

At Connectomes, our commitment extends beyond innovation to encompass ethical and safe applications for society. Upholding the highest ethical and legal standards throughout the technological development and delivery process is paramount, ensuring that our products and services contribute positively to the well-being of humanity.

Brain Computer Interfaces

How can humans keep up with the exponential growth of computing?

One wised solution resides on the development of proper brain computer interface systems. Brain Computer Interface technologies will empower humans to interact with computers using their thoughts only, without a need for physical input. Brain Computer Interface technologies can interpret a user’s thoughts and intentions, allowing them to control computers, robots, and other devices using their minds only. Brain Computer Interface systems are aso very promising on the healthcare sector. They are likely to help restore the quality of life of many patients while a biological cure is not available.

By translating users’ thoughts and intentions into actionable commands, BCIs empower individuals to control computers, robots, and a myriad of devices through the sheer power of their cognitive processes. The transformative potential extends beyond the realm of technology, as BCIs hold great promise in the healthcare sector, providing a lifeline for improving the quality of life for patients facing challenges where a biological remedy remains elusive. As we embark on this frontier, our commitment is to advance BCI systems that not only bridge the gap between humans and technology but also enrich lives and redefine the possibilities of human-machine collaboration.




George Church, PH.D.
Dr Church is a professor at Harvard and MIT, runs the Church lab at the Harvard Medical School, and is a Core Faculty member of the Wyss Institute at Harvard where he leads the Synthetic Biology Platform. Dr Church is a recognized leader in genomics, having pioneered a number of advances and breakthroughs that have helped advance the entire field.

Scientific Advisory Board


Ben Goertzel, Ph.D.
..the Chief Scientist of Hanson Robotics, a Hong Kong robotics company that creates the world’s most advanced humanoid robots.

..



Mikhail Lebedev, Ph.D.
Connectomes Scientific Advisory Board Member


Advisor

Senior Research Scientist at Duke University Medical Center and Scientific Head.

Mikhail A. Lebedev, Ph.D. is the Senior Research Scientist at Duke University Medical Center and Scientific Head and Chief Research Scientist at the Center for Bioelectric Interfaces in the Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience from National Research University Higher School of Economics in Moscow, Russia.

He specializes in Brain-Machine Interfaces (BMI) and has conducted research in this field all over the world. He is immersed in the use of BMIs to enhance and augment human potential. He agrees that we have already made some great advances in BMI research.

“The most successful BMI system currently in use is the cochlear implant where stimulatory electrodes are implanted within the auditory nerve. These have been really successful, so people who couldn’t hear, now have the ability to do so. I think that this type of sensory BMI will continue to develop,” he says.

He also predicts that before too long, we will see a major breakthrough in BMI systems, which will lead to new developments in visual prosthetic devices, which will enable blind people to see. He also foresees rapid advancement in BMI systems designed to restore motor movements and cure paralysis. We have already seen great advancements in neuroprosthetics, such as bionic arms and exoskeletons for restoration of locomotion. According to Mikhail, as development in this area continues, such prosthetics will become more sophisticated and more streamlined.

Mikhail was born in Moscow in 1963. He earned his Master’s Degree of Science in Physics and Technology from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT) in 1986 where he became interested in the physics of living systems. Driven by this interest, he joined the laboratory of Victor Gurfinkel at the Institute for the Problems of Information Transmission as a trainee. Mikhail investigated the role of vision (e.g., peripheral versus central visual field) in human postural control.

After his graduation from MIPT, he joined Gurfinkel’s laboratory as Junior Research Scientist at the Institute for Problems of Information Transmission for 5 years, between 1986 and 1991. During this period, he conducted a number of studies on the control of posture and movements in humans. In particular, he studied tonic muscular contractions evoked by vibratory stimulation of muscle receptors, post-contraction postural effects (Kohnstamm’s phenomenon), neck reflexes, and electromyographic patterns. He also conducted a study of motor unit suppression by limb ischemia.

In 1991, after the Soviet “iron curtain” was lifted and opportunities for international scientific collaboration emerged, Mikhail moved to the United States, to the laboratory of Randall Nelson at the Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology of the University of Tennessee (UT), Memphis. Here he learned neurophysiological methods for recordings from brain neurons in awake, behaving monkeys.

Mikhail underwent his Ph.D. training between 1991 and 1995 and earned his Ph.D. in Neurobiology and Anatomy at the Health Science Center from the University of Tennessee, Memphis in 1995. His Ph.D. thesis was an investigation of rhythmically firing (spontaneously or driven by vibrotactile stimulation) neurons in the primary somatosensory cortex. Additionally, he conducted research on the basal ganglia involvement in motor control, attention, and motivation.

Between 1995 and 1997, Mikhail conducted postdoctoral research at the laboratory of Mathew Diamond at La Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (SISSA) in Trieste, Italy. He employed multielectrode recordings to study experience-dependent cortical plasticity in the rat barrel cortex.

In 1997, Mikhail became researcher in the laboratory of Steven Wise at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), Bethesda, Maryland. For the next 5 years he conducted, among others, a series of neurophysiological studies in awake, behaving monkeys, where he elucidated cortical mechanisms of motor control, spatial attention, working memory, and perceptions.

In 2002, Mikhail moved to Duke University to work with Miguel Nicolelis. Here Mikhail supervises the primate laboratory. The major focus of this research is brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) that enable direct cortical control of assistive devices that reproduce limb movements. These are BMIs for reaching and grasping, BMIs that reproduce bipedal locomotion patterns, as well as sensorized BMIs that both extract motor commands from the brain and deliver feedback information using intracortical microstimulation of the somatosensory cortex.

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29.12.2023

Mikhail A. Lebedev, Ph.D. is the Senior Research Scientist at Duke University Medical Center and Scientific Head and Chief Research Scientist at the Center for Bioelectric Interfaces in the Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience from National Research University Higher School of Economics in Moscow, Russia.
 
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https://roscongress.org/en/sessions/fbt-2024-zachem-mozgu-podklyuchatsya-k-kompyuteru/about/
Why Does the Brain Need to Connect to a Computer?
Future Technologies Forum, 14 February 2024, 12:00—13:30, World Trade Center Moscow
Broadcast (the session recording):

https://roscongress.org/en/sessions/fbt-2024-zachem-mozgu-podklyuchatsya-k-kompyuteru/translation/#
with English translation, by a translator of Rocongress

participants [among them]
..


Mikhail Lebedev
Chief Researcher, I.M. Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences


Vasily Popkov
Head of the Scientific Group "Invasive Neural Interfaces", Institute of Artificial Intelligence, Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU)


The expert named the main task for Russian and foreign neurophysiologists

According to Vasily Popkov, Head of the Invasive Neural Interfaces Development Group at the Institute of Artificial Intelligence of Moscow State University, this will be a solution to the problem of updating various neural implants and augmentation systems
..
"Me personally and our laboratory as a whole are now actively working on solving issues related to the biocompatibility of neural implants with brain tissue. In the near future, when this problem is finally solved, our next big challenge will be the problem of updating neural interfaces.


....
The expert predicted a "race of neural implants" due to the loss of technological unipolarity

Vasily Popkov, head of the group for the development of invasive neural interfaces at the Institute of Artificial Intelligence of Moscow State University, noted that the United States had a monopoly on technological innovations, which allowed Washington to slow down the development of potentially dangerous areas, such as cloning
..
"All ethical issues related to the development of neural interfaces will fade into the background, and an analogue of the "space race" of the last century will begin, which this time will be aimed at expanding human capabilities. Unlike microelectronics and many other technologies, we are not hopelessly behind in this area, and with proper investment of funds and efforts, we will be able to reduce this gap and compete in this regard with the leading participants in this race," Popkov summed up.
 
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