russia through the hidden eye 3

Lalas

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5–8 JUNE 2024

One of the biggest and most important business events in the world. Over the past 26 years, the Forum has cemented its status as a leading international event focusing on key issues on the global economic agenda. It provides a platform for participants to exchange best practices and expertise in the interests of sustainable development.

SPIEF has been held annually since 1997. Since 2005, it has been held under the auspices of the President of the Russian Federation, who has also attended each event.

In 2021, SPIEF was the first business event of such magnitude to be held offline since the unavoidable break caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. ...




PRESIDENT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION VLADIMIR PUTIN SENT GREETING TO THE PARTICIPANTS, ORGANIZERS AND GUESTS OF THE 27TH ST PETERSBURG INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC FORUM

“For more than a quarter of a century, the Forum has provided an opportunity for politicians, experts, business leaders, academics, and media professionals from around the world to hold in-depth discussions on key economic development trends in Russia and the world. Participants in plenary sessions, roundtables and panel discussions exchange views on ways to promote international cooperation, encourage scientific and technological progress and the development of human capital, and to effectively tackle the challenges we face.

The theme of the current meeting, The Foundations of a Multipolar World – The Formation of New Areas of Growth, is highly relevant and meaningful.
A growing part of the international community is in favour of building a just and democratic system of international relations based on the principles of genuine equality, consideration for each other’s legitimate interests, and respect for the cultural and civilisational diversity of nations. It is precisely these principles that underpin the activities of BRICS, which Russia is chairing this year. It is symbolic that the history of this dynamically developing association, whose members already account for more than a third of the global economy, began at the 10th St Petersburg International Economic Forum in 2006.

Our country is open to constructive dialogue and interaction with partners and is ready to work together to address the economic, social, scientific and technological challenges of our time.

I am confident that the Forum will jump-start new and promising initiatives and projects, fostering mutually beneficial cooperation between our countries and peoples.


I wish you success and all the best.”


Vladimir Putin



BUSINESS PROGRAMME
...

WILL GENERATION Y COPE WITH DISEASE X?

06 Jun , 15:00–16:15

TECHNOLOGIES FOR LEADERSHIP

Congress Centre, zone B, 2nd floor, conference hall B3


It is impossible to predict with 100% certainty what the threat of a new pandemic will be and which infection will become ‘Disease X’. The scientific community has identified several ‘suspects’, including highly pathogenic influenza, coronaviruses, arboviruses, and several other infections. However, the level of uncertainty is too high to settle on one candidate. Therefore, the main efforts of Russian specialists are directed towards readiness for any new pathogen, forming a proactive and flexible system for detecting and responding to biological threats. This includes digital transformation, genetic technologies, and the creation of technological platforms that should enable rapid development of tests and vaccines against any new infection. Young geneticists, epidemiologists, microbiologists, and artificial intelligence specialists are involved in shaping new approaches to preventing and responding to biological crises. Today, new epidemic-fighting technologies are not only being mastered but also being developed by representatives of Generations Y and Z. Clearly, today’s young scientists and specialists will need to respond to the threat of ‘Disease X’. Are they ready? What does it mean to be prepared for an unknown pandemic and what will it be? How can continuity between generations of scientists and professionals be ensured? What biosecurity technologies are being created and implemented by Millennials and Zoomers?

Moderator
Anna Popova, Head of the Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing; Chief State Sanitary Physician of the Russian Federation

Panellists
Marc-Alain Widdowson, Team Lead, High Threat Pathogens, Health Emergencies Program, Regional Office for Europe, World Health Organization (online)


[and others]



**
Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing - Rospotrebnadzor

news
https://www.rospotrebnadzor.ru/about/info/news/news_details.php?ELEMENT_ID=27820
Topical Issues of New Biological Infectious Threats Discussed on the Sidelines of SPIEF-24

06.06.2024

On 6 June, a panel discussion titled 'Will Generation Y Cope with Disease X') was held on the sidelines of SPIEF-24. The event was moderated by the head of Rospotrebnadzor Anna Popova. Among the participants are representatives of the Pasteur St. Petersburg Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, the Vector Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology, the Research Institute of Systems Biology and Medicine, the Central Research Institute of Epidemiology, as well as invited experts from the WHO, the CSTO Parliamentary Assembly, and the Skolkovo Foundation.

As part of the discussion, experts discussed topical issues of new biological threats of the infectious type, which pose a potential danger to the health and safety of people around the world.

Thus, one of the crises was called the unreliability or lack of data on the state of infectious diseases in many countries. Experts noted that this could create problems in the fight against infections and complicate the development of effective strategies to control and prevent them.

In some cases, countries may use different methods of data collection and reporting, which makes it difficult to compare and analyse information.

"We are talking, first of all, about the data crisis. An example is a difficult situation with cholera in one of the Asian countries. Since June last year, there is data on 500 victims and those with suspicion - 4.5 thousand, while the sequence of the disease is not published, and there are a lot of such examples, "said the head of Rospotrebnadzor Anna Popova.

In addition, countries may not share incidence data due to political or other reasons, making it impossible to obtain a complete picture of infectious diseases.


We also talked about the emergence of new types of infectious diseases, such as COVID-19, which can spread rapidly, causing significant losses in people's lives and health. The coronavirus pandemic not only arose in the era of digitalization, but also stimulated its rapid development. Future pandemics may develop in the context of artificial intelligence and synthetic biology penetrating all spheres, which will affect their development. "

Речь зашла и о возникновении новых видов инфекционных заболеваний, таких как COVID-19, которые могут быстро распространяться, вызывая значительные потери жизней и здоровья людей. Пандемия коронавируса не только возникла в эпоху цифровизации, но и стимулировала ее бурное развитие. Будущие пандемии могут развиваться в условиях проникающего во все сферы искусственного интеллекта и синтетической биологии, что окажет влияние на их развитие.

**


January 27, 2021

The main focus of the forum is the discussion of the new global situation arising from the novel coronavirus pandemic.

* * *
World Economic Forum Founder and Executive Chairman Klaus Schwab:
Mr President, welcome to the Davos Agenda Week.

Russia is an important global power, and there’s a long-standing tradition of Russia’s participation in the World Economic Forum. At this moment in history, where the world has a unique and short window of opportunity to move from an age of confrontation to an age of cooperation, the ability to hear your voice, the voice of the President of the Russian Federation, is essential. Even and especially in times characterised by differences, disputes and protests, constructive and honest dialogue to address our common challenges is better than isolation and polarisation.
..
COVID-19, Mr President, has shown our global vulnerability and interconnectivity, and, like any other country, Russia will certainly also be affected, and your economic development and prospects for international cooperation, of course, are of interest to all of us.

Mr President, we are keen to hear from your perspective and from that of Russia, how you see the situation developing in the third decade of the 21st century and what should be done to ensure that people everywhere find peace and prosperity.

Mr President, the world is waiting to hear from you.

President of Russia Vladimir Putin:

Mr Schwab, dear Klaus,

Colleagues,

I have been to Davos many times, attending the events organised by Mr Schwab, even back in the 1990s. Klaus [Schwab] just recalled that we met in 1992. Indeed, during my time in St Petersburg, I visited this important forum many times. I would like to thank you for this opportunity today to convey my point of view to the expert community that gathers at this world-renowned platform thanks to the efforts of Mr Schwab.

First of all, ladies and gentlemen, I would like to greet all the World Economic Forum participants.

...
Hopes that it will be possible to reboot the old growth model are connected with rapid technological development. Indeed, during the past 20 years we have created a foundation for the so-called Fourth Industrial Revolution based on the wide use of AI and automation and robotics. The coronavirus pandemic has greatly accelerated such projects and their implementation.
...



**
https://www.rospotrebnadzor.ru/about/info/news/news_details.php?ELEMENT_ID=27837
Congratulations from Head of Rospotrebnadzor Anna Popova on Russia Day

12.06.2024

Dear colleagues!

On behalf of the Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing and on my own behalf, I congratulate you on the Day of Russia!

This holiday symbolizes the unity, freedom and independence of our country, its rich history, multinational culture, the inextricable link of all generations of Russians, who at all times, spared no effort, stood up for its defense.

The well-being of our state largely depends on each of us. Specialists of Rospotrebnadzor ensure the sanitary and epidemiological well-being of citizens on a daily basis, conduct scientific, informational, preventive and educational work, and protect consumer rights.

Dear friends, from the bottom of my heart I wish you good health, fortitude, prosperity, peace and goodness! Happy holiday!
"
 

Lalas

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DNA chains capable of quickly cutting RNA molecules have been created

This makes it possible to use such short chains of nucleotides to selectively suppress the work of individual genes or destroy tumor cells and viruses

2024, June 11. In Russia, DNA molecules have been created that can selectively connect with messenger RNA strands and cut them very quickly, which makes it possible to use such short chains of nucleotides to selectively suppress the work of individual genes or destroy tumor cells and viruses. This was reported by the press service of ITMO University.

"Messenger RNA has a complex secondary structure, which can be in the form of multiple "hairpins" and "trunks". Because of this shape, the area where the drug can attach is often inaccessible. We have created a prototype of a molecule that can attach itself to the desired part of the messenger RNA and cleave it 17 times faster than existing structures," explained Mikhail Dubovichenko, a researcher from ITMO University, quoted by the university's press service.

The molecules developed are so-called DNAzymes, short strands of DNA that are able to interact with other molecules and manipulate their structure. Scientists have been working for many years to create DNAzymes that can bind to certain RNA molecules and cut them, which, in theory, makes it possible to manipulate the level of gene activity, as well as fight cancer and viruses.

To solve such problems, as the researchers note, it is necessary that DNAzymes selectively bind only to the desired type of RNA molecules. The solution of this problem is complicated by the fact that inside the copies of genes or genomes of viruses, there are often various loops and outgrowths that slow down the work of DNAzyms or prevent them from functioning. This interferes with the use of these molecules in medical and scientific practice.

Russian researchers have found that this problem can be circumvented if not one, but two DNA molecules linked to each other are used to cleave RNA chains, which bind to neighboring sites in the structure of working copies of genes or genomes of viruses. Experts managed to select such a structure of these molecules that significantly increased both the selectivity of their action and the speed of cutting messenger RNA strands.

The scientists tested the operation of this system on several short strands of RNA, which are small fragments of the human gene EIF3C and the bacterial gene strA, which confers resistance to antibiotics. These experiments showed that the "double" DNAzymes cut these RNA strands 17 times faster than other types of similar molecules, and at the same time they had a very high selectivity of action. All this indicates great prospects for the further development of drugs based on such DNA chains, the researchers concluded.


KemSU studied genes associated with metabolic disorders in miners

This will allow you to create personalized nutrition and disease prevention plans

KEMEROVO, June 11, 2024. Geneticists from Kemerovo State University (Kemerovo State University) conducted blood tests of coal mine workers and developed a miner's nutrigenetic passport. This will make it possible to create individual nutrition and disease prevention plans, the university told TASS.

"During the examination, data were obtained indicating the prevalence of metabolic disorders in miners. A significant number of patients were found to have dyslipidemia (lipid metabolism disorders), vitamin deficiency, homocysteine accumulation, and cholesterol metabolism disorders. There is also a violation of eating behavior, the perception of sweet and bitter tastes, predisposing to weight gain and metabolic disorders," said Varvara Minina, head of the Department of Genetics and Fundamental Medicine of KemSU.

She added that the study tested all the genes known in the scientific literature associated with metabolic syndrome or obesity. Then, those genes were selected for the test system, which, against the background of improper nutrition common among miners, significantly affect the occurrence of metabolic disorders. To do this, scientists used not only molecular genetics methods, but also mathematical modeling with the support of artificial intelligence, which made it possible to build gene networks and simulate the risk of metabolic disorders.

"The results obtained formed the basis for the development of a miner's nutrigenetic passport, which will allow you to personally adjust the risks of metabolic disorders and reduce the incidence of cardiovascular and endocrine pathologies at work. These data can be used in their work by nutritionists, nutritionists and people themselves to develop individual nutrition plans and prevention," Minina added.

The nutrigenetic passport contains personal information about gene variants that regulate the metabolism of lipids and carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals, xenobiotics and antioxidants, as well as genes that control human eating behavior. To compile it, scientists examined 160 coal mine workers in Kuzbass and analyzed genetic, biochemical, clinical and anamnestic indicators. Gene variants that indicate intolerance to certain foods were determined separately. It is noted that malnutrition in the conditions of work in the mine increases the risk of metabolic disorders, which can lead to a reduction in the life expectancy of miners.

It is specified that the nutrigenetic passport can be used for all mine employees - both those working underground and for ground services. The project is being implemented within the framework of the Priority-2030 program of the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia.


MPEI has created a glove for sensor control of robotic systems

The technology is suitable for tasks in the field of medicine, as well as drone control

MOSCOW, June 10, 2024. Specialists of the National Research University "MPEI" have created a software and hardware complex for reading and transmitting signals about the movement of a human hand. The technology is also suitable for tasks in the field of medicine, as well as controlling drones, the press service of the university reported.

"The touch control technology developed by our scientists opens up new opportunities for the use of robotic systems in many spheres of life. The use of software products and hardware of Russian origin determines the great potential for further improvement of this solution and its adaptation to various tasks in the field of medicine, high-tech production, and control of unmanned vehicles," said Nikolay Rogalev, Rector of MPEI.

It is noted that the technology for modeling and functioning of the glove was created using domestic SimInTech software. A feature is sensors that allow you to assess the spatial movement of the operator's hand and generate control signals.

Unlike other prototypes, the hardware of this complex not only transmits the movement of the hand, but also reflects the reaction of the external environment to it. Moreover, new engineering solutions have been developed: with the help of an artificial tendon control system, vibration and tactile sensors, biofeedback signals are generated, which allow you to increase the accuracy of control.

The press service clarified that the use of technology in medicine will help to more accurately synchronize the movement of the surgeon's hands and medical instruments during operations, and when it is introduced into the field of rehabilitation medicine, a more complete restoration of the lost functions of the hand will be achieved with the help of an artificial robotic glove using visual, force and tactile feedback. The complex can also be used in the field of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), it will provide new opportunities in navigation and remote control of traffic through the formation of a new human-machine interface.
 
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Lalas

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An optimal method for the production of nanoparticles from gold and silicon has been created

Hybrid nanoparticles heat up three times more efficiently than conventional silicon nanostructures of similar sizes

2024, June 10. Russian physicists have developed an approach that makes it possible to produce hybrid nanoparticles based on silicon and gold with a diameter of 200 nanometers, which can be used to destroy tumor cells by heating them to high temperatures, as well as for other purposes. This was reported by the press service of the Russian Science Foundation (RSF).

"Due to their size, the resulting nanoparticles will be able to successfully penetrate tumor tissue when injected into the human body. Then it will be possible to illuminate these areas with infrared rays through the skin and thereby achieve the heating of particles and the destruction of cancer cells," explained Alexei Zhizhchenko, senior researcher at the Institute of Automation and Control Processes of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Vladivostok), whose words are quoted by the press service of the Russian Science Foundation.

Experts have developed hybrid nanoparticles, which are a composite material consisting of porous silicon and clusters of gold atoms embedded in it. Such a composite nanomaterial actively interacts with infrared radiation, absorbs it and releases heat into the environment, which can be used to destroy tumors, as well as create various sensors and optoelectronic devices.

In the past, physicists have created silicon nanoparticles with similar properties, but their size has been very difficult to control, which negatively affects their ability to penetrate the tumor and spread throughout its thickness. Russian scientists have found that this problem can be solved by using porous silicon wafers to produce nanostructures, which are immersed in alcohol and then irradiated with a laser.

Laser radiation "knocks out" nanoparticles from porous silicon, the diameter of which is about 200 nanometers with slight deviations to the side. Such a high homogeneity of these particles, as the scientists explain, is due to the fact that porous silicon absorbs laser radiation more strongly compared to its crystalline counterpart. These same nanoparticles can be filled with various materials and substances, including clusters of gold atoms, which enhance the ability of these structures to absorb electromagnetic radiation.

For example, the experiments showed that the hybrid nanoparticles they created heat up three times more efficiently than conventional silicon nanostructures of similar sizes. This makes it possible to use them for the treatment of cancer, as well as for solving a lot of other problems where it is necessary to convert radiation into heat, the researchers concluded.


Expert: Russian biotechnology can become a key element of healthcare

Maria Vorontsova, a member of the Presidium of the Russian Association for the Promotion of Science of the Russian Federation, noted that help is needed in this matter

ST. PETERSBURG, June 7, 2024. Russian biogenetic technologies can become one of the key segments of the domestic healthcare market, said Maria Vorontsova, Deputy Dean of the Faculty of Medicine of Lomonosov Moscow State University for Science, Candidate of Medical Sciences, member of the Presidium of the Russian Association for the Promotion of Science of the Russian Federation.

"I believe that [Russian biogenetic technologies] can [become one of the key segments of the domestic healthcare market] and are partially becoming, and they definitely need to be helped in this. I believe that we have good personnel, good brains, good hands and very creative people. I believe that the area in which they should be helped is rather standardization and the production of the ideas with which they have enriched us," she said, answering a question from journalists on the sidelines of the SPIEF.

Expert: no sanctions will be able to prevent the development of genetic technologies in Russia

Maria Vorontsova, a member of the Presidium of the Russian Association for the Promotion of Science of the Russian Federation, noted the importance of a cohesive society around the right ideas, rather than switching the focus to some incident from the outside

ST. PETERSBURG, June 7, 2024. No sanctions will be able to prevent the development of genetic technologies in Russia, said Maria Vorontsova, Deputy Dean of the Faculty of Medicine of Lomonosov Moscow State University for Science, Candidate of Medical Sciences, member of the Presidium of the Russian Association for the Promotion of Science of the Russian Federation.

"When were we not under pressure? It seems to me that the absence of any pressure in the previous few decades is an illusion. Therefore, I believe that we have prospered, are prospering, and will continue to prosper, regardless of any illusory or real pressure. And it seems to me that in this case it is more important to have a cohesive society around the right ideas, rather than switch the focus to some incident from the outside. The sanctions that they are trying to impose on us rather force us to simply switch our attention from one collaboration to another, from one, say, equipment supplier to another. You know, the Russian person is a very creative, creative person. And where did ours not disappear? Therefore, I believe that nothing will prevent us from achieving our goals the way we want," she said, answering a question from TASS."

The expert called for the development of human resources in Russia for the national bioeconomy

This should be done starting from school, says Maria Vorontsova, Deputy Dean of the Faculty of Medicine of Lomonosov Moscow State University for Science, Candidate of Medical Sciences, member of the Presidium of the Russian Association for the Promotion of Science of the Russian Federation

ST. PETERSBURG, June 7, 2024. Human resources for building a national bioeconomy should be developed in Russia, starting from school, said Maria Vorontsova, Deputy Dean of the Faculty of Medicine of Lomonosov Moscow State University for Science, Candidate of Medical Sciences, member of the Presidium of the Russian Association for the Promotion of Science of the Russian Federation.

"I believe that the first point that we need to develop is human resources. You need to start right from school. It is necessary to interest children in the biology of the XXI century, not in the biology of the XX century, in the biology of today and tomorrow. The bioeconomy and biotechnology cannot belong to the industry alone. This is cooperation, this is the interaction of almost all sectors of our economy today," she told reporters.

The expert noted that it is important to launch a discussion on bioethics in society.

"It seems to me that bioethics can help us outline those red lines that we definitely do not want to cross today. We don't want it in the sense of society, not only as an individual, but also as a scientific community, and as Russian society as a whole. Further, we will need to adjust our guidelines, legislation depending on how science develops around these technologies," Vorontsova said.

In her opinion, it is necessary to involve representatives of different religions and confessions to discuss complex, ethical issues.

"After all, our country is multinational and multi-religious. And even in those moments where, perhaps, our opinion as a scientific community and the church community may differ, this is good. This means that this is the point of departure where the discussion can begin, and where the truth can be revealed, the one that is acceptable and necessary for our society," the expert added.



**
[*Madam Vorontsova is Putin's daughter]
**

In the Russian Federation, they plan to create a prosthesis in three years that can be felt like a hand

The corresponding agreement was signed after "conducting tests on volunteers to relieve phantom pain and to sense prostheses using invasive neurotechnologies"


2024, June 7. Scientists and designers from the Motorica company, a resident of the Skolkovo Foundation (VEB.RF Group), plan to produce a prosthetic hand in two or three years, which a person will be able to control like his own hand. This was announced by the company's CEO Andrey Davidyuk at a session of the St. Petersburg International Economic Forum (SPIEF).

"Modern prostheses are high-tech, but they still do not replace the hand. But prosthesis users have an inner natural desire to control the prosthesis like their own hand. And we are confident that in two or three years we will create a product that can be brought to the market, and which, for sure, will open up many additional applied areas along the way, and this has a huge export potential. These developments that we are conducting are in the top 3, maybe in the top 5 developments in the world," Davidyuk said.

The CEO also said that in May 2024, Motorica signed an agreement with the Federal Center for Brain and Neurotechnology of the FMBA of the Russian Federation to create a cluster that will focus on solving two problems during the first years: relieving phantom pain after amputations and giving sensitivity to prostheses of the upper and lower extremities.

The agreement, according to Davidyuk, was signed after "conducting tests on volunteers to relieve phantom pain and to sense prostheses using invasive neurotechnologies."
 
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Lalas

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18 Jun, 2024

Putin approved the main directions of scientific and technological development


President Vladimir Putin signed a decree on the priority areas of scientific and technological development. The document is published on the portal of legal acts.


There are seven such directions. Among them:

highly efficient and resource-saving energy;

preventive and personalized medicine;

highly productive and resilient agriculture;

security of receiving, storing, transmitting and processing information;

intelligent transport and telecommunications systems, including autonomous vehicles;

strengthening the socio-cultural identity of Russian society and raising the level of its education;

adaptation to climate change.


The same decree approved a list of high-tech technologies - critical and end-to-end. In total, there are 28 technologies on the list. They relate to the fields of energy, including nuclear, medicine, agriculture, electronics, transport, ecology, etc.

The head of state instructed the government to determine the amount of funding for measures for the introduction of high-tech technologies in three months, and to carry out measures "aimed at ensuring the unity of application of priority areas of scientific and technological development" in six months.


..
The list of the most important science-intensive technologies, in particular, includes biomedical and cognitive technologies for healthy and active longevity.

In February, Putin approved a new strategy for Russia's scientific and technological development. The Government was instructed to finance the strategy at the expense of budget allocations provided for in the budget for the program "Scientific and Technological Development of the Russian Federation".

Prior to that, on February 14, the President of the Russian Federation instructed the government to launch a national project for the development of modern health preservation technologies by the end of the year. According to him, national projects make it possible to build the entire technological chain - from the creation of fundamental reserves and applied solutions to means of production and training of highly qualified personnel.


Laws of the Russian Federation

Systematic Collection of Current Legislation




Decree of the President of the Russian Federation dated 18.06.2024 No. 529 "On Approval of Priority Areas of Scientific and Technological Development and the List of the Most Important High Technologies"

..
PRIORITY AREAS OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT

1. Highly efficient and resource-saving energy.

2. Preventive and personalized medicine, ensuring healthy longevity.

3. Highly productive and resistant to changes in the natural environment.

4. Security of receiving, storing, transmitting and processing information.

5. Intelligent transport and telecommunication systems, including autonomous vehicles.

6. Strengthening the socio-cultural identity of Russian society and raising the level of its education.

7. Adaptation to climate change, conservation and rational use of natural resources.


Approved


By Presidential Decree

of the Russian Federation


dated June 18, 2024 No. 529



LIST OF THE MOST IMPORTANT HIGH-TECH TECHNOLOGIES

I. Critical Technologies

1. Technologies for creating highly efficient systems for generation, distribution and storage of energy (including nuclear).

2. Technologies for creating energy systems with a closed fuel cycle.


3. Biomedical and cognitive technologies for healthy and active longevity.

4. Technologies for the development of new generation drugs and platforms (biotechnological, high-tech and radiopharmaceutical drugs).

5. Technologies of personalized, therapeutic and functional nutrition for health preservation.


6. Technologies for the development of new generation medical devices, including biohybrid, bionic technologies and neurotechnologies.

7. Technologies for increasing the productivity (including through selection) of farm animals and their resistance to diseases.

8. Technologies for the development of veterinary drugs of a new generation, including for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases in farm animals.

9. Technologies for obtaining new varieties and hybrids of plants resistant to changes in the natural environment.

10. Technologies for the creation of biological and chemical means to increase the yield of agricultural crops and their protection from diseases and harmful organisms (natural or artificial origin).

11. Microelectronics and photonics technologies for information storage, processing, transmission and protection systems.


12. Technologies of secure quantum data transmission systems.

13. Technologies for creating trusted and protected system and application software, including for the management of social and economically significant systems.


14. Transport technologies for various applications (sea, land, air), including unmanned and autonomous systems.

15. Space Instrumentation Technologies for the Development of Modern Systems of Communication, Navigation and Remote Sensing of the Earth.

16. Technologies of system analysis and forecast of socio-economic development and security of the Russian Federation in the emerging world order.

17. Modern Tools for Research and Strengthening of Civilizational Foundations and Traditional Spiritual and Moral Values of Russian Society, Including Historical and Cultural Heritage and Languages of the Peoples of the Russian Federation.


18. Socio-psychological technologies for the formation and development of social and interethnic relations.

19. Monitoring and forecasting of the state of the environment and climate change (including key areas of the World Ocean, the seas of Russia, the Arctic and Antarctic), technologies for preventing and reducing the risks of natural and man-made emergencies, negative socio-economic consequences.

20. Environmentally friendly technologies for effective extraction and deep processing of strategic and scarce types of minerals.

21. Technologies for the conservation of biological diversity and the fight against alien (invasive) species of animals, plants and microorganisms.



II. End-to-end technologies

22. Technologies based on methods of synthetic biology and genetic engineering.

23. Technologies for creating new materials with specified properties and performance characteristics.

24. Technologies for the production of low-tonnage chemical products, including high-purity substances, for pharmaceuticals, energy and microelectronics.

25. Artificial intelligence technologies in the sectors of the economy, the social sphere (including the sphere of public security) and in public authorities.

26. Technologies for the creation of domestic means of production and scientific instrumentation.

27.
Nature-like technologies.

28. Biotechnology in the Sectors of the Economy.
 
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Lalas

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22 Jun, 2024

Gintsburg called the start date of cancer vaccine trials in Russia

Gintsburg: clinical trials of cancer vaccine will begin in 2025


Clinical trials of the Russian cancer vaccine should begin by mid-2025, Alexander Gintsburg, director of the Gamaleya National Research Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology, told RIA Novosti.

"I think that by the middle of next year we will begin clinical trials of the vaccine with the participation of patients with cancer," Gintsburg said.

At the moment, the vaccine is being tested as part of preclinical studies on mice, namely, the technology is being worked out not only to prolong life, but also to create drugs that can destroy the tumor, the doctor said. According to him, if these trials succeed, the vaccine will help patients with non-small cell lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, certain types of kidney cancer, and melanomas. This vaccine will be very relevant for patients in the early stages, he added.

The fact that the Russian cancer vaccine is at the stage of preclinical trials, and the results are planned to be obtained by the end of this year, was announced in early June by the Minister of Health of Russia Mikhail Murashko.

According to Gintsburg, the vaccine is therapeutic, that is, it will be administered to people who are already sick. It is based on mRNA (matrix ribonucleic acid) technologies. Phizer and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines were created using this method. The new vaccine can be used for any type of cancer, but individually, that is, it is necessary to develop a drug for a specific person.
 

Lalas

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FMBA of Russia and the Motorica Research Center will create a Center for Cybernetic Medicine and Neuroprosthetics

June 21, 2024

The Federal Center for Brain and Neurotechnology of the FMBA of Russia and the Motorica Research Center (a resident of the Skolkovo Technopark) signed an agreement on the establishment of the Center for Cybernetic Medicine and Neuroprosthetics. Cybernetic medicine will combine the competencies of medicine, robotics and IT. One of the main focuses of the Center will be neuroprosthetics, namely the creation and use of new types of sensory prostheses with feedback.




"Neurotechnology is one of the most important scientific and high-tech areas in the development of modern medicine. Their development and implementation require the combined efforts of a large number of multidisciplinary medical specialists (neurologists, neurosurgeons and rehabilitation therapists), neurophysiologists, physicists, engineers. It is important to note that domestic innovative companies are actively involved in this work. They are aware that this is not just about a promising commercial market, that their developments can improve the lives of thousands of people, giving them back lost opportunities. Our country is already one of the leaders in the field of functional prosthetics. Now, thanks to the union of the Federal Center for Mineral Resources of the FMBA of Russia and the Motorica company, we can reach a qualitatively new level. Such a combination of the state, science and business will ensure Russia's global leadership in the field of neurotechnology, including bionic prosthetics," said Veronika Skvortsova, Head of the Federal Medical and Biological Agency.

The Center for Cybernetic Medicine and Neuroprosthetics will create technologies for deep brain stimulation to suppress the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, use spinal stimulation to suppress neuropathic pain, peripheral nerve stimulation to suppress phantom pain and vagus nerve to suppress epileptic seizures. New invasive and non-invasive neuromodulation systems and systems for digital diagnostics of the physiological state of patients will be introduced. The center will be engaged in neurorehabilitation and postoperative management of patients, as well as the development of educational programs in the field of neurotechnology. All this will be an important step towards achieving the technological sovereignty of modern Russian medicine in this area.


The main tasks of the Center will be the development and implementation of domestic neurostimulators, the integration of the practice of using brain-computer interfaces, as well as the restoration of sensitivity after limb amputation using a prosthesis and setting up feedback between the nervous system and the computer.

"The brain controls all the processes of our body with the help of the nervous system. Any movement of your hand follows the same scenario: the brain sends a signal, and the muscles of the arm react to it. In turn, the hand sends signals to the brain about what it feels, what state and phase of movement it is in. Both in Russia and in the world, many patients are deprived of the opportunity to perform these movements, and some of them have lost a limb due to amputation or injury. Our goal is to help each such patient, to restore his freedom of movement and sensations. And the creation of the Center for Cybernetic Medicine and Neuroprosthetics is the first step towards this goal," said Vsevolod Belousov, Head of the Federal Center for Brain and Neurotechnology of the FMBA of Russia.

"The neurotechnology market is extremely promising, it is in a phase of active growth. In addition, the development of such technologies will change the lives of many people. We bring the research to the end product that improves the lives of our users. Therefore, we are the first among medtech companies to create the Center for Cybernetic Medicine and Neuroprosthetics, which will become the foundation for the development of neurotechnologies in Russia. We are pleased to cooperate and look forward to fruitful joint work with the FMBA of Russia," said Andrey Davidyuk, General Director of Motorica.


**
"On February 14, Moscow hosted the central event of the Future Technologies Forum — the plenary session "Modern Medical Technologies. Challenges of Tomorrow: Ahead of Time" with the participation of Russian President Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin. The unique large-scale session was moderated by Academician Grigory Trubnikov, Director of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research.
...
Vsevolod Belousov, Director General of the Federal Center for Brain and Neurotechnology of the Federal Medical and Biological Agency of Russia, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, spoke about how neurotechnologies help to overcome the consequences of strokes and Parkinson's disease.

The bionic prostheses already being created by scientists are just the beginning: there are plans for implants that patients will be able to feel as if they were alive!

"We have set ourselves an ambitious goal to make bionic prostheses with feedback and integrate them directly with the nervous system"

said V.V. Belousov.
..


Plenary session of the Future Technologies Forum

Vladimir Putin took part in the plenary session of the second Future Technologies Forum titled “Modern Medical Technologies. The Challenge of Tomorrow: Getting the Jump on Time”.


February 14, 2024

Vsevolod Belousov:
..
What is neurotechnology in general and what do we associate it with? Everyone probably knows the word "cyborg" – it is a cybernetic organism. It's usually found in science fiction and has a negative connotation: we imagine a robot that is controlled by a human brain, or a person who is controlled by some kind of code. But is it true?
..
We have set ourselves an ambitious goal – to make bionic prostheses with feedback and integrate them directly with the nervous system, so that the patient will feel this prosthesis literally as a part of his body and use it just as freely. To do this, we combine the resources of several leading scientific clinical centers and high-tech companies,
so that soon the word "cyborg" acquires a positive connotation.
..
Vladimir Putin: Curious. And, of course, it's fantastic that the feedback is that a person begins to feel a bionic prosthesis. It's just incredible, I can't even believe it.

..
Indeed, it all looks fantastic – what Vsevolod Vadimovich [Belousov] told us, and our unique Brain and Neurotechnology Centre...


Vladimir Putin: Unbelievable."

~~
 
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The first artificial neuron is being assembled in Russia

June 21, 2024


MIPT specialists are developing the first Russian neuristor. It will become one of the key parts of the future neuromorphic computer that mimics the human brain, Izvestia writes.


SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

21 June 2024, 00:01


To the brain of the parts: the first artificial neuron is being assembled in Russia

How scientists create a fundamentally new neuromorphic computer




Russian scientists are working on the creation of the first artificial neuron in our country, which is necessary for the development of a computer that imitates the human brain. This element is commonly called a neuristor. Previously, experts have already learned how to make memristors that imitate the work of brain synapses. If you combine them with a neuristor, you can get a chip capable of calculating the most advanced neural network algorithms at the physical level at the moment. According to experts, this will open up many opportunities, and in particular, such devices can be installed on robots, drones and other equipment.

Spied from nature
MIPT specialists are developing the first domestic neuristor, an artificial analogue of a neuron, which should become one of the key parts of the future neuromorphic computer that simulates the human brain. Scientists can already make memristors that act as synapses (transmit impulses between neurons), so if they manage to construct an analogue of a nerve cell, it will bring them much closer to the physical embodiment of a neural network.

"We need special chips that can execute all neural network algorithms at the physical level without the need for software processing. This requires special elements: memristors that imitate the work of synapses, and neuristors that simulate neurons. If they are connected the way it works in the human brain, then the newest and most advanced algorithms will be more efficiently and quickly executed "in hardware," said Anton Khanas, a senior researcher at the Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Nanoelectronics.




Modern neural network technologies are actively developing in their software part. However, these algorithms are still calculated on ordinary electronic computers. This requires very powerful computers and a huge amount of energy, so the capabilities of neural networks cannot be used in a compact autonomous device. As soon as scientists manage to create a neuromorphic computer, it can be installed on UAVs, robots and other equipment, the developers explained."

~~
Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (National Research University)
MIPT

MIPT Scientists Assemble the First Artificial Neuron

June 21


Young scientists from the MIPT Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Nanoelectronics are working on the creation of a neuristor, the first artificial neuron in our country, which is necessary for the development of a computer that simulates the human brain. Scientists can already make memristors that play the role of synapses (transmit impulses between neurons), so if they manage to construct an analogue of a nerve cell, it will bring them much closer to the physical embodiment of a neural network.




Artificial intelligence has been taught to predict user intent



June 21

The development of scientists from the MIPT Laboratory of Neural Systems and Deep Learning opens up new horizons for virtual assistants and chatbots for customer support, successfully overcoming the limitations inherent in large language models. The new methodology can significantly improve the quality of dialogue systems in highly specialized areas, such as tourism or medicine. The work was published in the collection of the LREC-COLING 2024 conference.

In recent years, dialogue systems have become an integral part of everyday life, having undergone significant changes. These programs, which are able to conduct conversations with people and imitate human responses, are widely used in various fields, from virtual assistants to customer support.

One of the key tasks in the field of dialogue systems is to predict the intentions of the participants in the dialogue, that is, to determine the hidden intention or goal underlying a particular statement in the dialogue. For example, intents can be ordering a taxi ("I need a taxi to the airport at 18:00") or booking a table at a restaurant ("I would like to book a table for two for tomorrow evening"). Accurately predicting the intent of the next utterance in a dialogue is critical, as it allows dialogue systems to generate contextually appropriate and effective responses in the course of communication based on the predicted intent.

Today, large language models (LLMs) are often used to solve such problems based on conversational data. However, their effectiveness in highly specialized areas is limited due to the difficulties of adapting to a specific domain.

Researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT) have proposed an innovative approach to the development of dialog systems, which is based on the automatic construction of dialog scenario graphs and the prediction of intentions using the graph structure of dialog data. This method not only improves the accuracy of predictions, but also solves another significant problem associated with LLMs – the transparency of the responses they generate, allowing you to understand the logic behind each specific response of the dialogue system.

The basis of the proposed method is graphs. From the point of view of mathematics, a graph is a structure consisting of nodes (vertices) and lines (edges) connecting them. Nodes represent objects, and edges represent relationships or relationships between them. Graphs are widely used to model various systems and processes, such as social networks, transportation systems, molecular structures, and more.

In the context of development, a dialog graph is an interpreted representation of a dialog system based on a regular structure of dialog data. This structure is due to the fact that in task-oriented dialogues, each statement of the participant in the dialogue contains a certain intent in relation to other participants. This, in turn, allows you to model dialogs as sequences of intent with transitions between them.

The study presents the concept of a multi-beat dialog graph, where each share represents one of the roles of the participants in the dialogue, each vertex defines an intent, and the edges in the graph represent transitions between intents. The need to use multipartite is due to the fact that in task-oriented dialogues, participants perform different roles. This requires a separate formation of intent for each of the roles due to their different nature and is confirmed by the results of experiments.

Scenario dialog graphs are a common tool in the development of dialog assistants. One of the key problems associated with such graphs is the lack of the necessary data markup for their construction. However, the process of manual labeling requires significant resources, while our algorithm automatically groups similar statements based on the dialogue corpus, determining the intent of the participants in the dialogue, which underlie the construction of the dialog graph."
explained one of the authors of the study, Daria Ledneva, a researcher at the MIPT Laboratory of Neural Systems and Deep Learning.

She emphasized that the use of dialog graphs allows you to create a graph representation for each individual dialogue, which, in combination with graph neural systems, effectively solves the problem of predicting the next intent in a dialog compared to other methods considered.

In the course of the study, specialists from MIPT demonstrated a methodology for developing dialogue systems, proposing a new approach to predicting intent using graph structures. Particular attention was paid to the distinctive features of dialogue data, limited to narrow subject areas. In general, the results of the study confirmed the effectiveness of graph models for improving the accuracy of predicting intent in various domains of dialog systems.



MIPT researchers tested a digital model of a humanoid robot

June 14

The digital model of a universal robot created at MIPT was adapted for various scenarios of action in a human-oriented environment under the control of artificial intelligence. The project meets the requirements of technological sovereignty - the digital model, artificial intelligence algorithms and robot design are developed by Russian specialists and operate on domestic software.

Based on the digital model of the robot, Phystech engineers have developed a working research sample of an anthropomorphic robot, the movements of which are controlled by artificial intelligence. The machine has a computer vision system - with the help of video data from a system of optical cameras, the robot is able to build a map and navigate in space, and a voice assistant is being tested to communicate with the user/operator.

Projects to create universal anthropomorphic machines are a key global trend in robotics. The current technological level of industry development is quite enough to start training the robot's behavioral intelligence, for example, to perform tasks in a warehouse, work as a courier or order picker in a dark store. An anthropomorphic robot is able to take on routine tasks: lifting weights, removing goods from shelves and placing them in containers, going down stairs with goods.

Now major automakers, manufacturers of BMW, Mercedes and representatives of digital retail, in particular, Amazon, are doing the first tests with humanoid robots on their assembly lines and in warehouses. They need it not only to close the labor shortage, but also to collect an array of data for further training neural networks for more complex tasks. It is neural networks that will have to become a universal brain for robots. At the MIPT digital test site, we also study various designs of robots and walking platforms and modernize their control using AI algorithms."
Head of the Laboratory of Wave Processes and Control Systems of the Center for Applied Artificial Intelligence Systems of MIPT Roman Gorbachev




Congratulations to the outstanding scientists on being awarded the State Prize of the Russian Federation

June 12

Today in the Kremlin, Russian President Vladimir Putin awarded the winners of the State Prize of the Russian Federation. This year, the main state award in the field of science and technology was awarded to: Head of the Department of Physics of Living Systems of MIPT, Academician Mogeli Khubutia, heads of Phystech base organizations Mikhail Kovalchuk (President of the Kurchatov Institute) and Academician Sergey Gautier (Director of the Shumakov National Medical Research Center for Transplantology and Artificial Organs).

MIPT is in the top three in terms of the number of winners of the presidential scholarship competition

June 21, 2024
 

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About UNIDO
UNIDO (The United Nations Industrial Development Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations dealing with industrial development.

UNIDO in the world
UNIDO Director-General Mr. Gerd Müller
The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) was founded in 1966.

Since 1985, it has been a specialized agency of the United Nations mandated to promote sustainable industrial development in developing countries and countries with economies in transition. UNIDO's activities are aimed at improving the quality of life of the world's poor by drawing on the combined global resources and expertise in the following areas:

Poverty alleviation through productive activities
Trade capacity-building
Energy & Environment
UNIDO is headquartered in Vienna, Austria, but operates globally with 173 countries.

UNIDO's financial resources consist of the regular and operational budgets, as well as special contributions for technical cooperation activities. The regular budget is formed from the contributions of Member States. Technical cooperation is funded mainly by voluntary contributions from donor countries and agencies, as well as from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol, the Global Environment Facility and the Common Fund for Commodities.

Personnel. There are 645 staff members at UNIDO Headquarters and in other active offices. In addition, UNIDO annually uses the services of more than 2,200 international and national experts who work on projects around the world.

UNIDO cooperates with other UN organizations through the coordination mechanism of the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC).

The Director-General of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) is Mr. Gerd Müller, who takes office on December 10, 2021.



The work of the UNIDO Centres in various countries is closely linked to the activities of the ITPO (Investment Technology Promotion Office) network. The offices work with both public and private organizations in the field of industrial development.

Official website: http://www.unido.org



UNIDO in Russia
Head of the UNIDO Centre in the Russian Federation - Igor Vladimirovich Kozhin


The UNIDO Centre for International Industrial Cooperation in the Russian Federation was established in 1989 on the basis of the Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO). It is an integral part of the UNIDO Investment and Technology Promotion Offices (ITPO) system.

"The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation has confirmed the status of the UNIDO Centre for International Industrial Cooperation in the Russian Federation as a representative office of an international organization accredited with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, which enjoys the privileges and immunities provided for by the Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and UNIDO on the Activities of the UNIDO Centre for International Industrial Cooperation in the Russian Federation."

A.Denisov, First Deputy Minister (13.04.06)

The Head of the UNIDO Centre for International Industrial Cooperation in the Russian Federation is Igor Vladimirovich Kozhin.

The main goal of the Center's activities, defined in the Agreement, is to promote economic, technological, industrial and scientific cooperation of Russian enterprises, associations, organizations with firms from developed and developing countries.

The Center acts as a catalyst and source of technical knowledge and experience in the field of creating, organizing and implementing the necessary events to promote investment cooperation, the process of technology transfer in the Russian Federation.

In carrying out its activities, the Centre uses programmes, methodology, tools and software developed by UNIDO to facilitate the flow of investment and technology.

Priority areas of the Center's activities:

facilitating the inflow of investments and other resources of countries with developed industry in the Russian Federation with the help of finance, technological know-how, marketing experience and organizational support in order to implement various projects in Russia;
mobilization of investment resources in Russia for the implementation of industrial investment projects in developing countries and countries with economies in transition through joint ventures and other forms of partnership;
improving the skills and managerial abilities of managers, government officials involved in the implementation of projects related to developing countries and countries with economies in transition;
control of UNIDO projects implemented in the Russian Federation;
selection, design, analysis and assistance of industrial investment projects financed by Russian entrepreneurs who are interested in cooperation with foreign partners;
dissemination of information on legal issues of business regulation;
assistance in establishing contacts with Russian government agencies, local authorities, the Chamber of Commerce and Industry and specialized consulting companies;
identification of Russian partners that meet the requirements of foreign companies and organizations interested in investment cooperation;
assistance to Russian and foreign partners in the preparation of a preliminary feasibility study of investment projects;
assistance in providing sources of financing for investment cooperation projects;
assistance to local and foreign companies in the organization of investment associations, symposia, conferences and seminars.



ST. PETERSBURG HOSTED THE SPIEF 2024 INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC FORUM

13 June 2024

St. Petersburg hosted the SPIEF 2024 International Economic Forum


From 5 to 8 June, St. Petersburg hosted one of the largest and most significant business events, the St. Petersburg International Economic Forum (SPIEF 2024).

This year, the Forum was attended by a record number of participants, which surpassed similar figures in recent years. Guests and participants of the event gathered to discuss international trade and cooperation, sales markets, technological leadership and investment.

More than 120 high-ranking foreign officials participated in the events of the Forum: heads of international organizations and associations, foreign ministers, heads of diplomatic missions, heads of foreign cities and regions. The largest delegations came from China – 192 participants, the UAE – 105, Zimbabwe – 86, Kazakhstan – 84, India – 80, Oman – 75.

Igor Kozhin, Head of the UNIDO Centre in the Russian Federation, also took part in the panel sessions of the Forum. On June 5, World Environment Day was held on the sidelines of SPIEF under the auspices of "Land Restoration, Combating Desertification and Resilience to Drought".

During the forum, environmental issues and climate change were actively discussed. In addition, SPIEF has become the largest carbon-neutral business event in Russia with confirmed international verification. This was made possible thanks to the climate projects of the petrochemical company Sibur, which donated carbon units to compensate for the carbon footprint of the Forum.

The key event of the Forum was the plenary session, at which the President of Russia Vladimir Putin
and the heads of foreign states of Bolivia – Luis Alberto Arce Katakora and Zimbabwe – Emmerson Dambudzo Mnangagwa spoke.



*


 
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Biomedicine and Neuroscience: What Have the BRICS Countries Achieved in Recent Years?

June 25 2024

Antibiotics and vaccines in Russia, neurosciences in China, biotechnology in Iran, preclinical testing in Brazil, bioeconomy in South Africa, gene therapy in the UAE, and cancer treatment in India — scientists from the BRICS+ countries spoke about their achievements in biomedicine, biotechnology, and neuroscience. Colleagues from the Inscience.News portal, which is part of our ecosystem, listened to the successes presented by the participants of the BRICS working group meeting in Skolkovo.

The meeting was opened by the Director of the Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry named after Academicians M.M. Shemyakin and Y.A. Ovchinnikov, Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences Alexander Gabibov. He showed a graph of the degree of resistance of the population of the world to antibiotics. In first place, almost twice as high as the second, was Italy. Antibiotic resistance is becoming a global problem and is one of the key areas of medical development at the Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry. In 2023, the institute's employees synthesized new antibiotics to which there are no resistant bacteria now.

"We live in the era of big data. We are obliged to collect and analyze big data in order to do something new, to create new chemical compounds and drugs. Machine learning and artificial intelligence help us do this. Today, we analyze genetic bases a lot and do this at our Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry. We have a huge biochemical library of the deciphered genome. Our idea is to collect data to overcome antibiotic resistance. We are also cooperating with other countries in this direction. For example, we have identified the cause of antibiotic resistance at the cellular level in cooperation with Chinese scientists," said Alexander Habibov, Director of the IBCh RAS.

Also, Russian scientists studied the catalytic activity of enzymes to increase the activity of antibodies. They created a "magic bullet" using monoclonal antibody technology – it targets cancer cells, its function is both diagnosis and therapy.


Key achievements of Russian scientists

Another achievement of Russian scientists was the isolation of the antibiotic amicoumacin from the microbiota of the Siberian bear (namely from saliva). Having studied an unstable antibiotic that could not be isolated by other methods before, Russian researchers from the Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences have created a synthetic analogue of amicoumacin, to which bacteria have not yet developed resistance.

The most important achievement of scientists was the creation of the Sputnik V vaccine against COVID-19. This was a breakthrough discovery that paved the way for the further development of new RNA vaccines.

In addition, scientists have developed a new immunological approach: a method for producing monoclonal antibodies using a single B cell. Monoclonal antibodies are antibodies produced by immune cells belonging to the same cell clone, that is, originating from a single progenitor cell. This method of treatment also works against COVID-19, but, unfortunately, as Alexander Habibov clarified, it does not work with omicron. Nevertheless, now the approach to the synthesis of monoclonal antibodies using a single B cell is used in the antitumor treatment of pulmonary diseases.

Also, Russian scientists are working on CAR-T therapy for cancer treatment. The idea behind the cell technology is that the patient's own T cells are genetically modified. They are reprogrammed so that they learn to recognize and destroy tumors.

"This is a very expensive therapy. For it, the patient's blood is taken, it is treated with special antibodies with receptors that are directed (targeted) specifically against the tumor. However, this technology requires further research because we have found many side effects. There were even deaths. Therefore, we started working on neutralizing the toxicity of CAR-T cells and were able to develop a "switch" using the introduction of a catalyst," said Alexander Gabibov.

The scientists also developed an algorithm to recognize spinal injury and used immune therapy to minimize the effects of neurotrauma.


Brazil: An Innovative New Program

The representative of Brazil at the BRICS working group told how Brazil seeks to develop international cooperation in biotechnology. In Brazil, the Pro-API program was created, bringing together doctors, biologists and chemists from all over the world to develop new preclinical tests, toxicology laboratories, and new drugs.

"More than $2 billion has been funded into Brazil's New Innovation Program, the largest scientific innovation project in history. The directions of the project development are preclinical research, development of new drugs, information technologies in health care. The priority thematic areas for Brazil now are diagnostics, the development of vaccines and biobanks, and the study of the impact of new emerging viruses," said Tais Halin Vaz Sousa, coordinator of programs and projects for health, biotechnology and agricultural sciences, deputy director general for health at the Center for Genomic and Systems Biology in Brazil.

The first contract with GMP Enviroment has already been concluded. The Orion laboratory complex was created in the country. This is a laboratory with access to a fourth-generation synchrotron, which will be used to solve biomedical problems. It will employ scientists from South and Central America, as well as the Caribbean islands. Tais Souza clarified that scientists at this center will also study the evolution of viruses in animals.

Speaking about the country's achievements in the fight against COVID-19, the representative of the BRICS group from Brazil clarified that they have fully created their own vaccine against coronavirus SpiN-TEC.


Achievements in the United Arab Emirates

For genetic therapy in the UAE, CRISPR/Cas technology is used, which allows you to remove and insert genes. Scientists have also created a targeted drug delivery system based on the use of nanoparticles.

Telemedicine is also developing in the country. "The introduction of telemedicine helps all residents of the UAE to receive high-quality and prompt medical care. We are developing digital technologies to ensure the mental health of the population, creating psychological support programs that work as online services and through mobile offers. Khalifa University is working on neuroprosthetics and brain-machine interfaces to help patients with motor disorders," said Thomas Looney, a professor at the Center for Biotechnology Research in the UAE.

The center in Abu Dhabi has developed new technologies to treat diseases, including COVID-19, with the help of stem cells. For example, the country uses a stem cell therapy called UAECell19. There is also EGP - the UAE genomic program, it is a database of about 70% of the UAE residents. The program was created in cooperation with several universities. Research and medical centers, universities use this data for personalized medicine and the treatment of complex diseases such as cancer or heart failure.

"We are actively working on a strategic partnership, a Global Research Center has been established in Dubai at Dubai Science Park. On the treatment of COVID-19, we worked with the Russian Direct Investment Fund under the MoHAP program, and a program is being implemented with China to introduce artificial intelligence in clinical treatment," said Thomas Looney.

The United Arab Emirates has also developed the UAE National Biosecurity Stategy, a national biosecurity strategy. According to Thomas Looney, it ensures safety and ethical development in the use of biotechnology. One of the key ideas of the UAE (which is related to the DNA database collected) is that it is safe to use the genome data of residents.


China: Neuroscience as a Development Priority

23% of all articles on biotechnology are written in China. Ruijun Wu of China's National Center for Biotechnology has noted breakthroughs in the introduction of chips and work on brain-computer interfaces that can turn thoughts into printed speech using implanted electrodes. In 2022, 19 new medicines and 55 new medical devices were created in China. Significant progress has been made in the development of biological pesticides, which fulfills one of China's key objectives – improving food safety performance.

"The main direction of development for China is neuroscience and life expectancy. We draw attention to the fact that international cooperation in the field of biomedicine is the implementation of a win-win strategy for all countries of the world, and therefore China is open to cooperation," Ruijun Wu emphasized.

Chinese representatives also noted China's broad cooperation with the BRICS countries, Britain, America, Sweden and other countries around the world.


South Africa and Biomedicine

South Africa has developed a bioeconomic strategy that integrates agriculture, health, industry and the environment. As an additional element of integration, the strategy indicates the introduction of technologies: machine learning and the use of artificial intelligence should help connect the stages of technology development and delivery to the market, compare supply and demand in the field of scientific research.

"Article 27 of the Constitution of South Africa guarantees every resident of the country the right to access health services. We face many social tasks, and the health of citizens is one of the most important. We are working on innovative development in the field of health care and on achieving sustainable development goals in the country. In this direction, we need international cooperation. That's why we also have the SHIP program, a strategic innovation partnership in the healthcare sector. This is necessary to find and support interdisciplinary research, from development to sale — the release of research to the market. We are working on the cooperation of public resources and private partnerships, and we are trying to attract international companies and investment from other countries," said Bruce Chilamulele, Deputy Director of Health Innovation at the Department of Science and Technology of South Africa.

The developed strategy combines the goals of creating an improved system for targeted drug delivery, developing a healthcare information system, and developing new medical devices.


Iran: Active development of biomedicine

The representative of Iran from the Center for the Development of Biotechnology and Progress, Kamal Razavi Razarkhiani, spoke about the state support for biomedicine in the country. In general, biomedicine is financed in Iran, there are 33 self-synthesized drugs. There are 50 research centers and 91 educational centers in the country. In the biomedical field of Iran, there are also achievements such as 11 vaccines developed.

"More than 60% of the technologies based on new knowledge and technologies that are exported from Iran are biotechnology. It is the first country in its Asian region to produce medicines," Kamal Razavi Razarkhiani explained.


India: Neurobiology and Cancer

One of the main areas of development of biomedicine in India is the development of anti-cancer therapy. The country is investing in high-tech drug production. The Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of Education of the country are also involved in this system. Work is underway on a single cell approach to the treatment of neurodiseases.

India uses neuromechanical simulators to treat diseases associated with spinal cord damage. The Centre for Neuroresearch and Neuroscience Research in India collaborates with universities and research centres around the world. The Consul of India in Russia, Abhishek Bakolia, stressed that the Indian government relies on neuroresearch in a special focus. Progress has been made in the study of the human papillomavirus. The country also focuses on the fight against genetic diseases. Another developmental priority is genetic therapy.

Also at the meeting of the working group, several projects were presented that apply for funding from the BRICS Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Unit. Read about what the BRICS countries are requesting funding for as part of the development of neuroscience and biotechnology in the following materials.
 
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Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology

Skoltech is an international technological university of a new type. Combining world-class education with state-of-the-art research and applied technologies, it nurtures a new generation of technological leaders for high-tech industries. Skoltech has twice been listed among the world’s top 100 young universities according to the prestigious Nature Index ranking. The language of instruction is English.




Skoltech is one of the best young universities in the world with globally-renowned faculty and research teams, unique labs, a vast network of partnerships and an alumni community across the globe.

mission
Skoltech facilitates economic and societal development by academic and technology excellence and entrepreneurial spirit.

vision
Skoltech was founded as a new model international graduate university with the vision to be one of the best science and technology universities in Russia and the world, renowned for excellence and impact. This vision is grounded on a fusion of aspirations. Skoltech pursues research in advanced areas of crucial importance for Russia and the world, being committed to excellence in results. The organizational model supports both curiosity-driven and problem-driven research that brings novelty and impact to society. This allows to be dynamic and responsive to changing environment. Skoltech distinguishing feature is Entrepreneurship and Innovation. Born as a Triple Helix university, Skoltech weaves innovation into research and education, supporting entrepreneurial problem solvers to explore, develop and launch new solutions. Skoltech has a strong international outlook, attracting students and researchers from abroad, conducting projects with international partners. Skoltech is a young university built from scratch. Our people are pioneers, passionate about opening new frontiers in everything they do.


Skoltech's history

Established

October 2011

Agreement with MIT
October 25, 2011
Skolkovo Foundation and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) signed a partnership agreement on Skoltech development


President
2011
Edward Crawley is Appointed as the President of Skoltech


strategy 2021–2025

Until 2025, Skoltech sets strategic goals to maintain a high level of research and develop technologies of the utmost importance, which can be massively introduced in the shortest possible time. At the same time, Skoltech is expanding training for knowledge-intensive areas where there is currently a shortage of specialists.




Electrodes in brain pick up faint ‘inner voice’ signal by probing intersection of speech and movement

12.07.2024




Russian researchers from Skoltech, the Federal Centre of Neurosurgery in Tyumen, Sechenov University, and Lomonosov Moscow State University have conducted a study of brain activity in two patients with electrodes implanted in their brains, while they performed speech-related and handwriting tasks. Available on the medRxiv preprint repository, the team’s findings are essential to building a body of knowledge that would eventually enable “mind-reading” neural interfaces that could identify the user’s thoughts and recognize unspecified intentions without being primed to any particular task.

“In neuroscience, we used to tie specific brain functions to their dedicated brain areas in an almost one-to-one fashion,” study co-author Senior Research Scientist Nikolay Syrov from Skoltech Neuro commented. “But the current understanding is more to the effect that some network of potentially many brain areas dynamically interacting with each other underlies a function. This is certainly the case with coordinated movement, for example, which our findings once again confirm. One exciting conclusion is: Seeing how a function tends to be distributed throughout the brain, can we pick up its electrical activity and determine what it’s trying to do without knowing in advance what kind of an intention we are looking for?”

This question underlies the notion of so-called multimodal neural interfaces. These are brain chips that are not geared toward one particular function the way most state-of-the-art devices are. Rather than only look for signals encoding an intention to move a prosthetic limb, as distinct from signals related to speech, for example, a multimodal interface would figure out the nature of the user’s intention based on brain activity. The Skoltech researchers think the future of brain-computer interfaces lies with this approach, which will require many studies like this to enhance our understanding of the complex mapping of functions to brain areas.

The study was carried out on two epilepsy patients both of whom had multiple electrodes implanted in the brain at the Federal Centre of Neurosurgery in Tyumen, Russia. The surgery was recommended by their physicians to pinpoint the seizure onset zone as part of their epilepsy treatment. This means that the positions of the electrodes were chosen without any regard to expectations about the areas that should be activated in response to the handwriting and the speech-related tasks featured in the Skoltech study.

In the first task, the patients wrote digits on a pen tablet with their brain activity monitored. In the second task, they first pronounced words normally, then mouthed the same words silently, and finally only imagined saying the words without any movement of the tongue, lips, etc.

The team found that the handwriting task, which is fundamentally a motor task, elicited a response detectable by electrodes regardless of their placement. This agrees with the expectation that coordinated movement correlates with activity spread throughout the cerebral cortex — the outermost part of the brain.

Some of the brain areas exhibited activity in response to engaging either of the two functions — speaking or writing — and this seems reassuring with a view to multimodal interfaces.

In the speech-related task, the electrical responses to proper speaking and to silent articulation matched each other closely. While the “inner voice” signal was very faint, it fitted neatly into the normal speech signal. This makes sense, because you could think of that weak signal as being normal speech minus whatever the speech organs — and the ears — are doing. The “residual” signal could include things like word retrieval from memory, etc. “Trying to pick up the inner voice signal is exciting in and of itself, because this is basically like mind reading. There aren’t that many research groups working on this,” the study’s lead author, Junior Research Scientist Gurgen Soghoyan from Skoltech Neuro, said.

What makes the Skoltech scientists’ experimental setup novel is recording both speech- and motor-related brain activity in the same patients. The two functions are usually treated separately. Speaking, however, presupposes a motor component because of all the movement involved in articulating the words. And picking up the signal in one and the same patient engaged in each of the tasks will make it possible to determine where the two functions intersect neurally. This is essential for creating multifunctional neural interfaces that would be capable of decoding many functions, including the intentions to move and to say something.



Towards a multimodal brain-computer interface: intracranial recordings in humans performing speech and handwriting tasks.

AUTHORS
Gurgen Soghoyan, Nikolay Syrov, Ruslan Kalimullin, Yury Kustov, Varvara Nikolaeva, Rinat Sufianov, Alexander Skripnikov, Andrey Shapkin, Mikhail Lebedev, and Albert Sufianov



On Musk's heels. Our scientists have caught the signal of the inner voice of a person

"Any attempt to register it is interesting because you read minds in a sense. There are not so many scientific groups that are engaged in this," the developers say.

...
Everyone is interested in the technology
The development of systems that "read the mind" of a person is a recent scientific trend. Such systems are called "brain-computer interfaces". Simply put, it is the control of electronics with the help of thoughts. There are many technical difficulties here (they relate to the accuracy of recognition), but scientists and engineers are moving step by step to overcome them.

All modern IT giants are interested in the technology, and Elon Musk regularly informs the public about how his company Neuralink, which develops brain chips for such an interface, is doing. This year, the American billionaire has already begun human trials.


Musk has enough competitors (primarily in the United States) who do not lag behind him, for example, in the number of electrodes working simultaneously on a living brain. China is on its heels: Tsinghua University in Beijing also created a device that allowed a paralyzed patient to control a prosthetic hand using brain signals.

The developers emphasize that their neurochip is less invasive than a similar implant from Musk: it is not implanted directly into the nervous tissue of the brain, but is installed in the space between the brain and the skull.

Thus, there is no penetration into the brain, and there is no risk of damage to its tissues. And this is a big plus.


As we can see, research in the field of brain-computer interfaces is also being conducted in Russia. They are dealt with by many research groups. They work at Lomonosov Moscow State University, Skoltech, Innopolis University, and several institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In addition, there are young companies that develop relevant interfaces, and the NeuroNet industry union, which brings together specialists in this field.

 
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